An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

  • Ronald Y Jorim1,

    Affiliated with

    • Seva Korape1,

      Affiliated with

      • Wauwa Legu1,

        Affiliated with

        • Michael Koch2,

          Affiliated with

          • Louis R Barrows2Email author,

            Affiliated with

            • Teatulohi K Matainaho1 and

              Affiliated with

              • Prem P Rai1

                Affiliated with

                Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine20128:47

                DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-8-47

                Received: 5 September 2012

                Accepted: 12 December 2012

                Published: 18 December 2012

                Abstract

                Background

                The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use.

                Methods

                This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding.

                Results

                Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic”) the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented.

                Conclusions

                Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This effort promotes integration of effective and accessible traditional practices with Western protocols. The Traditional Medicine surveys are particularly important because, in the absence of the clinical validation, the documentation of the consistent use of a given plant for specific indication by a large number of herbalists, across a wide range of ethnic traditions, maybe considered as a positive criterion for the promulgation of said use amongst PNG’s recently formed traditional healer associations.

                Keywords

                Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands Medicinal Plants Obura-Wonenara Unggai-Bena Okapa

                Background

                Rural communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG) rely on a tradition of plant use for health needs [1]. PNG has at least 800 ethnic traditions characterized by distinct languages scattered mostly in rural hamlets across a geographically segregated mountainous country of 462,840 km2 [2, 3], of which the Eastern Highlands Province occupies 11,200 km2. This geology has also resulted in extraordinary biological diversity estimated to be greater than 5% of the global total including an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 vascular plants, approximately 60% of which are endemic [4, 5]. Human settlement has existed from at least 40,000 years BP on the north coast (Houn Peninsula) of PNG. More recently, human occupation of the Ivane Valley in the PNG Highlands has been dated to 49,000 to 44,000 years ago [6]. Of PNG’s approximately 6.2 million people about 430,000 reside in the Eastern Highlands [7]. This extended habitation of diverse environs has led to a rich and varied practice of medicinal plant use [8].

                Reports from Western contact as early as the 1800s detailed the use of medicinal plants by PNG people to treat various maladies [9]. This Western perception of the cultural tradition of medicinal plant use, however, has been disparaged in some literature because often the curing properties of the plants are conceived by the users as magical [10]. This was the case in PNG Highlands where, until recently, non-western concepts of illness etiology predominated. Nevertheless, as in most of PNG, it is the current practice in the Highlands to use different plants to treat various symptoms regardless of whether the cause of the symptoms is conceived of as mystical or somatic.

                The fact that a sizable majority of the PNG population relies on medicinal plants and traditional practitioners for health care has been formally recognized by the national government [1]. The 2001–2010 PNG National Health Plan promoted collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) to assist in the development of traditional medicines in the country. A traditional medicines survey instrument was developed using WHO guidelines and with vetting from Western Pacific WHO regional officers. In 2001 the UPNG Traditional Medicines surveys were initiated with endorsements from the UPNG School of Medicine and Health Sciences Research and Ethics Committee and the Medical Research and Advisory Committee of the PNG Department of Health. A proprietary database for traditional medicines was also established, which is maintained at UPNG [11], and now serves as a national resource as the government seeks to move validated and safe herbal remedies into the national health care formulary [1].

                It is widely recognized that the traditional use of medicinal plants constitutes an important information reservoir that is threatened by on-going development and Westernization. This cultural reservoir of knowledge has been empirically tested and adopted through millennia of trial and error, but prior to the UPNG Traditional Medicines surveys, three of which are reported here, there was no national effort to preserve such knowledge. The documentation of medicinal plants in PNG has been haphazard and the accrued knowledge has not been widely disseminated internationally. Furthermore, the corresponding pharmacological validation of PNG medicinal plant use has not been systematically studied. We estimate that historically some 800 PNG plants species have been described in the literature for treatment of various ailments, but this represents only a fraction of the total number of plants actually utilized.

                We present here a survey of traditional healers and report their current uses of medicinal plants from three distinct ethnic regions of the Eastern Highlands. The objective is to document and preserve knowledge of medicinal plant use in the Eastern Highlands of PNG, to use this activity as a scientific and culturally affirmative training exercise for senior UPNG students, and to put the recorded plant use into the PNG context by comparison with archived literature concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This activity has identified many species used medicinally in the Eastern Highlands that are also used elsewhere in PNG, and a few species for which there are rare or no literature reports of medicinal use.

                Methods

                The Traditional Medicine survey program at UPNG provides an effective training exercise for select senior bachelor of pharmacy students. The Traditional Medicines Database currently contains cultural plant use data from over 34 Local Level Governments (LLGs) in PNG. Students are instructed on plant identification and preservation, herbal medicine use, and how to administer the survey instrument titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal preparations and medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea”. This survey instrument questionnaire is designed to facilitate semi-structured face-to-face interviews with healers. The interaction is directed at recording new data concerning the medicinal uses of plants and the related cultural traditions, and includes field work for the collection of plant vouchers. The students are supported to travel to their home districts to conduct the surveys amid “wantok” communities. Wantok implies more than a common language in PNG, encompassing a meaning of extended kinship as well. Students meet first with elders, village heads, ward councilors, etc., in the study communities to gather names of healers before contacting them with the request for interviews. The principal requirement being that the healers are recognized in the community to have knowledge and skills of providing herbal treatments, that they are active in the practice and are willing to share their knowledge. The interviews are usually conducted in Tok Pisin or Tok Ples (local dialects) because facility with English is not uniform amongst the interviewees and it is important to communicate as clearly as possible.

