Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

  • Ana Teresa Galvagne Loss1Email author,

    Affiliated with

    • Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto2,

      Affiliated with

      • Caio Graco Machado2 and

        Affiliated with

        • Fernando Moreira Flores1

          Affiliated with

          Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201410:55

          DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-10-55

          Received: 13 February 2014

          Accepted: 30 June 2014

          Published: 10 July 2014

          Abstract

          Background

          Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology.

          Methods

          This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests.

          Results

          We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species.

          Conclusions

          The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community.

          Keywords

          Human beings Bird Ethno-ornithology Local names Hierarchical levels Vocalization Ethnoetymology

          Introduction

          Studies on biological ethnotaxonomy aim at investigating how living organisms are perceived, identified, named and classified, seeking to understand how people categorize (ethnosemantic domains) and organize (ethnotaxonomic structures) nature elements [14]. Some ethnobiological principles of classification and nomenclature aim to identify similarities between cognitive systems in various societies. So, it is important to find out what are the ethnoclassification criteria (morphological, ecological, ethological, etc.), in order to develop a representative taxonomy of the classification system within a certain community [5, 4, 68]. Ethnobiological classification may be a good indicator of the cognitive and behavioral language process [9].

          Considering that human beings, on different parts of the world, use similar cognitive strategies to classify living things and organize biological concepts, studies on ethnotaxonomy show, in fact, that the main problem has always been finding what are the similarities or differences that could be really important for classification purposes [1013].

          Among current animal species, birds draw attention due to their gorgeous coloring and shrill songs [14]. Cooker [15] registered the names attributed by the Chippewa Indians, in northern Mexico, to birds from their region, reporting those they used; this investigation resulted in the first ethno-ornithological study, titled Bird nomenclature of the Chippewa Indians. Regarding the origin of names, the author observed the use of morphological criteria and habitats, and there were also names of species with no meaning.

          Whereas the scientific nomenclature of birds has been established for over 200years, popular and vernacular designation, as a product of people’s imagination, has no systematization. Vernacular names are popular, vulgar, or common names, which are names adopted by people who live in the regions inhabited by birds [14]. Thus, investigating vernacular names of birds from a certain region provides ornithology with the possibility of registering new occurrences, describing unknown behaviors, locating endangered species, and pointing out conservation alternatives, as well as understanding the relationships between human beings and birds, explaining to society the intrinsic value of cultural diversity [16].

          In Brazil, investigations and contributions from local knowledge on birds started when settlers first came to Brazil; they registered bird popular names, as well as stories and legends told by native people, which served, since the beginning, as data on the Brazilian avifauna [7]. Later, many studies were conducted registering popular names and the reproductive ecology of several species [17]; descriptions of customs, superstitions, and Brazilian and American legends, addressing the etymology of some names [18]. Sick [14], who is a reference in ornithology, deal with vocalization transcripts, etymology of bird names, and in a very summarized way, legends involving some species.

          Guided by a theoretical framework of cognitive anthropology, there are the following works: Jensen [19] examined bird classification systems among four Indian groups having similar environments and lifestyles in the Amazon: Wayampi, Urubu-Ka’apor, Sateré-Mawé, and Apalaí; Giannini [20] investigated, along with Xicrin Indians, the existence of an Indian ethnoclassification of the avifauna from the Rio Cateté region, in Pará, Brazil; and Carrara [21] examined the ethnobiological classification of Xavante Indians in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

          The present article registers the ethnotaxonomy of birds known by residents of the village of Pedra Branca, in the municipality of Santa Teresinha, Bahia, Brazil, cataloguing and identifying popular names, with their etymological description, besides analyzing the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The biological ethnotaxonomic study is of great importance both for understanding and grasping local biodiversity and investigating the universality of human ability to classify the biological world.

          Materials and methods

          Study area

          The village of Pedra Branca is located in the municipality of Santa Teresinha (12°44’30”S and 39°34’50”W), in the central-west area of Bahia State, Brazil, a region with sub-humid to dry climate features (Figure 1). This municipality has a population of 9,648 people and it is 192 km far from the state capital city, Salvador [22, 23].
          http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1746-4269-10-55/MediaObjects/13002_2014_425_Fig1_HTML.jpg
          Figure 1

          Location of the village of Pedra Branca (Santa Teresinha, Bahia) and Serra da Jiboia.

          Pedra Branca has 406 residents, with 136 families enrolled in the local health care unit and higher concentrations in the age groups from 20 to 39 years and above 60 years. Local agriculture is based on cassava crop (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) and grape crop for producing red wine; livestock is related to cattle breeding. Men sometimes have jobs in civil construction [24, 25, 23].

          The village lies at the bottom of a mountainous massive known as Serra da Jiboia, which has around 22,500 ha in area and a maximum altitude of 850 m. Serra da Jiboia is located southern Recôncavo region in Bahia and comprehends the territories of five municipalities: Castro Alves, Elísio Medrado, Santa Teresinha, São Miguel das Matas, and Varzedo [2628].

          Serra da Jiboia is located in an ecotone zone, between the ecosystems of Atlantic Forest and Caatinga, which provides it with a great diversity of climates, reliefs, soils, vegetation, and fauna, being one of the most western sites of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia and one of the wettest forests in the most northern hillside of the state. Its climate ranges from humid tropical, at east and southeast, to sub-humid tropical, at west and northwest [28]. Floristic studies in the area report the occurrence of many plant formations with rock fields on the top, Caatinga at the bottom, and hygrophilous forest at the slopes [2932]. Regarding avifauna, two studies are known for the region, on distinct areas of Serra da Jiboia, where 221 species were registered by Freitas and Moraes [33] and 233 species were registered in surveys conducted by the Feira de Santana State University (UEFS) (PhD Caio Graco Machado, person. commun.). The richest region comprises areas where Pedra Branca inhabitants perform some of their daily activities.

