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Table 2 Local names of barley varieties cited by farmers, along with their meanings, seed color, number of rows, and summary of farmers preferred and non-preferred traits

From: Farmers’ knowledge on cultivation, utilization and conservation practices of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in three selected districts in Ethiopia

District/Local language Local names of barley varieties #Record # rows Seed color Meaning of local names Farmers’ preferred traits Non-preferred traits of barley
Misha district in Hadiya Zone/Hadiya 1. Awodo 106 2 White Means poor people milk to indicate that it is used as a milk substitute its white kernel color High nutritional value, has sweet taste Late mature, low yield, difficult to dehull
2. Du’uyya 98 6 Black Named to indicate rounded short spike with black seed Early mature, high yield, hull less Does not have good taste
3. Nazena 78 2 Black Named to indicate good flavor and tasty Provides strength and energy, good flavor, tasty, hull less and has medicinal value (used to treat animals to relieve from tapeworm) Late mature, low yield
4. Gibrin-So’o Yebira-Gebis (improved)* 69 6 White Means that the farmers obtained it from agricultural office High yield and easy to dehull
5. Anishicho 17 2 Black Meaning harmless to indicate awn less spikelet Early mature and has medicinal value (to release the remains after birth)
6. Heemach-Wongara 14 2 Light- gray Named to indicate no need of labor to dehull with black color and large seed Early mature, high yield, hull-less, sweet taste
7. Qadal-Wongara 14 2 Light- yellow Named to indicate easily for dehull with white color and large seed Hull-less, sweet taste
8. Gorxena 8 2 Brown Named to indicate it is not easily digestible Hull-less, provides strength when eaten Late mature, low yield
9. Caanfo’o 3 Irregular Gray Named to indicate irregular of rows Low yield
10. Calqo’o 3 6 Black Named to indicate curved spike with large seed size Early mature, high yield
11. Heemach-Xa’maja 2 6 Black Named to indicate its black seed color that make discomfort in stomach Hull-less
12. Gardaama 2 6 Light- yellow Meaning cave honey to indicate medicinal value and too thick during preparation Has medicinal value (maintain the broken bone) Hull and difficult to dehull
13. Giraaryya 1 6 Black Meaning Acacia like named to indicate hard awn High yield, hull less
14. Sheme'e 1 2 Black Named to indicate thin seed size Low yield
15. Gooficho 1 6 Black To indicate origin from Gofa zone Early mature, high yield Less sweet
16. Olika 1 6 Black To refer long spike and large seed size High yield
17. Hagala 1 6 Gray Named to indicate undifferentiated or multi-color seed Low yield, less sweet
18. Yebira-Gebis (improved)* 1 6 Light- yellow Name to refer as it is used for beer making High yield Low energy value
19. Kashar-Xa'maja 1 6 Light- yellow Named to indicate its light yellow seed that discomfort stomach Hull-less
20. Qadal-Du'uyya 1 6 White Named to indicate rounded short spike with white seed Low yield
21. Timibra 1 6 White Means spike covered by additional husk Sweet, hull less
22. Mirt-Tenfis 1 6 White Named to refer high amount of yield High yield
Gumer district in Gurage zone/Gurage 23. Jimua-Tikur 87 6 Black Name to refer short spike with black seed color Early mature, high yield drought tolerant, disease resistant Low market demand
24. Shege (improved)** 81 6 White Name to refer long spike Long spike, high yield, high market demand Less food quality
25. Nech-Senef 62 2 Yellow Named to mean ‘lazy white barley’ Long kernel, high market value, easy to dehull Require fertile soil, low yield, susceptible to disease
26. Awodo 56 2 White Named to refer bright white kernel color White seed color, best food quality Intermediate yield
27. Chifeye-Awedo 40 2 White Named to refer kernel is covered by an additional husks White seed color, best food quality, medicinal Intermediate yield
28. Tikur-Senef 17 2 Black Named to mean ‘ lazy black barley’ Long kernel, easy to dehull Low yield, low market demand, susceptible to disease
29. Yebira-Gebis 12 2 White Name to refer as it is used for beer making High yield, high market demand Seed high cost
30. Chelko-Tikur 12 6 Black Named to refer to long spike with black seed color Early mature, drought tolerant, disease resistant, high yield, long spike Shattering problem, low market demand
31. Jimua-Nech 2 6 White Named to refer short spike with white seed color Early mature, high yield Low market demand due to low food quality
32. Nech-Temezhe 1 2 White Named to refer white hulled kernel Early mature, easy for dehull Low yield, low food quality
33. Tikur-Temezhe 1 6 Black Named to refer black hulled kernel Early mature, easy for dehull Low yield, less food quality
34. Keleme 1 6 White Named to refer small sized kernel Sweet taste, easy for dehull Disease susceptible, low market demand
35. Shemeya 1 2 Purplish red Named to refer purplish red kernel color Medicinal value, disease resistant, drought tolerant Late mature, low yield, low demand
36. Wesabo 1 6 Gary Named to indicated variegated color (black and white) Drought tolerant, high yield, disease resistant Low market demand due to its gray seed color
