Skip to main content

Table 2 Ethnomedicinal uses of water bird species in the study area

From: Medicinal waterbirds in the traditional healthcare system: an assessment of biodiversity–cultural linkages in Eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Sr. No. Scientific name Local name DIS Code BPU MOA Ailments RFC FAC FL RPL ROP Reported use SI
1 Anas strepera Khar Sari batha WV AGS Meat Oral Paralysis, cold, male impotency 3.87 39 48.15 1.00 48.1   0
2 Anas crecca Warri Chorak WV ACCT Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 3.77 42 53.16 1.00 53.2   0
3 Anas platyrhynchos Sheen sar Batha WV APM Meat Oral Cancer, cough, cold, male impotency, diabetes, BP piles, arthritis, body sickness during pregnancy, fever, heart problems, cut and wound, eye pain, TB 4.06 85 100 1.00 100 Fever, weakness, BP, cancer, weight loss, eye [12], paralysis, weakness [11, 64], erectile dysfunction [65], TB [66] 1
4 Anas acuta Laki mar Batha WV ACNT Meat Oral Male impotency, cough, cold, 3.72 39 50.00 1.00 50.0   0
5 Anas clypeata Shabli WV ACS Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 3.34 36 51.43 1.00 51.4   0
6 Netta rufina Shabar WV NRRP Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 3.53 14 18.92 1.00 18.9   0
7 Aythya ferina Sor-sari Batha WV AFCP Meat Oral Paralysis, male impotency 3.82 27 33.75 1.00 33.8   0
8 Aythya fuligula Ziar Stergi Batha WV AFTD Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 2.00 9 21.43 0.99 21.2   0
9 Anas querquedula Gergani WV AQG Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 3.20 45 67.16 1.00 67.2   0
10 Anas penelope Seti mar Batha WV MPW Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 3.34 48 68.57 1.00 68.6   0
11 Bucephala clangula Zangli Charga WV BC Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 2.63 17 30.91 1.00 30.9   0
12 Porphyrio porphyrio Jamani Charga R PPH Egg Oral Cough, asthma 0.72 5 33.33 0.35 11.8   0
13 Tadorna tadorna Spena Batha WV TTS Meat Oral Male impotency, cough, cold, 3.05 39 60.94 1.00 60.9   0
14 Tadorna ferruginea Sorhab WV TTRS Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 3.20 36 53.73 1.00 53.7   0
15 Aythya nyroca Seti mar wari Batha WV ANFD Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 1.81 32 84.21 0.89 75.3   0
16 Mergellus albellus Spena Bata WV MASD Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 1.72 26 72.22 0.85 61.2   0
17 Microcarbo niger Warri tori Heley R MNLC Meat Oral Cough, body pain 2.63 36 65.45 1.00 65.5   0
18 Phalacrocorax carbo Gati Tori Heley R BSEB Meat Oral Cough, body pain 2.58 36 66.67 1.00 66.7   0
19 Podiceps cristatus Ghat greb WV PCCG Meat Oral Cold, cough, male impotency 2.72 21 36.84 1.00 36.8   0
20 Tachybaptus ruficollis Warri Grab R TRLB Meat Oral Cough, cold, male impotency 2.72 21 36.84 1.00 36.8   0
21 Rallus aquaticus Khawar cherge R RAWR Egg Oral Asthma 0.48 3 30.00 0.24 7.1   0
22 Fulica atra Jal kokar R FAC Meat Oral Male impotency, cold 3.63 54 71.05 1.00 71.1   0
23 Anser anser Warri mergabi WV AAGG Meat Oral Arthritis, body pain 3.48 9 12.00 1.00 12.3   0
24 Anser albifrons Ghati mergabi WV AAG Meat Oral Arthritis, body pain 3.48 9 12.00 1.00 12.3   0
25 Himantopus himantopus Tor Tetare R HHBS Meat Oral Kidney stone 0.38 3 37.50 0.19 7.1   0
26 Pelecanus onocrotalus Kotanra WV POGP Fat, skin Oral Arthritis, body Pain 3.82 79 98.75 1.00 98.8   0
27 Pluvialis squatarola Kherari WV FSGP Meat Oral Cold 0.67 5 35.71 0.33 11.8   0
28 Charadrius alexandrinus Speni Kherari WV CASK Meat Oral Cold 0.48 5 50.00 0.24 11.8   0
29 Calidris temminckii Saheli Tetari WV CTTS Bone Oral TB, kidney stone 0.86 3 16.67 0.42 7.1   0
30 Gallinago gallinago Drum tel WV GGCS Meat, bone Oral Piles 0.48 3 30.00 0.24 7.1   0
31 Tringa stagnatilis Drum tel WV TSMS Meat, bone Oral Piles 0.24 3 60.00 0.12 7.1   0
32 Ciconia nigra Tor Zarhi WV CNBS Meat, fat, skin Oral Male impotency, arthritis 1.10 9 39.13 0.54 21.2   0
33 Ciconia ciconia Spen Zarhi WV CCWS Meat, fat, skin Oral Male impotency, arthritis 1.34 7 25.00 0.66 16.5   0
34 Mergus merganser Tor sar Bata WV MMCM Meat Oral Respiratory disorder, body pain, male impotency 2.29 27 56.25 1.00 56.3   0
35 Gallinula chloropus Obo Charga R GCCM Egg Oral Asthma 0.38 2 25.00 0.19 4.7   0
36 Esacus recurvirostris Ghatee kharare R ERGT Meat Oral Body weakness 0.19 4 100 0.09 11.8   0
37 Gallicrex cinerea Zanglai Charga R GCWC Egg Oral Asthma 0.33 7 100 0.16 16.5   0
38 Charadrius mongolus Warri Kharari R CMLP Meat Oral Cold 0.24 5 100 0.12 11.8   0
39 Sterna hirundo Kaaz/babozi S SHCT Meat Oral Gastric ulcer, obesity 0.62 1 7.69 0.31 2.4   0
40 Recurvirostra avosetta Loi mahoki tetara S RAPA Meat Oral Male impotency, cold 0.95 2 10.00 0.47 4.7   0
  1. DIS, distribution; WV, winter visited; R, resident; S, summer breeder; BPU, body parts used; MOA, mode of application; FC, frequency of citation; FAC, frequency of ailment citation; FC, fidelity level; RPL, relative popularity level; ROP, rank order priority; SI, similarity index