          Data collection and analysis

          Field collection was conducted within the period from August 2011 to June 2012 and 48 residents of both sexes were interviewed, 24 men and 24 women, aged from 18 to 87 years. A free and informed consent term (Resolution 196/1996 from the Ministry of Health) has been prepared to explain the objectives of this study; it was distributed to participants, asking if they agreed to provide information, respecting the decision of those who declined to participate in the research. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of UEFS (CAAE 0077.059.000-11).

          Initially, data were obtained both through open interviews, exploring and detailing the theme under study, and semi-structured interviews based on a list of pre-selected topics. As a final phase of data collection, a projective test was performed consisting on the presentation of visual and auditory resources to encourage interviewees to speak spontaneously about what they saw and heard [34]. These photographs and vocalizations were of species of birds that inhabit both Atlantic Forest and Caatinga environs. The photographs used came from personal files and Wikiaves [35], while the auditory resources came from Wikiaves’ data bank. Five male informants (ages 31–63), who showed a more detailed knowledge on the local avifauna during the interviews, were chosen for this data collecting technique. They were approached individually and were very skillful on identifying bird species.

          The term ethnospecies is employed in this study when an ethnobiological taxonomic category corresponds to the Linnaean scientific species, independently of how many popular names it receives. The scientific nomenclature followed the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos [36]. The endangered status followed the Lista Vermelha das Espécies Ameaçadas do Ministério do Meio Ambiente [37], the International Union of Conservation of Nature [38], and the Birdlife International [39].

          Data were analyzed using the union model. According to this model, all available information on the surveyed subject is to be considered [40]. For checking their reliability, interviews were conducted both in synchronous situations, with the same question being asked to different individuals in a short interval of time, and diachronic situations, when the same question was asked to the same individual in a long time interval [41].

          All ethnographic materials (recordings, transcripts, photographs, and drawings) are kept at the Laboratory of Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), state of Bahia, for evidential purposes.

          This study adopted the hierarchy structure proposed by Berlin [4], whose decreasing inclusion taxonomic classes form the following levels: kingdom, life form, intermediate, generic, specific, and variety. We used Venn’s diagram [42, 43] for relating the ethnobiological taxonomy to the Linnaean taxonomy,, where there is indication of Linnaean and ethnobiological taxa by means of circles with different marks, and it also enables showing the closeness between folk members [4]. For comparing the popular taxonomy to the Linnaean taxonomy, we used correspondence categories in evaluations regarding the popular generic names and scientific species, such as 1:1 correspondence, where the popular generic name refers to a single scientific species; over-differentiation, when two or more generic taxa refer to a scientific species; and under-differentiation may have two types, type 1 occurs when a single generic name refers to two or more species from the same scientific genus and type 2 occurs when a single generic name refers to two or more species from different scientific genera [44].

          Results and discussion

          Name formation and identification of ethnospecies

          The interviewed cited 139 common names of wild birds, which refer to 117 Linnaean species (Table 1). Unlike the Berlinean system [4], when the author says that the name structure of specific taxa in the ethnobiological classification systems is regularly binomial, out of the total number of common names in this study, 63 have binomial names and 77 have monomial names. See Table 2 to check out the glossary of all local bird names.
          Table 1

          List of birds’ common names and their respective academic correspondences

          Local common names

          Synonymy

          Scientific names

          Family

          Acauã

          Cauã

          Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Falconidae Leach, 1820

          Alma-de-gato

           

          Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Cuculidae Swainson, 1837

          Andorinha

           

          Progne tapera (Vieillot, 1817)

          Hirundinidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Anu-branco

           

          Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788)

          Cuculidae Swainson, 1837

          Anu-preto

           

          Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758

          Cuculidae Swainson, 1837

          Aracuã

           

          Ortalis guttata (Spix, 1825)

          Cracidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Araponga

           

          Procnias nudicollis (Vieillot, 1817)

          Cotingidae Bonaparte, 1849

          Assanhaço-comum

           

          Tangara sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Assanhaço-coqueiro

           

          Tangara palmarum (Wied, 1823)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Azulão

           

          Cyanoloxia brissonii (Lichtenstein, 1823)

          Cardinalidae Ridgway, 1901

          Azuzinho

           

          Tersina viridis (Illiger, 1811)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Beija-flor

           

          Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839)

          Trochilidae Vigors, 1825

          Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817)

          Trochilidae Vigors, 1825

          Beija-flor-rabo-de-tesoura

           

          Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788)

          Trochilidae Vigors, 1825

          Beija-flor-verde

          Martim-pescador

          Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816

          Galbulidae Vigors, 1825

          Bem-te-vi

          Bem-te-vi-coroão

          Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825

          Bem-te-vi-ciseri

           

          Megarynchus pitanguá (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825

          Bem-te-vi-menor

           

          Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825)

          Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825

          Bico-de-lacre

           

          Estrilda astrild (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Estrildidae Bonaparte, 1850

          Bigode

           

          Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Caboculinho

           

          Sporophila bouvreuil (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Caburé

           

          Glaucidium brasilianu (Gmelin, 1788)

          Strigidae Leach, 1820

          Caburé-de-estaca

          Caburé-de-murundu

          Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782)

          Strigidae Leach, 1820

          Caga-cebo

           

          Todirostrum cinereum (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Tyrannoidea Vigors, 1825