                Samples of the plants useful for identification (flowers, fruits or nuts, twigs with leaves) in addition to the parts used medicinally were harvested, dried and compressed in newspapers. A copy of the survey questionnaire is provided in supplementary information Additional file 1. Newspapers were changed daily until they remained dry after compression. Pressed plant samples, plant photographs and descriptions were assigned a voucher numbers and deposited at the UPNG Herbarium for identification and reference purposes [8]. The data concerning plant use are written up under supervision into student authored reports and the plant information is entered into the Traditional Medicines Database, which contains the combined reports generated by a decade’s work in this endeavor. It is the student reports that provide the base information for this current report.

                Guidelines regulating accession of the database have been developed at UPNG in order to recognize and trace the traditional knowledge and intellectual property of the source communities. The guidelines operate under the current UPNG benefit sharing model, which is applicable to many areas of natural products research and which includes guidelines concerning intellectual property rights and benefits sharing that has been approved by the PNG government. The proprietary UPNG Traditional Medicines Database records, in addition to plant medicinal use, information concerning source individuals and communities in order to recognize and trace the traditional knowledge intellectual property.

                The three student reports compiled here detail medicinal plant use from three separate regions and several distinguishable language and dialect groups in the Eastern Highlands province of PNG (Figure 1). The Eastern Highlands areas surveyed encompass Ipma-Baruya language groups of the Marawaka area of the Yeila Rural Local Level Government (LLG), Obura-Wonenara electorate; the Bena, Gahuku and Siane language groups of the Unggai-Bena LLG; and the Fore/Keyagana/Kimi language groups of the Okapa LLG [12]. Forty five practitioners were interviewed for this work: three from Ande village, 16 from Jomuru village, one from Marawaka station, five from Wauko village, one from Boike village, one from Gawol village, one from Kam’mwa village, and one from Kwaksiolo village in the Marawaka/South Obura Wonenara LLG area; two from Numurapoka village, one from Ginipauka village, one from Masiga, two from Orumba village, and two from Sekagu village from the Unggai Benna LLG area; four from the Haga villages, two from Yavanita village and two from Amusa village in the Okapa LLG of the Eastern Highlands.
                http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1746-4269-8-47/MediaObjects/13002_2012_299_Fig1_HTML.jpg
                Figure 1

                Map of Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea showing Local Level Governments (LLG) where studies were carried out.

                Results and discussion

                Dataset and diseases

                A total of 60 specimens were described from the Marawaka area, 76 from the Okapa LLG; and 77 in the Unggai-Bena LLG. Two plants specimens each in the Marawaka and Okapa constituencies only served as additives or spices: Piper gibbilimbum and a Saccharum sp. to mask bitter tastes of herbal preparations; Saccharum species are commonly used as a salty preservative. In the Kayagana language area, Rungia klossii and Zingiber officinale are the two species that are routinely added to various medicinal preparations. The addition of pork to concoctions is frequent in all areas studied, but especially in the Ungaai-Bena LLG, where the practice was recorded as nearly universal. Pork is a high protein food and cultural icon in the Highlands.

                The total number of diseases and symptoms listed in this report is 220, with several species recorded as having more than one use. Disease descriptions have been sorted into 14 general categories as shown in Table 1. Overall, by far the largest category of plant use (n = 45 [20.5%]) was “magic”, synonymously referred to here as “poisoned” (Table 1). In the regions surveyed, with few exceptions, “poisoned” refers to a syndrome consisting of abdominal swelling with accompanying constipation, swelling of extremities, acute and occasional body pains and aches; sometimes accompanied by anorexia/dysphagia. The underlying reason for the discomfort is thought to be sorcery or witchcraft directed at the affected individual. Overall, after “poisoning” the next most common (n = 23 [10.5%]) afflictions for which herbal treatments were recorded were pain, gynecological and gastrointestinal maladies. Treatments for pulmonary conditions and anemia or malnutrition ranked next (n = 21 [9.5%]), with malaria ranking number 8 (n = 20 [9.1%]) of the top overall categories of use. Unfortunately, these overall averages do not accurately represent the variation in the reported plant usages recorded in the different survey locations. While magic was the predominant condition treated overall, in the Marawaka area the largest category of medicinal plants use was for pulmonary diseases (17 of the overall total of 21 in that disease category). In the Bena dialect area, anemia and malnutrition had the highest number of plant uses recorded, 12 of the 37, with no species at this location recorded as being used to treat “poisoning”.
                Table 1

                Medicinally Utilized Plants in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea

                Genus and species [References]

                Voucher number

                Family

                Local name [Dialect : Village]

