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Table 1 Ethno-ornithological applications among the local people of study area

From: Medicinal waterbirds in the traditional healthcare system: an assessment of biodiversity–cultural linkages in Eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Sr. No. Scientific name
Common name (local name)
Family (order) FC MD FD SPS HN EX OR
1 Ceryle rudis (Linnaeus, 1758) Pied Kingfisher (Mahe Khawarak) Alcedinidae (Coraciiformes) 16 0 0 2 0 0 15
2 Alcedo atthis (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Kingfisher (Shentagh) Alcedinidae (Coraciiformes) 15 0 0 2 0 0 15
3 Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758 Gadwall (Khar sari batha/gadwall) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 81 39 55 11 79 6 26
4 Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 Green-winged Teal (Warri choraki) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 79 42 60 11 79 10 26
5 Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Mallard (Sheen sari Batha) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 85 47 78 26 84 17 30
6 Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Pintail (Laki mar Batha) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 78 39 65 11 78 3 23
7 Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Shoveler (Shabli) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 70 36 47 11 68 13 20
8 Netta rufina (Pallas, 1773) Red-crested Pochard (Shabar) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 74 14 32 11 69 0 13
9 Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Pochard (Sor-sari Batha) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 80 27 72 17 76 13 15
10 Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758) Tufted Duck (Ziar Stargi Batha) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 42 9 39 3 25 0 17
11 Anas querquedula Linnaeus, 1758 Garganey (Kar kari/Gargany) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 67 45 63 0 45 7 12
12 Anas Penelope Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Wigeon (Seti mar) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 70 48 60 5 68 5 11
13 Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Goldeneye (Ziar Stargi Batha/ Zangli Charga) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 55 17 51 0 8 0 0
14 Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus, 1758) Common shelduck (Spena Batha) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 64 39 64 3 43 0 15
15 Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764) Ruddy Shelduck (Sorhab) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 67 36 67 5 43 3 15
16 Aythya nyroca (Güldenstädt, 1770) Ferruginous Duck (Seti mar wari Batha) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 38 32 37 3 25 2 12
17 Mergellus albellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Smew (Spena Batha) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 36 26 36 3 15 0 7
18 Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758) Greylag Goose (Warri margabi) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 73 9 45 7 73 17 36
19 Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) Great White-fronted Goose (Ghatti margabi) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 73 9 45 7 73 17 36
20 Mergus merganser Linnaeus, 1758 Common Merganser (Torsari Bathe) Anatidae (Anseriformes) 48 27 47 0 32 3 15
21 Mesophoyx intermedia (Wagler, 1829) Intermediate Egret (Dermeiani Bagle) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 18 0 0 7 0 0 6
22 Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) Little Egret (Warri-spene Bagle) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 8 0 0 7 0 0 5
23 Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 Grey Heron (Khari Bagle) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 18 0 0 9 0 0 16
24 Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) Black-crowned Night Heron (Taj-wala Bagle) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 17 0 0 9 0 0 16
25 Botaurus stellaris (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian Bittern (Eurasian Bagla) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 10 0 0 3 0 0 9
26 Ardeola grayii (Sykes, 1832) Indian Pond Heron (Mashriqi Bagla) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 13 0 0 3 0 0 13
27 Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 Great Egret (Gaati Bagla) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 7 0 0 7 0 0 1
28 Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) Cattle Egret (Zenawaro Bagla) Ardeidae (Pelecaniformes) 10 0 0 5 0 0 9