          Canário-belga

          Canário-da-Alemanha

          Serinus canária (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Fringillidae Leach, 1820

          Canário-da-capoura

           

          Sicalis luteola (Sparrman, 1789)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Canário-da-terra

          Canário-comum

          Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Cancan

           

          Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821)

          Corvidae Leach, 1820

          Capitão-de-preá

           

          Laterallus viridis (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Rallidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Cardeal

           

          Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Carrega-madeira

          Gué-gué

          Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821)

          Furnariidae Gray, 1840

          Casaca-de-couro

          Pica-pau

          Pseudoseisura cristata (Spix, 1824)

          Furnariidae Gray, 1840

          Cava-chão

           

          Nystalus maculatus (Gmelin, 1788)

          Bucconidae Horsfield, 1821

          Chapéu-de-couro

           

          Chrysomus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819)

          Icteridae Vigors, 1825

          Charuteira

           

          Gallinago paraguaiae (Vieillot, 1816)

          Scolopacidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Chorão

           

          Sporophila leucoptera (Vieillot, 1817)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Chupa-laranja

          Papa-laranja

          Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Coerebidae D'orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838

          Codorna-pimpão

          Codorna-maior

          Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815)

          Tinamidae Gray, 1840

          Codorna-piriri

           

          Nothura boraquira (Spix, 1825)

          Tinamidae Gray, 1840

          Coleiro

           

          Sporophila albogularis (Spix, 1825)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Corró

           

          Taraba major (Vieillot, 1816)

          Thamnophilidae Swainson, 1824

          Corró-pequeno

           

          Thamnophilus pelzelni Hellmayr, 1924

          Thamnophilidae Swainson, 1824

          Corta-colete

           

          Tangara cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Coruja

          Coruja-amanhã-eu-vou; Coruja-bacurau; Bacurau

          Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789)

          Caprimulgidae Vigors, 1825

          Corujão

           

          Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769)

          Tytonidae Mathews, 1912

          Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901)

          Strigidae Leach, 1820

          Stix virgata (Cassin, 1849)

          Strigidae Leach, 1820

          Corujão-de-orelha

          Caburé-de-orelha

          Megascops choliba

          Strigidae

          (Vieillot, 1817)

          Leach, 1820

          Coruja-rabo-de-tesoura

          Coruja-tô-rica

          Hydropsalis torquata (Gmelin, 1789)

          Caprimulgidae Vigors, 1825

          Cuiuba

           

          Forpus xanthopterygius (Spix, 1824)

          Psittacidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Curió

           

          Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Espanta-boiada

          Quero-quero

          Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782)

          Charadriidae Leach, 1820

          Estevo

          Trinca-ferro, Pixarro; Vaqueiro

          Saltator similis d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Estrelinha

           

          Lanio pileatus (Wied, 1821)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Garça

           

          Ardea Alba Linnaeus, 1758

          Ardeidae Leach, 1820

          Bubulcus íbis (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Ardeidae Leach, 1820

          Garrincha

           

          Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823

          Troglodytidae Swainson, 1831

          Gavião-carcará

           

          Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777)

          Falconidae Leach, 1820

          Gavião-carrapateiro

          Carcará-pequeno

          Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816)

          Falconidae Leach, 1820

          Gavião-pé-de-morro

           

          Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot, 1817)

          Accipitridae Vigors, 1824

          Gavião-pedrez

          Gavião-pega-pinto

          Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788)

          Accipitridae Vigors, 1824

          Gavião-peneira

           

          Elanus leucurus (Vieillot, 1818)

          Accipitridae Vigors, 1824

          Gavião-rapina

           

          Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Vieillot, 1816)

          Accipitridae Vigors, 1824

          Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, 1816

          Accipitridae Vigors, 1824

          Guriatá-verdadeira

           

          Euphonia violácea (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Fringillidae Leach, 1820

          Guriatá-vivi

           

          Euphonia clorotica (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Fringillidae Leach, 1820

          Jacu-verdadeiro

          Jacu-gogó-vermelho; Jacu-pemba

          Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815

          Cracidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Jesus-meu-Deus

           

          Zonotrichia capensis (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          João-de-barro

           

          Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788)

          Furnariidae Gray, 1840

          Juriti

           

          Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855

          Columbidae Leach, 1820

          Lavandeira

           

          Fluvicola negenta (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825

          Macuca

           

          Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819)

          Tinamidae Gray, 1840

          Mãe-da-lua

          Urutau

          Nyctibius griséus (Gmelin, 1789)

          Nyctibiidae Chenu & Des Murs, 1851

          Maria-do-dia

           

          Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, 1822)

          Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825

          Marreca

          Pato-verdadeiro; Pato-d’água

          Porphyrio Martinica (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Rallidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Anatidae Leach, 1820

          Martim-pescador

           

          Megaceryle torquata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Alcedinidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Mergulhão

           

          Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Podicipedidae Bonaparte, 1831

          Nambu-pé-roxo

           

          Crypturellus tataupa (Temminck, 1815)

          Tinamidae Gray, 1840

          Nambu-pé-vermelho

           

          Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827)

          Tinamidae Gray, 1840

          Papa-arroz

          Sangue-de-boi

          Sturnella superciliaris (Bonaparte, 1850)

          Icteridae Vigors, 1825

          Papa-café

           

          Schistochlamys ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1817)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Papa-capim

           

          Sporophila nigricollis (Vieillot, 1823)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Pardal

           

          Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Passeridae Rafinesque, 1815

          Pássaro-preto

           

          Gnorimopsar chopi (Vieillot, 1819)

          Icteridae Vigors, 1825

          Pêga

           

          Icteru pyrrhopterus (Vieillot, 1819)