                Disease

                Plant part

                Medicinal preparation

                Route

                Abrus sp. [9, 11]

                WL065

                Leguminosae

                Amanani-Aginogo [U : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Adenostemma sp. [13, 14]*, [15]*

                SK057

                Asteraceae

                Hovepa [B : S]

                Swollen skin & skin infection

                L, F & vines

                Sun drying

                E

                Ageratum conyzoides L. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [15]*

                SK013

                Asteraceae

                Govu suva [S : O]

                Diarrhea

                L & F

                F / Succus

                O

                Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17]

                WL052

                Zingiberaceae

                Amo-o [Ki : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                Stem

                Concoction

                O

                Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17]

                SK056

                Zingiberaceae

                Sinogepuna [B : S]

                Swollen joints

                L

                Chopped leaves are cooked together with pig meat

                O

                Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17]

                SK030

                Zingiberaceae

                Gini giye [S : O]

                Flatulence

                yf L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17]

                RJ006

                Zingiberaceae

                Koikadene [I : J]

                Ovulation / Fertility

                Fruit/Seeds

                Fresh

                O

                Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17]

                SK020

                Zingiberaceae

                Gavu [S : O]

                Sever fever

                yf L & shoot

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Alstonia brassii Monach. [811, 13, 16, 18]

                SK064

                Apocynaceae

                Gigipe [B : S]

                Skin infection

                Sap (Milkywhite)

                Fresh / Succus

                E

                Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. [811, 13, 16, 18]

                RJ011

                Apocynaceae

                Yaknalae's Ita [I : M-B]

                Malaria

                L, B

                Fresh / dry

                O

                Alstonia sp. [811, 13, 14, 16]*, [15, 18, 19]*

                SK046

                Apocynaceae

                Hihipa [B : S]

                To gain strenght during warfare

                L & B

                Cut into small pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Alyxia sp. [14]*, [18]

                RJ034a

                Apocynaceae

                Kevitingoje [I : J]

                Dyspnea

                soft L

                Fresh

                O

                Aristolochia indica L. [20]

                RJ001

                Meliaceae

                Yaki'Itchale [I : J]

                Malaria, Abortion, uterine inflammation

                L, B

                Fresh, Decoction

                O

                Ascarina philippinensis C.B.Rob. [21]*, [14]*

                RJ036

                Chloranthaceae

                Nebotniari [I : J]

                High fever

                L, fruit

                Fresh

                O

                Ascarina philippinensis C.B.Rob. [21]*, [14]*

                WL021

                Chloranthaceae

                Pawasa [F : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Aspium sp.

                WL034

                Unidentified

                Waise [F : Y / E]

                Diarrhea / abdominal pain / Cachexia

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Bacopa sp.

                SK033

                Scrophulariaceae

                Momoto [G : U]

                For gaining weight

                L, F & Stem

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Barringtonia sp. [8, 9, 13, 1517]*

                SK054

                Barringtoniaceae

                Lahapa [B : S]

                Stomach ache

                L & sap

                Sap & chopped leaves are mixed together and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Begonia rex Putz.

                RJ012

                Begoniaceae

                Woyatchale [I : J]

                Sores / Boils (esp. on neck)

                L, Stem

                Fresh or dried

                O

                Begonia sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 20, 2224]*

                WL031

                Begoniaceae

                Awaya [F : Y]

                Excessive menstrual bleeding

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Begonia sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 2224]*

                RJ002

                Begoniaceae

                Saiguwong'giye [I : J]

                Strong cough / general good health

                L / or A

                Fresh

                O

                Bidens pilosa L. [9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 24]*

                WL045

                Asteraceae

                Kamena [K : E]

                Sores & Wounds

                L

                Heated / Succus

                E

                Bidens pilosa L. [9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 21, 24]*

                RJ013

                Asteraceae

                Toiporeyie [I : J]

                Cuts/Wounds/Scratches (Hemostatis)

                L & shoot

                Succus (crushed)

                E

                Blumea sp. [9, 10, 13, 14, 21]

                WL020

                Asteraceae

                Aleu [F : Y]

                Weight decrease due to abdominal problems / nausea

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Boerlagiodendron eminens (W. Bull) Merr.***

                SK050

                Araliaceae

                Sofa [B : S]

                Control sexual desire of men

                L

                Leaves cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Bubbia sp.

                RJ021

                Winteraceae

                Pangwe [I : J]

                Aches and pains, cough, arthritis, dyspnea

                L, B

                Decoction

                O

                Calycacanthus magnusianus K. Schum

                RJ029

                Acanthaceae

                Ikowote/Wusale [I : W / AD]

                Sores (all types)

                L

                Fresh (Mascerated)

                E

                Castanopsis acuminatissima (Blume) Rehder [10, 21]*, [14]*

                SK009

                Fagaceae

                Nege [S : G]

                Otitis media

                B

                F /Succus (Scraped and juice extracted)

                E

                Casuarina oligodon L.A.S. Johnson [21]*, [14]*, [25]

                WL062

                Casuarinaceae

                Alaeva / Karavefa [Ki / K : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb.