29 Esacus recurvirostris (Cuvier, 1829) Great Stone-curlew (Ghatee Kharari) Burhinidae (Charadriiformes) 4 5 0 0 2 0 4
30 Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758) Grey Plover (Kharari) Charadriidae (Charadriiformes) 14 5 12 0 1 0 4
31 Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus, 1758 Kentish or Snowy Plover (Speni Kharari) Charadriidae (Charadriiformes) 10 5 5 0 2 0 3
32 Vanellus indicus indicus (Boddaert, 1783) Red-wattled Lapwing (Sor titara) Charadriidae (Charadriiformes) 16 0 0 9 0 0 16
33 Vanellus malabaricus (Boddaert, 1783) Yellow-wattled Lapwing (Zair titara) Charadriidae (Charadriiformes) 18 0 0 9 0 0 16
34 Charadrius mongolus Pallas, 1776 Lesser Sand Plover (Warri Kharari) Charadriidae (Charadriiformes) 5 5 0 0 1 0 1
35 Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) Black stork (Tor Zanari) Ciconiidae (Ciconiiformes) 23 9 23 5 13 0 13
36 Ciconia ciconia Linnaeus, 1758 White stork (Spen Zanari) Ciconiidae (Ciconiiformes) 28 7 28 5 13 0 13
37 Grus grus (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Crane (Zanrai) Gruidae (Gruiformes) 38 0 23 0 37 11 26
38 Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Oystercatcher (Mahe Khawarak) Haematopodidae (Charadriiformes) 15 0 0 0 0 0 13
39 Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) Sand Martin (Khar Totakarki) Hirundinidae (Passeriformes) 21 0 0 21 0 0 3
40 Cecropis daurica (Laxmann, 1769) Red-rumped Swallow (Sor Totakarki) Hirundinidae (Passeriformes) 5 0 0 5 0 0 2
41 Ptyonoprogne obsoleta (Cabanis, 1850) Pale Crag Martin (Beranga Totakarki) Hirundinidae (Passeriformes) 22 0 0 21 0 0 2
42 Larus ridibundus (Linnaeus, 1766) Common Black-headed Gull (Ghatti Torsari Bagle) Laridae (Charadriiformes) 5 0 0 3 0 0 2
43 Larus marinus Linnaeus, 1758 Great Black-backed Gull (Ghatti obo Bagle) Laridae (Charadriiformes) 5 0 0 3 0 0 3
44 Sterna acuticauda (Gray, 1832) Black-bellied tern (Totakarki) Laridae (Charadriiformes) 26 0 0 21 0 0 26
45 Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 Caspian Gull (Obo Bagla) Laridae (Charadriiformes) 8 0 0 2 0 0 7
46 Larus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758 Lesser Black-backed Gull (Warri-torsari Bagle) Laridae (Charadriiformes) 14 0 0 3 0 0 14
47 Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 Common Tern (Kaaz/Babozi) Laridae (Charadriiformes) 13 1 0 13 7 0 8
48 Motacilla alba Linnaeus, 1758 White Wagtail (Spina Chinchi lakai) Motacillidae (Passeriformes) 10 0 0 1 0 0 6
49 Motacilla cinerea Tunstall, 1771 Grey Wagtail (Chinchi Lakai/Tan Tanai) Motacillidae (Passeriformes) 3 0 0 1 0 0 3
50 Pelecanus onocrotalus Linnaeus, 1758 Great White Pelican (Kotanara) Pelecanidae (Pelecaniformes) 80 79 0 0 13 17 21
51 Microcarbo niger (Vieillot, 1817) Little Cormorant (Warri-tore elli) Phalacrocoracidae (Suliformes) 55 36 54 0 46 0 15
52 Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus, 1758) Great Cormorant (Ghati-tore elli) Phalacrocoracidae (Suliformes) 54 36 54 0 46 0 15
53 Podiceps cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Great Crested Grebe (Ghati grab) Podicipedidae (Podicipediformes) 57 21 57 11 35 3 13
54 Tachybaptus ruficollis (Pallas, 1764) Little Grebe (Warri greb) Podicipedidae (Podicipediformes) 57 21 57 11 35 3 13
55 Porphyrio porphyrio (Linnaeus, 1758) Purple swamphen (Jamani Charga) Rallidae (Gruiformes) 15 5 0 0 0 0 0
56 Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758 Water Rail (Khawar chargai) Rallidae (Gruiformes) 10 3 0 0 0 0 8
57 Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Coot (Jal Kokar) Rallidae (Gruiformes) 76 54 76 4 72 3 14
58 Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Moorhen (Obo Charga) Rallidae (Gruiformes) 8 2 0 0 0 0 7
59 Gallicrex cinerea (Gmelin, 1789) Watercock (Zanglai Charga) Rallidae (Gruiformes) 7 7 0 0 0 0 6
60 Himantopus himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758) Black-winged stilt (Tor tetari) Recurvirostridae (Charadriiformes) 8 3 0 0 0 0 5
61 Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus, 1758 Pied avocet (Loi mahoki tetara) Recurvirostridae (Charadriiformes) 20 2 11 0 9 0 17
62 Calidris temminckii (Leisler, 1812) Temminck’s stint (Saheli teteeri) Scolopacidae (Charadriiformes) 18 3 16 0 0 0 7
63 Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Snipe (Drum Tel) Scolopacidae (Charadriiformes) 10 3 3 0 1 0 8
64 Tringa stagnatilis (Bechstein, 1803) Marsh Sandpiper (Drum Tel) Scolopacidae (Charadriiformes) 5 3 3 0 0 0 3
  1. MD, medicinal; FD, food; SPS, superstitious; HN, hunting; EX, export; OR, ornamental