          Icteridae Vigors, 1825

          Peixe-frito

          Sede-sede

          Tapera naevia (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Taperinae Verheyen, 1956

          Perdiz

           

          Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815)

          Tinamidae Gray, 1840

          Periquito

           

          Aratinga cactorum (Kuhl, 1820)

          Psittacidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Pica-pau

           

          Veniliornis passerines (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Picidae Leach, 1820

          Drycopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Picidae Leach, 1820

          Colaptes melanochloros (Gmelin, 1788)

          Picidae Leach, 1820

          Pintassilgo

           

          Sporagra yarrellii (Audubon, 1839)

          Fringillidae Leach, 1820

          Pomba-verdadeira

          Pomba-do-sertão

          Patagioenas picazuro (Temminck, 1813)

          Columbidae Leach, 1820

          Pomba-do-Pará

           

          Não identificado

          -

          Rolinha-branca

           

          Columbina picui (Temminck, 1813)

          Columbidae Leach, 1820

          Rolinha-caldo-de-feijão

           

          Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811)

          Columbidae Leach, 1820

          Rolinha-fogo-pago

           

          Columbina squamatta (Lesson, 1831)

          Columbidae Leach, 1820

          Rolinha-Santo-Antônio

           

          Columbina minuta (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Columbidae Leach, 1820

          Sabiá-bico-de-osso

           

          Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850

          Turdidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Sabiá-branca

           

          Turdus leucomela Vieillot, 1818

          Turdidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Sabiá-coca

           

          Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818

          Turdidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Sabiá-lasca-carne

           

          Mimus saturninus (Lichtenstein, 1823)

          Mimidae Bonaparte, 1853

          Saiacaia

          Cavala

          Gallinago undulata (Boddaert, 1783)

          Scolopacidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Sangue-de-boi

           

          Ramphocelus bresilius (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847

          Saracura

          Três-potes; Sete-potes

          Aramides cajanea (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Rallidae Rafinesque, 1815

          Siriema

           

          Cariama cristata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Cariamidae Bonaparte, 1850

          Socó-boi

           

          Butorides striata (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Ardeidae Leach, 1820

          Sofrê

           

          Icterus jamacaii (Gmelin, 1788)

          Icteridae Vigors, 1825

          Tiotoin

           

          Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859

          Furnariidae Gray, 1840

          Tiziu

          Biziu

          Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Emberezidae Vigors, 1825

          Tororó

           

          Não identificado

          -

          Tucano

           

          Ramphastus vitellinus Lichtenstein, 1823

          Ramphastidae Vigors, 1825

          Urubu-da-cabeça-vermelha

          Bosteiro

          Cathartis aurea (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Cathartidae Lafresnaye, 1839

          Urubu-preto

          Urubu-carniceiro

          Coragips atratus (Bechstein, 1793)

          Cathartidae Lafresnaye, 1839

          Urubu-rei

           

          Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Cathartidae Lafresnaye, 1839

          Viuvinha

           

          Xolmis irupero (Vieillot, 1823)

          Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825

          Xanana

           

          Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Jacanidae Chenu & Des Murs, 1854

          Zabelê

           

          Crypturellus noctivagus (Wied, 1820)

          Tinamidae Gray, 1840

          Common names follow the local language.

          *Endangered species [37].

          Table 2

          Correspondence between bird species common names and scientific names

          Local common names

          English common names

          Espécies científicas

          Acauã

          Laughing Falcon*

          Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Alma-de-gato

          Squirrel Cuckoo*

          Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Andorinha

          Brown-chested Martin*

          Progne tapera (Vieillot, 1817)

          Anu-branco

          White Anu**

          Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788)

          Anu-preto

          Black Anu**

          Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758

          Aracuã

          Speckled Chachalaca*

          Ortalis guttata (Spix, 1825)

          Araponga

          Bare-throated Bellbird*

          Procnias nudicollis (Vieillot, 1817)

          Assanhaço-comum

          Sayaca Tanager*

          Tangara sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Assanhaço-coqueiro

          Coconut Tanager**

          Tangara palmarum (Wied, 1823)

          Azulão

          Big Blue**

          Cyanoloxia brissonii (Lichtenstein, 1823)

          Azuzinho

          Little Blue**

          Tersina viridis (Illiger, 1811)

          Bacurau

          Night Hawk**

          Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789)

          Beija-flor

          Planalto Hermit*

          Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839)

          Black Jacobin*

          Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817)

          Beija-flor-rabo-de-tesoura

          Scissor-tailed Hummingbird**

          Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788)

          Beija-flor-verde

          Green Hummingbird**

          Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816

          Bem-te-vi

          Great Kiskadee*

          Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Bem-te-vi-ciseri

          Kiskadee**

          Megarynchus pitanguá (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Bem-te-vi-coroão

          Crowned Kiskadee**

          Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Bem-te-vi-menor

          Small Kiskadee**

          Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825) 

          Bico-de-lacre

          Common Waxbill*

          Estrilda astrild (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Bigode

          Mustache**

          Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Biziu

          Blue-black Grassquit*

          Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Bosteiro

          Shit-eater**

          Cathartis aurea (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Caboculinho

          Copper Seedeater*

          Sporophila bouvreuil (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Caburé

          Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl*

          Glaucidium brasilianu (Gmelin, 1788)

          Caburé-de-estaca

          Pole Pygmy-Owl**

          Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782)

          Caburé-de-murundu

          Hillock Pygmy-Owl**

          Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782)

          Caburé-de-orelha

          Eared Pygmy-Owl**

          Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817)

          Caga-cebo

          Common Tody-Flycatcher*

          Todirostrum cinereum (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Canário-belga