                SK045

                Oleaceae

                Hagavi [B : S]

                Malnutrition/Growth retardation

                L & B

                Scrapped bark & chopped leaves are cooked in bamboo with pig meat

                O

                Chrysanthemum sp.

                SK015

                Asteraceae

                Seveya [S : O]

                Boil

                F

                F /Succus

                E

                Cinnamomum sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 20, 2224]*

                WL007

                Lauraceae

                Yaravu [F : U]

                Weakness / nausea / vomiting

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Cinnamomum sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 20, 2224]*

                SK036

                Lauraceae

                Yahoma [B : S]

                Poison within body system

                L & B

                Scraped B is added to chopped L & pig meat and cooked in bamboo

                O

                Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Leight

                WL075

                Cladoniaceae

                Lanefa-Kikinofa [K : A]

                Vaginal discharge / bleeding

                A

                Heated

                O

                Coleus blumei Benth. [9, 11]

                SK043

                Lamiaceae

                Mufler [B : S]

                Induce labour in childbirth

                L

                Cut into pieces and cooked with other leaves & pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. [9, 21]*, [13, 15]*

                RJ007

                Lamiaceae

                Wuririta [I : J]

                Strong productive cough

                f soft L

                Heated and Fresh

                O

                Commelina sp. [8, 9, 11, 14]*, [15]*

                WL042

                Commelinaceae

                Hitirifa [K : E]

                Headache [Analgesic]

                A

                Fresh

                O

                Commersonia bartramiana (L.) Merr. [8, 21]*

                WL001

                Sterculiaceae

                Kalaifa [K : E]

                Emetic

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Coprosma sp. [14]*

                WL066

                Rubiaceae

                Loanoya [Ki : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Cordyline fruticosa (Linnaeus) A. Chevalier [8, 13, 14, 16]*, [15]

                SK019

                Agavaceae

                Gini fono [S : O]

                Anemia & Dizziness

                yL

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Cordyline terminalis (L.) Kunth [911]

                RJ044

                Agavaceae

                Alebiyei [I : KA]

                Magical

                soft un-sprouted shoot / L

                Concoction

                O

                Cosmos sp.

                SK001

                Asteraceae

                Seho gihi [G : N]

                Toothache

                F

                Decoction

                O (Rinse)

                Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore [9, 21]*, [14, 15]*

                RJ037

                Asteraceae

                Matchope [I : J]

                Wounds and cuts (hemostasis)

                L

                Succus (crushed)

                E

                Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore [9, 21]*, [14]*, [15]*

                SK004

                Asteraceae

                Okore gihi [G : N]

                Fresh cuts

                yL, F & Stem

                F / Succus (All are squeezed together)

                E

                Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore [9, 21]*, [14]*, [15]*

                WL046

                Asteraceae

                Ino-Kamena-e [K : E]

                Sores & Wounds

                L

                Heated / Succus

                E

                Crotalaria retusa L. [9, 13]

                SK071

                Leguminosae

                Orupa flawa [G : G]

                Chicken-pox

                F

                Fresh / Succus

                E

                Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. [9]

                SK005

                Hypoxidaceae

                Orupa napa [G: N]

                Growth retarded children

                Tubers

                Maceration, then liquid is used to cook greens & meat in bamboo

                O

                Cyrtandra sp. [21]*, [13, 14]*, [15]*

                SK060

                Gesneriaceae

                Minise [B : S]

                Malnutrition

                L & Stem

                Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Cyrtandra sp. [21]*, [13, 14]*, [15]*

                WL032

                Gesneriaceae

                Asaswa [F : Y]

                Weight decrease due to abdominal problems / nausea

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Cyrtandra sp. [13, 21]*, [14]*, [15]*

                RJ015

                Gesneriaceae

                Kodatchale [I : J]

                Emetic and strong cough (expectorant)

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Decaspermum bracteatum (Roxb.) A.J.Scott

                SK047

                Myrtaceae

                Sosome [B : S]

                Back & joint pain, headache & toothache

                L & B

                Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Dendrobium sp. [9, 21]*, [13, 14]*

                SK029

                Orchidaceae

                Fonomuna [S : O]

                Severe headache & dizziness

                L & stem

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat

                O

                Dendrobium sp. [9, 21]*, [13, 14]*

                WL048

                Orchidaceae

                Kinua [K : E]

                Backache [Analgesic]

                A

                Fresh

                O

                Dendrocnide interrupta (L.) Chew

                WL035

                Urticaceae

                Fai [K : U]

                Muscle / joint pains / headache

                L

                Fresh

                E

                Dendrocnide sp. [13]

                RJ048

                Urticaceae

                Iwole [I : J]

                Productive cough

                soft L

                Concoction

                O

                Desmodium sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [22, 26]

                SK021

                Leguminosae

                Suwaroka ginona [S : O]

                Malnutrition

                L, F & Stem

                Cooked with meat in bamboo

                O

                Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. [14]*, [15]*

                SK066

                Liliaceae

                Mamuha [B : S]

                Irritating cough & throat mucus

                L & Tubers

                Infusion

                O

                Diospyros sp. [13]

                WL010

                Ebenaceae

                Kigi Yosita-e [F : Y]