37. Shehabdo/Dirgim efis 1 6 White Named to refer many yield High yield, long spike Low market demand due to low food quality
Hetosa district in Arsi zone/Oromo 38. Walia 25 6 White/Back Named to reflect the endemicity as Walia Ibex Short plant height and short spikes Susceptible to drought and cold
39. Kabe 19 6 White Named after the person ‘Kabe’ Short spike and tolerant to lodging Small sized low quality seeds
40. Wolkari 10 2 White To refers it is an improved variety Short spikes, short plant height, tolerant to lodging Susceptible to drought and cold
41. Eboni 9 2 White Improved and high yield barley Short plant height, short spikes Low seed quality, drought susceptible to
42. Miskali 6 2 White Improved and high yield Long plant height, long spikes, good flour Susceptible to drought and cold
43. Tesfaye 5 6 Purple Named after the person ‘Tesfaye’ Long spike, drought tolerant Low seed quality, low market demand
44. Garbu-Guracha 3 6 Black Named to show its being black color Long spikes, cold tolerant Low market demand due to its seed color
45. Aruso-Guracha-Rogmale 3 Irregular Black specify its origin ‘Arsi’ with its black color and irregular row Long spikes, tolerant to drought, good flour quality Low market demand due to its seed shape
46. Aruso-Magala-Rogmale 3 Irregular Brown Named to specify its origin ‘Arsi’ with its purple color and Irregular row Long spike, resistant to drought and cold, good flour quality Low yield, low market demand due to its seed shape
47. Kate-Adi 2 2 White Named to show its seed looks line wheat seed Short plant height, tolerant to lodging Low yield
48. Aruso-Adi-Bate 2 2 White Secify its origin ‘Arsi’, whitish color and 2 rows Tolerant to stress, good flour quality Low yield
49. Abola 1 2 White Long plant height, large spike, large seed size, Low food quality
50. Achachi-Bera 1 2 White Given to reveal its stunted plant height and its end-use Short plant height, good flour quality Susceptible to drought and cold stress, low quality
51. Akalas 1 2 White Given to show it withstands lodging Short plant height, drought tolerant Low seed quality and low yield
52. Abdo 1 6 White Named after the person ‘Abdo’ Small seed size, short plant height, Low yield, needs fertile soils
53. Aruso-Guracha-Bate 1 6 White specify its origin ‘Arsi’ with its black color and two row Small seed size, short plant height, Low yield, needs fertile soils
54. Aruso-Magala-Bate 1 2 Brown Refers its origin ‘Arsi’ with its purple color, two row Long spike, resistant to drought and cold, good flour quality Low yield and low market demand
55. Aruso-Guracha- Diribi 1 6 Black Refers its origin ‘Arsi’ with its black color and six row Long spikes, tolerant to drought, good flour quality Low market demand due to its seed color
56. Feresgama 1 6 Brown Named to show its short plant and spikelet length Short plant height, tolerant to lodging Low market demand due to its small sized seed
57. Garbu-Guracha-Rogmale 1 irregular Black Named to show its black color and its irregular row Have long spikes, resist to cold stress Low market demand due to its black seed color
58. Garbu-Guracha-Bate 1 2 Black Named to show its black color and its two row Have long spikes, resist to cold stress Low market demand due to its black seed color
59. Jilcha-Adi-Rogmale 1 irregular White Given to reveal its difficulty digestion and its white color Large spike, tolerant to lodging due to its short height Low food quality and market demand, difficult for digestion
60. Jilcha-Magala-Bate 1 2 Brown Given to reveal its difficulty digestion and its brown color Large spike, tolerant to lodging due to its short height Low food quality and market demand, difficult for digestion
61. Jilcha-Guracha-Bate 1 2 Black Given to reveal its difficulty digestion and its black color large spike, seed size and plant height, tolerant to lodging Low food quality and market demand, difficulty for digestion
62. Karamba 1 irregular Brown Large spike, good flour quality Low yield
63. Luka’a-Guacha (Tikur-Senef) 1 6 Black Named to mean it is easy to dehull and its black seed color Long spikes Low yield
64. Luka’a-Adi (Nechi-Senef) 1 6 White Named to mean it is easy to dehull and its whitish color Long spikes, mainly used for roasted barley Low yield
65. Damoye 1 2 Purple Named to reflect its being spiky Many spikes Low yield, prefers fertile soil
66. Shamame 1 2 Brown Named to show its hard seeds Drought, cold and lodging tolerate, has good tillers requires fertile soil, low yield, low seed quality, low market demand
67. Samareta 1 irregular White Named to reflect its attractive whitish-purple seed color Large spike, seed size, and plant height, susceptible to lodgings Low seed quality
68. Shege 1 6 White Used to refers it is an improved variety High yield, high market demand Less seed quality
  1. *Yebira Gebis is cultivar introduced into Ethiopia through Holata Agricultural Research Center/EIAR
  2. **Shege- a pure line selection from Ethiopian Biodiversity Institutes with the passport data ‘1622–05’released in 1995 by Holata Agricultural Research Center/EIAR, Ethiopia