          Belgian Canary**

          Serinus canária (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Canário-comum

          Saffron Finch*

          Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Canário-da-Alemanha

          German Canary**

          Serinus canária (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Canário-da-capoura

          Barton Canary**

          Sicalis luteola (Sparrman, 1789)

          Canário-da-terra

          Earthy Canary**

          Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Cancan

          White-naped Jay*

          Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821)

          Capitão-de-preá

          Russet-crowned Crake*

          Laterallus viridis (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Cardeal

          Red-cowled Cardinal*

          Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Carrega-madeira

          Loading timber**

          Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821)

          Casaca-de-couro

          Leather jacket**

          Pseudoseisura cristata (Spix, 1824)

          Cava-chão

          Floor Digger**

          Nystalus maculatus (Gmelin, 1788)

          Cavala

          Mackerel**

          Gallinago undulata (Boddaert, 1783)

          Chapéu-de-couro

          Chestnut-capped Blackbird*

          Chrysomus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819)

          Charuteira

          Cigarette Case**

          Gallinago paraguaiae (Vieillot, 1816)

          Chorão

          Crybaby**

          Sporophila leucoptera (Vieillot, 1817)

          Chupa-laranja

          Orange Sucker**

          Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Codorna-maior

          Large Quail**

          Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815)

          Codorna-pimpão

          Crucian Quail**

          Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815)

          Codorna-piriri

          Piriri Quail**

          Nothura boraquira (Spix, 1825)

          Coleiro

          Collared Seedeater**

          Sporophila albogularis (Spix, 1825)

          Corró

          Great Antshrike*

          Taraba major (Vieillot, 1816)

          Corró-pequeno

          Little Antshrike**

          Thamnophilus pelzelni Hellmayr, 1924

          Corta-colete

          Burnished-buff Tanager*

          Tangara cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Coruja

          Owl**

          Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789)

          Coruja-amanhã-eu-vou

          Tomorrow-I-will Owl**

          Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789)

          Coruja-bacurau

          Night Hawk Owl**

          Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789)

          Corujão

          Big Owl**

          Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769)

          Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901)

          Stix virgata (Cassin, 1849)

          Corujão-de-orelha

          Eared Owl**

          Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817)

          Coruja-rabo-de-tesoura

          Scissor-tailed Owl**

          Hydropsalis torquata (Gmelin, 1789)

          Coruja-tô-rica

          Wealthy Owl**

          Hydropsalis torquata (Gmelin, 1789)

          Cuiuba

          Blue-winged Parrotlet*

          Forpus xanthopterygius (Spix, 1824)

          Curió

          Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch*

          Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Espanta-boiada

          Cattle Bugaboo**

          Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782)

          Estevo

          Green-winged Saltator*

          Saltator similis d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

          Estrelinha

          Pileated Finch*

          Lanio pileatus (Wied, 1821)

          Garça

          Great Egret*

          Ardea Alba Linnaeus, 1758

          Cattle Egret*

          Bubulcus íbis(Linnaeus, 1758)

          Garrincha

          Southern House Wren*

          Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823

          Gavião-carcará

          Caracara Hawk**

          Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777)

          Gavião-carrapateiro

          Tick-eater Hawk**

          Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816)

          Gavião-pé-de-morro

          Foot-of-the-hill Hawk**

          Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot, 1817)

          Gavião-pedrez

          Check Hawk**

          Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788)

          Gavião-pega-pinto

          Chick-Catcher Hawk**

          Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788)

          Gavião-peneira

          Strainer Hawk**

          Elanus leucurus (Vieillot, 1818)

          Gavião-rapina

          Rapine Hawk**

          Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Vieillot, 1816) 

          Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, 1816

          Gué-gué

          Rufous-fronted Thornbird*

          Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821)

          Guriatá-verdadeira

          True Guriatá**

          Euphonia violacea (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Guriatá-vivi

          Guriatá**

          Euphonia clorotica (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Jacu-gogó-vermelho

          Red throate Guan**

          Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815

          Jacu-pemba

          Pemba Guan**

          Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815

          Jacu-verdadeiro

          Rusty-margined Guan*

          Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815

          Jesus-meu-Deus

          Rufous-collared Sparrow*

          Zonotrichia capensis (Statius Muller, 1776)

          João-de-barro

          Rufous Hornero*

          Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788)

          Juriti

          White-tipped Dove*

          Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855

          Lavandeira

          Washer**

          Fluvicola negenta (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Macuca

          Solitary Tinamou*

          Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819)

          Mãe-da-lua

          Moon Mother**

          Nyctibius griséus (Gmelin, 1789)

          Maria-do-dia

          Day Mary**

          Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, 1822)

          Marreca

          Purple Gallinule*

          Porphyrio Martinica (Linnaeus, 1766)

          White-faced Whistling-Duck

          Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Martim-pescador

          Kingfisher**

          Megaceryle torquata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Martim-pescador

          Kingfisher**

          Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816

          Mergulhão

          Diver**

          Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Nambu-pé-roxo

          Purple-foot Tinamou**

          Crypturellus tataupa (Temminck, 1815)

          Nambu-pé-vermelho

          Red-foot Tinamou**

          Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827)

          Papa-arroz

          Rice-eater**

          Sturnella superciliaris (Bonaparte, 1850)

          Papa-café

          Coffee-eater**

          Schistochlamys ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1817)

          Papa-capim

          Grass-eater**

          Sporophila nigricollis (Vieillot, 1823)

          Papa-laranja

          Orange-eater**

          Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Pardal

          Sparrow**

          Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Pássaro-preto

          Black Bird**

          Gnorimopsar chopi (Vieillot, 1819)