                Shortness of breath w/ abdominal discomfort and bodyswelling

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Diospyros sp. [13]

                WL037

                Ebenaceae

                HamaitoYosa [K : E]

                Significant weight loss

                L & B

                Concoction

                O

                Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. [11, 21]*, [14, 16]*, [27]

                WL044

                Sapindaceae

                Karu [K : E]

                Bone Fractures / Painful joints

                L

                Heated

                E

                Drymaria cordata (L.) [9, 14]*, [15]

                RJ042

                Caryophyllaceae

                Motdeikedike [I : J]

                Tooth ache

                A

                Decoction

                O

                Elaeagnus sp. [21]*

                WL009

                Elaeagnaceae

                Tunakafe yosita-e [U : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Dried

                O

                Elaeocarpus sp. [9, 10, 13, 14, 21]*, [15, 17]*

                WL051

                Elaeocarpaceae

                Ukari [K : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Eleutheranthera sp. [28]

                WL056

                Asteraceae

                Lemu [Ki : A]

                Pains [general analgesic]

                R

                Concoction

                O

                Emilia prenanthoidea DC. [10, 13, 14]*, [9, 21]

                SK022

                Asteraceae

                Gambiri govu [S : O]

                Rumbling stomach

                L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Erigeron sumatrensis Retz.[14, 21]*

                WL013

                Asteraceae

                Kisekise / Okiopa [K : U]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Euphorbia hirta L. [9, 15, 16]

                SK032

                Euphorbiaceae

                Saha gihi [G : U]

                Dysentery

                L, F & Stem

                F / Succus

                O

                Eurya sp. [21]*, [14]*

                WL070

                Theaceae

                Iyaleya [Ki : A]

                Headache, fatigue, GI discomfort, muscle aches and arthralgia

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Eustrephus latifolius R. Br.

                SK075

                Philesiaceae

                Haya sono [G : G]

                Anti-helminthics

                L

                Fresh / Succus

                O

                Ficus benjamina L. [29]

                SK052

                Moraceae

                Makeyafa [B : S]

                Joint & back pain

                L & B

                Scraped bark & chopped leaves are cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Ficus copiosa Steud. [8, 9, 21]*, [14, 16]*

                WL047

                Moraceae

                Atai-Yosita [K : E]

                Chest Pains, labored breathing

                L & B

                Concoction

                O

                Ficus pumila L. [811, 13, 14, 16]*, [19, 22]

                WL025

                Moraceae

                Kasakonde [F : Y]

                Malaise, fever, shaking, vomiting [sometimes]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Ficus pungens Reinw. ex BL. [9, 10, 13, 14, 16]*

                SK073

                Moraceae

                Gegeha [G : U]

                Shivering hands & feet

                L & Fruit

                Chopped leaves & smashed fruits are cooked together with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Ficus pungens Reinw. ex Blume [9, 10, 13, 14, 16]*

                RJ017

                Moraceae

                Ayeye [I : W]

                Oral trush

                soft f L

                Succus (crushed)

                O

                Ficus sp. [811, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [19, 22]

                WL015

                Moraceae

                Higifa [K : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Ficus sp. [811, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [19, 22]

                WL038

                Moraceae

                Yagarueta [K : E]

                Malaise, fever, shaking, vomiting [sometimes]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Finschia sp.

                SK037

                Proteaceae

                Yakof [B : S]

                Abdominal swelling

                L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat

                O

                Gardenia sp. [14]*, [21]*

                SK007

                Rubiaceae

                Amanini [G : N]

                Faintness / Epilepsy

                L

                Chopped into pieces & cooked with meat in bamboo

                O

                Glochidion sp. [14]*, [15]*

                SK024

                Euphorbiaceae

                Poroqui [S : O]

                Frequent dizziness

                yf L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Gordonia papuana Kobuski [21]*, [14]*

                WL069

                Theaceae

                Oasiri / Kogaisiri [Ki / K : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griffith [8, 21]*, [14]*, [22]

                WL017

                Acanthaceae

                Otoro [U : Y]

                Excessive menstrual bleeding

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Grevillea papuana Diels [10, 13, 21]

                SK072

                Proteaceae

                Mumusopa yaha [G : G]

                F cuts & Ulcer sores

                L

                Poultice

                E

                Hemigraphis sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [20]

                WL074

                Acanthaceae

                NamKatoga [K : NI (E)]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Hemigraphis sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [20]

                RJ041

                Acanthaceae

                Bukmeye/Murie [I : KA]

                Magical

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Hyptis sp. [9, 11, 13, 23]

                SK017

                Labiatae

                Seve moiba [S : O]

                Spear wounds

                L

                F / Succus

                E

                Hyptis sp. [9, 11, 13, 23]

                SK018

                Labiatae

                Gekesagu [B : S]

                Otitis media

                Soft stem & Stem skin

                F / Succus

                E

                Impatiens hawkeri W.Bull [10, 21]*, [14]*

                RJ043

                Balsaminaceae

                Meyebui [I : KA]

                Magical

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Impatiens hawkeri W.Bull [10, 21]*, [14]*