          Pato-d’água

          Water Duck**

          Porphyrio Martinica (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Pato-verdadeiro

          True Duck**

          Porphyrio Martinica (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Pêga

          Magpie**

          Icteru pyrrhopterus (Vieillot, 1819)

          Peixe-frito

          Fried Fish**

          Tapera naevia (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Perdiz

          Red-winged Tinamou*

          Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815)

          Periquito

          Parakeet**

          Aratinga cactorum (Kuhl, 1820)

          Pica-pau

          Woodpecker**

          Veniliornis passerines (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Drycopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Colaptes melanochloros (Gmelin, 1788)

          Pseudoseisura cristata (Spix, 1824)

          Pintassilgo

          Yellow-faced Siskin*

          Sporagra yarrellii (Audubon, 1839)

          Pixarro

          Green-winged Saltator*

          Saltator similis d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

          Pomba-do-Pará

          Pará’s Dove**

          Não identificado

          Pomba-do-sertão

          Sertão Dove**

          Patagioenas picazuro (Temminck, 1813)

          Pomba-verdadeira

          True Dove**

          Patagioenas picazuro (Temminck, 1813)

          Quero-quero

          Want-want**

          Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782)

          Rolinha-branca

          White Turtledove**

          Columbina picui (Temminck, 1813)

          Rolinha-caldo-de-feijão

          Bean soup Turtledove**

          Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811)

          Rolinha-fogo-pago

           

          Columbina squamatta (Lesson, 1831)

          Rolinha-Santo-Antônio

          Saint Antony Turtledove**

          Columbina minuta (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Sabiá-bico-de-osso

          Boned-beak Thrush**

          Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850

          Sabiá-branca

          White Thrush **

          Turdus leucomela Vieillot, 1818

          Sabiá-coca

          Coca Thrush**

          Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818

          Sabiá-lasca-carne

          Chipping-meat Thrush**

          Mimus saturninus (Lichtenstein, 1823)

          Saiacaia

          Skirtfall**

          Gallinago undulata (Boddaert, 1783)

          Sangue-de-boi

          Cattle Blood**

          Ramphocelus bresilius (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Schistochlamys ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1817)

          Saracura

          Gray-necked Wood-Rail*

          Aramides cajanea (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Sede-sede

          Thirst-thirst**

          Tapera naevia (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Sete-potes

          Seven Pots**

          Aramides cajanea (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Siriema

          Red-legged Seriema*

          Cariama cristata (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Socó-boi

          Striated Heron*

          Butorides striata (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Sofrê

          Sufferer**

          Icterus jamacaii (Gmelin, 1788)

          Tiotoin

          Sooty-fronted Spinetail*

          Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859

          Tiziu

          Blue-black Grassquit*

          Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Tororó

          - - -

          Not identified

          Três-potes

          Three Pots**

          Aramides cajanea (Statius Muller, 1776)

          Trinca-ferro

          Green-winged Saltator*

          Saltator similis d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

          Tucano

          Toucan**

          Ramphastus vitellinus Lichtenstein, 1823

          Urubu-carniceiro

          Butcher Vulture**

          Cathartis áurea (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Urubu-da-cabeça-vermelha

          Red-headed Vulture**

          Cathartis áurea (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Urubu-preto

          Black Vulture**

          Coragips atratus (Bechstein, 1793)

          Urubu-rei

          King Vulture**

          Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758)

          Urutau

          Common Potoo*

          Nyctibius griséus (Gmelin, 1789)

          Vaqueiro

          Cowboy**

          Saltator similis d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837

          Viuvinha

          Little Widow**

          Xolmis irupero (Vieillot, 1823)

          Xanana

          Wattled Jacana*

          Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766)

          Zabelê

          Yellow-legged Tinamou*

          Crypturellus noctivagus (Wied, 1820)

          (*) refers to English common names as cited in the scientific literature; (**) refers to those English common names freely translated by the authors.

          Most of the bird species were given a single name (even when it is a compound name such as beija-flor = hummingbird), although they represent one or more Linnaean species. In other cases, some species are popularly known with different popular names but they correspond to just one Linnaean species. Considering the relationship between generic taxa and scientific species, we registered the occurrence of three types of correspondence between the biological and popular classification systems proposed by Berlin et al. [5]. For instance, out of the three types of beija-flor, only one receives a specification, i.e. beija-flor-rabo-de-tesoura (Eupetomena macroura), due to the morphology of its tail. This type is named one-to-one correspondence. The other two species (Phaethornis pretrei and Florisuga fusca) are named only beija-flor, with an under-differentiation of type 2. The same happens with the popular name garça, which represents two scientific species (Ardea alba and Bubulcus ibis). We observed the occurrence of an over-differentiation for the specific names coruja-amanhã-eu-vou and coruja-bacurau, identified by means of vocalization, referring to a single species Hydropsalis albicollis. The first specific refers to a common singing in this species and is possibly related with the reproductive behavior, while the second one, coruja-bacurau, refers to its calling [14].

          Common name formation in this study follows different criteria, such as morphology (coloring pattern, body shape and size), behavior (vocalization, reproduction, and feeding), habitat, and anthropogenic features (Table 3). However, vocalization and coloring pattern in birds were the criteria used more frequently by respondents and, according to Berlin [44], morphology is one of the main criteria used to designate ethnospecies, as well as to differentiate them.
          Table 3

          Common name formation and synonyms of bird species recorded in the village of Pedra Branca (Santa Teresinha, Bahia)

          Nomenclatural criteria

          Common names/Synonymy

          Morphologic

          Color

          Anu-branco, anu-preto, azulão, beija-flor-verde, gavião-pedrez, jacu-gogó-vermelho, nambu-pé-roxo, nambu-pé-vermelho, pássaro-preto, rolinha-branca, rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, sabiá-bico-de-osso, sabiá-branca, sangue-de-boi, urubu-preto, urubu-cabeça-vermelha.

          Size

          Bem-te-vi-menor, codorna-maior, gavião-carcará-menor, corujão.

          Body shape

          Beija-flor-rabo-de-tesoura, bem-te-vi-coroão, bigode, coleiro, codorna-pimpão, caburé-de-orelha, corujão-de-orelha, coruja-rabo-de-tesoura, charuteira.

          Habitat

          Assanhaço-coqueiro, caburé-de-estaca, caburé-de-murundu, canário-da-capoura, canário-da-terra, canário-belga, espanta-boiada, pato-d’água.

          Behavior

          Reproduction

          Cava-chão, carrega-madeira, joão-de-barro, viuvinha.

          Vocalization

          Acauã, bacurau, bem-te-vi, cancan, cavala, coruja-amanhã-eu-vou, coruja-bacurau, gué-gué, chorão, guriatá-vivi, jesus-meu-deus, maria-do-dia, peixe-frito, sede-sede, rolinha-fogo-apagou, saiacaia, socó-boi, tiotoin, trinca-ferro, tiziu, três-potes.

          Feed

          Beija-flor, chupa-laranja, papa-laranja, gavião-carrapateiro, gavião-pega-pinto, gavião-peneira, martim-pescador, mergulhão, papa-capim, pica-pau, sabiá-lasca-carne, sangue-de-boi, urubu-rei,.

          Anthropogenic aspect

          Lavandeira.

          Usually, species with rather peculiar morphological similarities are not differentiated and they are given the same name [45, 46], as in the cases of corujão (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana; Strix virgata), garça (Ardea alba; Bubulcus ibis), and gavião-rapina (Geranoaetus albicaudatus; Buteo brachyurus). Moreover, feather coloring patterns are morphological features also used by residents to differentiate females from males, and the latter, usually, have feathers with brighter colors, due to sexual selection, that is, the female will choose the male because of its physical features [47].

          Vocalization is an important aspect for identifying bird species, that is, the sound emitted by them often becomes their popular name on a local basis. Thus, there is an onomatopoeic name formation [44, 4, 48, 49, 16, 50, 51].

          Among behavioral criteria, also stands out name formation through trophic ecology, such as in the case of specific names: gavião-carrapateiro (Milvago chimachima), which feeds on ticks at cattle and horses; gavião-pega-pinto (Rupornis magnirostris), which feeds on chicks of other birds, among them the domestic ones, regarded as easy prey; and gavião-peneirador (Elanus leucurus), which has the habit of hovering against the wind to see its prey [14, 52]. Other studies also pointed out hawk grouping as related to feeding behavior [53, 45]. The ethnospecies urubu-rei (Sarcoramphus papa) was the only one related to the generic name urubu (urubu-cabeça-vermelha e o urubu-preto), which was named due to its feeding behavior, as the existence of a hierarchy between these species has been reported, where other species feed only after urubu-rei [14].

          Regarding names related to reproductive behavior, 3 ethnospecies were related to nest formation: cava-chão (Nystalus maculatus), which digs holes in slopes; carrega-madeira (Phacellodomus rufifrons), which piles wood fragments; and joão-de-barro (Furnarius rufus), which uses mud [14, 54].

          Fluvicola negenta has its nomenclatural formation based on the anthropogenic aspect. Culturally, this ethnospecies is related to religious belief, something which defines its importance within the community [16, 55], as reported in the following excerpt: “People have to say they gave the name ‘lavandeira’ because it helped Our Lady to wash clothes” (Mrs. M, 63 years).

          There are species designated on a local basis, however, they may be given another name, such as in the case of Vanellus chilensis, which in Pedra Branca is named espanta-boiada, but it is also known as quero-quero: “Each region gives its name. Here it is named ‘espanta-boiada’. It is also observed in the football field. There, it is called ‘quero-quero’ ” (Mr. E, 48 years). Stauber et al. [56] emphasize the importance of studies and records of regional and local variations in the popular nomenclature used, before this is overcome by the academic nomenclature and even by the media.

          In what concerns the field of ornithology, this study corroborates the importance of researching on local names [16], as a new distribution in the occurrence of Strix virgata has been recorded for the state of Bahia, namely at the Serra da Jiboia. This species has few records in Bahia and in accordance with literature its distribution was just known to the south of this northeastern state [57, 14, 58, 59]. The latest photographic records are documented in the site Wikiaves [6062]. In the present study this record just happened because this bird gets the popular name corujão, which also refers to two academic species, Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana and Tyto alba, and taking into account the morphological resemblance to the first one, Strix virgata was only identified through the collection of a specimen by means of some informers’ reports about its position inside the woods. Similar situation was experienced by Sick et al. [63] in the Raso da Catarina (Bahia) when they reported that the participation of local informants was decisive for the record Anodhorhyncus leari.

          Ethnotaxonomic classification

          For starting the identification of ethnospecies by informants, we defined two lexemes: ave and pássaro (=passarinho). According to local perception, presence of feathers, presence of wings, being able to fly, as well as body size and breeding for slaughter, were relevant features for this differentiation. The term ave mainly refers to species bred at home, such as galinha (Gallus gallus), pato (Cairina moschata), and sacué (Numida meleagris). In turn, pássaro or passarinho are terms used to designate species that are not domesticated, even those bred in captivity. A testimony exemplifies this semantic distinction: “‘Ave’ is bred at home and ‘pássaro’ always lives in another place. ‘Galinha’, ‘peru’ are called ‘aves’ and the animals we see flying out there are called ‘pássaros’” (Mr. R, 69 years).