                RJ045

                Balsaminaceae

                Kolumbota [I : KA]

                Magical

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Kibara katikii Philipson

                SK025

                Monimiaceae

                Suwa nara [S : O]

                Epilepsy

                L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Laportea decumana (Roxb.) Wedd. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 16, 19, 22, 24, 26, 30]

                RJ009

                Urticaceae

                Nabotne (green) [I : J]

                Liver pain

                soft L

                Heated and Fresh

                O

                Laportea decumana (Roxb.) Wedd. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 16, 19, 22, 24, 26, 30]

                RJ018

                Urticaceae

                Nabotne (Pink) [I : J]

                Joint pain (analgesic); magical

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Laportea sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14, 16, 19, 22, 24, 26, 30]

                RJ004

                Urticaceae

                Keletichale [I : J]

                Liver pain (Epigatric pain)

                f soft L

                Fresh

                O

                Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.) Wedd. [8]

                SK063

                Urticaceae

                Hagaza [B : S]

                Skin itchiness

                L & stem

                Fresh / Succus

                O & E

                Litsea exsudens Kosterm. [14]*

                SK048

                Lauraceae

                Sagifa [B : S]

                Cleanes bodysystem

                L & B

                Leaves & barks are cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) exell apud A.R. Fernandes [21]*

                WL040

                Onagraceae

                Lawolawosa [K : E]

                Blood in urine, yellow tongue, headache with high fever, aching joints [all ocurring together]

                A

                Concoction

                O

                Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven [14]*

                SK069

                Onagraceae

                Goluwaiyo [G : G]

                Ulcer sores

                Fruit & seeds

                Fresh / Succus

                E

                Maclura sp.

                RJ020

                Moraceae

                Iveriate [I : J]

                Malaria

                soft L

                Fresh

                O

                Medinilla sp.

                SK028

                Melastomataceae

                Lunu aira [S : O]

                Anemia

                L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat

                O

                Melastoma malabathricum L. [14]*

                WL014

                Melastomataceae

                Tawakaya [F : U]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L & B

                Concoction

                O

                Melastoma sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14]*

                WL006

                Melastomataceae

                Kora Yosa / Au Yosaita [F / K : Y]

                Heart Problems

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Mucuna stanleyi C.T.White [8, 9, 13]

                RJ014

                Leguminosae

                Kang'ole [I : J]

                Contraception

                soft L

                Succus (crushed)

                O

                Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack [28]

                SK068

                Rutaceae

                Onupa yaha [G : N]

                Mentallydisturbed

                L

                Leaves are cut into pieces and cooked with meat in bamboo

                O

                Murraya sp. [28]

                SK031

                Rutaceae

                Nuva yaha [G : G]

                Nasal congestion

                L

                Steaming

                I

                Musa sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [23, 24, 30]

                WL053

                Musaceae

                Abu [Ki : K]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                Stem

                Concoction

                O

                Myrmecodia sp. [8, 21]*, [13]

                RJ046

                Rubiaceae

                Kleklina [I : KA]

                Magical

                soft L

                Concoction / Fresh

                O

                Ophiorrhiza nervosa RidL. [14]*

                SK049

                Rubiaceae

                Atu [B : S]

                Poison within body system

                L

                Cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Ophiorrhiza sp. [14, 21]*

                WL011

                Rubiaceae

                Temu / Afela Hefi [F / K : Y]

                Epigastric pain, nausea, vometing, abdominal swelling [Stomach cancer]

                L & soft stem

                Concoction

                O

                Orania sp.

                WL072

                Arecaceae

                Vayave [K : AN (E)]

                Difficult breathing, cough and wheezing

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Oxalis corniculata L. [9, 14, 16]*, [19]

                SK041

                Oxalidaceae

                Sokolo [B : S]

                Dysmenorrhoea

                L, F & Stem

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Oxalis corniculata L. [9, 14, 16]*, [19]

                SK035

                Oxalidaceae

                Gehani gihi [G : M]

                Labour pain

                L, F & Stem

                F / Succus

                O

                Pandanus sp. [9, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [22]

                RJ047

                Pandanaceae

                Awangwe [I : J]

                Asthma

                soft L

                Succus (squeezed)

                O

                Phyllanthus niruri L. [9, 11, 13, 16]

                SK070

                Euphorbiaceae

                Saha gihi [G : G]

                Stings from insects/bees

                L & F

                Fresh / Succus

                E

                Piper aduncum L. [29]

                WL043

                Piperaceae

                Kamani-Lucefa [K : E]

                Bone Fractures

                L

                Heated

                E

                Piper betle L. [9, 10, 16]

                SK061

                Piperaceae

                Yagerere [B : S]

                Malnutrition

                L

                Chopped and cooked together with pig meat

                O

                Piper gibbilimbum C.DC. [14]*, [31, 32]

                RJ038

                Piperaceae

                Kutmunne [I : J]

                Improves platability of other TrM

                L

                Wrapper

                O

                Piper sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [17, 18, 22]

                RJ039

                Piperaceae

                Mudutganan'ne [I : KA]

                Magical

                soft L

                Concoction

                O

                Piper sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [17, 18, 22]