          The presence of feathers leads some informants to include the term pássaro into ave, but it is differentiated due to the species habitat, either on trees or on the ground: “All feathered ‘pássaros’ are called ‘ave’, you know. All of them are this kind of ‘ave’. The difference is subtle, because the difference of ‘galinha’ is that it lives on the ground, and ‘passarinho’ does not, it lives over there, it flies, it also sits on the floor, but ‘galinha’ lives on the ground. ‘Passarinhos’ build their nests on trees and ‘galinhas’ on the floor” (Mr. J, 48 years).

          Other studies have also reported these categories, and the ethnospecies galinha, peru, and periquito are included as “bred at home” or “bird on the ground”, as gavião, garça, and pássaro-preto are “wild bird”, “self-bred bird”, or “flying bird”, and these categories include species that are called pássaros or passarinhos, due to captive breeding [6466].

          For some communities, this category of aves covers animals that fly, present a beak, feathers, and lay eggs [19, 16]. Brown [67] introduces ave as large animals, which have wings, feathers, and a beak (always including pássaros), whereas the bird life form includes flying mammals, such as morcegos, a fact also found out by Jensen [19] and Blumer [68]. This inclusion is registered in Pedra Branca, as observed in the following interview excerpt: “I think ‘morcego’ is regarded as ‘passarinho’, it has wings and flies” (Mr. F, 31 years).

          Ethnotaxonomic information of respondents seemingly allows us to order them hierarchically, according to the principles of categorization proposed by Berlin [4], where three hierarchical levels were recognized: life form, generic, and specific. In this study, the lexemes pássaro and passarinho match the ethnotaxonomic level “life form”. These lexemes include all wild birds cited in the study, but they do not correspond to the Linnaean taxonomy, because pássaros are animals belonging only to the Passeriformes order [69, 70].

          The recognition and grouping of the generic name sabiá in the region, for instance, mainly relies on morphology, and the vocalization and trophic criteria are responsible for identifying and defining the specific names (Figure 2). Even though sounds are similar, we can identify species in the field [14, 53]. Grouping the specific names sabiá-bico-de-osso, sabiá-branca, and sabiá-coca corresponds to the Turdidae family in the Linnaean taxonomy, while the specific name sabiá-lasca-carne belongs to the Linnaean Mimidae family. The correspondences found were 1:1 for the 4 specific names cited.
          http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1746-4269-10-55/MediaObjects/13002_2014_425_Fig2_HTML.jpg
          Figure 2

          Specific folk generic “sabiá” and its equivalents in academic taxonomy.

          According to respondents’ perception, acauã (Herpetotheres cachinnans) is recognized as a kind of gavião, but it is not included in this generic name, constituting a monotypic generic name. The generic name gavião has eight specific names and the morphological and behavioral criteria are used to group this set of birds (Figure 3). The specific names gavião-carcará (Caracara plancus), gavião-carrapateiro (synonym gavião-carcará-menor, Milvago chimachima), and acauã (H. cachinnans) correspond to the Falconidae family, and the other ones belong to the Accipitridae family. In this example, 4 1:1 correspondences, 2 under-differentiations, and 1 type B over-differentiations are found.
          http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1746-4269-10-55/MediaObjects/13002_2014_425_Fig3_HTML.jpg
          Figure 3

          Specific folk generic “gavião” and its equivalents in academic taxonomy.

          Final remarks

          The information registered here shows a broad ethno-ornithological knowledge within the community living in the village of Pedra Branca, so that many birds are given names followed by synonyms, while others have only a single name and there is a correspondence between the folk ethnotaxonomy and Linnaean taxonomy.

          The results reinforce the need of the participation of local informants in inventories of birds in order to record potential new distributions in the occurrence of species, mainly those nocturnal and even migratory birds.

          Through the analysis of popular names, it was possible to identify the nomenclatural criteria used to designate the birds; vocalization and coloring pattern were those more frequently used. Virtually all respondents reported the same etymology for the common names of ethnospecies, something which means that local names are strongly conveyed within the community.

          Feeding behavior was a relevant aspect in this research, because besides forming names, it also allowed identifying and hierarchically ordering species. However, the formation of some names did not follow any criteria, as some ethnospecies were identified due to some kind of behavior, vocalization, and habitat.

          According to the Berlinean classification model, there was a hierarchy into three levels: life form, generic, and specific. Even meeting two lexemes ave and pássaro (passarinho), we opted to use pássaro at the life form level, listing only the wild birds.

          Declarations

          Acknowledgments

          The authors thank the community in Pedra Branca, especially the informants, for their information and availability to participate in this study. The biologist Osmar Borges for considerations on the species Strix virgata. The laboratories of Ethnobiology, Ethnoecology, and Ornithology of Feira de Santana State University (UEFS), for their structural and logistical support. The Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), for the scholarship granted to the first author. Rafael Almeida for the english review. This article was part of the dissertation entitled “Ethno-ornithology in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha, Bahia, Brazil”, pursued at UEFS’ Graduate Program in Zoology.

          Authors’ Affiliations

          (1)
          Post-Graduation Program in Zoology, Department of Biological Sciences, Feira de Santana State University
          (2)
          Department of Biological Sciences, Feira de Santana State University

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          © Galvagne Loss et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

          This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://​creativecommons.​org/​publicdomain/​zero/​1.​0/​) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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