                SK026

                Piperaceae

                Gegiya [G : U]

                Toothache

                yf L

                Succus

                E

                Pipturus argenteus (G.Forst.) Wedd. [9, 10, 13, 16, 18, 26]

                SK067

                Urticaceae

                Ase yaha [G : N]

                Remove worms

                L

                Chopped leaves are cooked together with pig meat

                O

                Pittosporum sinuatum BL. [14]*

                WL058

                Pittosporaceae

                Ilawau-u [Ki : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Pittosporum sp. [9, 21]*[13, 14, 16]*

                RJ027

                Pittosporaceae

                Wununghe [I : W

                Scabies, ulcerative sores

                A

                Decoction

                O

                Planchonella sp. [14]*

                RJ024

                Sapotaceae

                Ik'klake [I : J]

                Abdominal swelling / Magical

                Seed, L, B

                Decoction (bark) / fresh

                O

                Plantago major L. [21]*

                SK044

                Plantaginaceae

                Getuya [B : S]

                Diarrhea

                Whole

                Either cooked separately or with pig meat in a bamboo

                O

                Plantago major L. [21]*

                SK034

                Plantaginaceae

                Masiga gihi [G : U]

                Deep wound (pig/dog bite, axe/knife wound)

                L & stem

                F / Succus

                E

                Plectranthus scutellarioides R. Br. [3, 13, 14, 16, 18]

                SK040

                Lamiaceae

                Salita [B : S]

                Dysentery

                L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Podocarpus neriifolius Don. [9, 27]

                WL054

                Podocarpaceae

                Laso [Ki / K : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Poikilospermum sp. [8, 14]*

                SK058

                Urticaceae

                Sikrutafa [B : S]

                To gain weight/become fat

                L & vine

                Chopped leaves & scraped vines are cooked together with pig meat

                O

                Polygala paniculata L., [21]*, [13], [14]*

                SK016

                Polygalaceae

                Nuva gihi [G : O]

                Malaria & High Fever

                L & F

                Cooked with meat in bamboo

                O

                Polygonum strigosum R. Br. [14]

                RJ022

                Polygonaceae

                Tungole [I : J]

                Labor pain (analgesic)

                soft L

                Fresh

                O

                Polyscias filicifolia (C.Moore ex E.Fourn.) L.H.Bailey

                RJ005

                Araliaceae

                Iriduki'Imetchale [I : J]

                Malaria

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Psidium guajava L. [8, 9, 13, 16]

                SK002

                Myrtaceae

                Gusigusi [G : N]

                Diarrhea

                L

                Fresh / Succus

                O

                Psoralea sp.

                SK003

                Leguminosae

                Gulumeha [G : G]

                White mouth sores / Candida like

                L, F & Stem

                F / Succus (All at once)

                O (Chewed)

                Psychotria sp. [9, 11, 21]*, [13, 14]*

                WL033

                Rubiaceae

                Katoya [F : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Rubus moluccanus L. [9, 14, 16, 21]*

                WL023

                Rosaceae

                Uruturu [F : Y]

                Fevers

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Rungia klossii S.Moore [11, 21]*, [14, 30]*

                WL004

                Acanthaceae

                Hefi [K : U]

                none

                Herb

                Major additive to Wl001- > 003

                O

                Saccharum sp. [9, 11, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [17, 23, 26]

                RJ051

                Poaceae

                Sale / Saimije [I : J]

                Improves platability of other TrM

                Crystallized

                Additive (taste / texture)

                O

                Sacciolepis sp. [10, 13, 14, 21]

                WL036

                Poaceae

                Hufa-aigoyae [K : AN]

                Small sores & minor cuts

                F / Stem

                Succus

                E

                Salacia sp. [14]*

                WL029

                Celastraceae

                Agenafa [K : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L & Stem

                Concoction

                O

                Sambucus javanica Reinw. ex Blume

                SK008

                Caprifoliaceae

                Golani yaha [G : N]

                Chicken-pox

                F

                Infusion used for bathing

                E

                Sanchezia nobilis var. glaucophylla Lem.

                SK076

                Acanthaceae

                Girukaru [G : U]

                Broken bones & joint dislocations

                L

                Cooked with meat or other greens

                O & E

                Saurauia andreana (F.MuelL.) Diels [8, 14]*

                WL064

                Actinidiaceae

                Ayano [Ki : K]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                SK027

                Actinidiaceae

                Goiva [S : O]

                Ulcers

                L

                Poultice

                E

                Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                SK051

                Actinidiaceae

                Kiahuyave [B : S]

                Dysmenorrhoea

                L & B

                Leaves / bark or both are cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                SK053

                Actinidiaceae

                Yaketupa [B : S]

                Abnormal mouth & nose bleeding

                L & B

                Chopped leaves & scraped bark are cooked together with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                RJ010

                Actinidiaceae

                Kokgingila [I : J]

                Permanent contraceptive

                B

                Decoction

                O

                Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                RJ030

                Actinidiaceae

                Gol'lik [I : W / AD]

                Liver pain / epigastric pain

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                WL005

                Actinidiaceae

                Karakieta [F : Y]

                Pains, Fevers & GI Symptoms ["typhoid symptoms"]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                WL018

                Actinidiaceae

                Kaware [F : Y]

                Excessive menstrual bleeding

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Schefflera sp. [21]*, [13], [14]*, [15]*

                WL003

                Araliaceae

                Ase [K : E]

                Emetic

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Scindapsus sp.

                SK055

                Araceae

                Yage [B : S]

                Severelysick patients

                Stem & yf L

                Chopped leaves & scraped vines are cooked together with pig meat

                O

                Selaginella emmeliana Van Geert

                WL049

                Selaginellaceae

                Kakasi [Ki / K : A]

                Swollen Hands and Feet

                L

                Concoction

                O / E

                Senecio sp. [14]*

                SK012

                Asteraceae

                Gotu aira [S : O]

                Cough with runny nose

                yL & S

                F / Succus

                O

                Setaria sp. [810, 14]

                SK010

                Poaceae

                Nomu suva [S : O]

                Malaria

                whole plant

                Chopped into pieces & cooked with meat in bamboo

                O

                Sida acuta Burm. F. [9, 13, 16]

                SK014

                Malvaceae

                Nivinihani [G : O]

                Dysmenorrhoea, Diarrhea

                yf L & Rs

                Eaten with food & F / Succus

                O

                Sigesbeckia orientalis L. [14]*

                SK042

                Asteraceae

                Mezamua [B : S]

                Diarrhea

                Whole

                Fresh / Succus

                O

                Smilax rotundifolia L. [8, 9, 16]

                WL024

                Smilacaceae

                Kogana [K : Y]

                Pains and Fevers [Analgesic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Smilax sp. [8, 9, 14, 16]*

                WL030

                Smilacaceae

                Ala-Kogana [K : U]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Smilax sp. [8, 9, 14, 16]*

                SK023

                Smilacaceae

                Gatapa nara [S : O]

                Epilepsy

                y soft L

                Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Steganthera sp. [14]*

                RJ033

                Monimiaceae

                Kwagisal'lik [I : AD]

                Strong cough with burning/nausea

                soft L & S

                Fresh

                O

                Symplocos sp. [14, 21]*

                WL002

                Symplocaceae

                Vefa [K : E]

                Emetic

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Symplocos sp. [14, 21]*

                WL059

                Symplocaceae

                Nimihavaya [Ki : A]

                Epigastric pain

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Symplocos sp. [14, 21]*

                RJ032

                Symplocaceae

                Guruke [I : W

                Cough

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Syzygium longipes Merr. & L.M.Perry [811, 13, 16, 18]

                SK059

                Myrtaceae

                Maze [B : S]

                Malnutrition

                L & B

                Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Syzygium sp. [811, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [18]

                SK074

                Myrtaceae

                Nuva yaha [G : G]

                Mild-severe chest pain

                L & Fruit

                Dry / fresh chopped leaves are cooked with meat in bamboo

                O

                Syzygium sp. [811, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [18]

                WL019

                Myrtaceae

                Yasawa [F : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Syzygium sp. [8], [911, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [18]

                SK038

                Myrtaceae

                Fitome [B : S]

                Swallowing of poison

                L & B

                Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo

                O

                Tagetes sp. [11]

                SK006

                Asteraceae

                Ukuromini [G : N]

                Toothache

                F & Stem near F

                F (All are squeezed and applied directly)

                D

                Tasmannia piperita (Hook. f.) Miers. [13, 14]

                RJ008

                Winteraceae

                Iridukichale [I : J]

                Malaria and strong cough

                L

                Fresh or dry

                O

                Tecoma sp. [21]*, [15]*

                WL067

                Bignoniaceae

                Na-a [Ki : A]

                Vaginal discharge/bleeding

                R

                Concoction

                O

                Timonius belensis Merr. & L.M.Perry [14]*

                SK039

                Rubiaceae

                Kipe [B : S]

                Joint & back pain

                L & B

                Scraped B is added to chopped L & pig meat and cooked in bamboo

                O

                Timonius sp. [9, 13, 14, 16]*

                WL039

                Rubiaceae

                Ubagu [K : E]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Trichospermum sp.

                WL071

                Tiliaceae

                Aviya [Ki : A]

                Headache, fatigue, GI discomfort, muscle aches and arthralgia

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Tridax procumbens L. [11, 16]

                SK077

                Asteraceae

                Lilita [G : U]

                Mild-severe headache

                L

                Cooked with meat in bamboo

                O

                Tristiropsis sp.

                RJ023

                Sapindaceae

                Longola [I : J]

                Malaria, cough w/ chest pain / Magical

                soft L

                Fresh

                O

                Uncaria sp. [8, 21]*, [14]*

                SK062

                Rubiaceae

                Glagigo [B : S]

                Internal sores & candida infections

                L & Stem

                Candida: stem smashed to release succus which is gargled; sores: stem and leaves are cooked and eaten

                O (Rinse) / O

                Unidentified

                SK011

                Araliaceae

                Gororotave nara [S : O]

                Toothache

                L & stem

                F / Succus (Cut & squeezed in hand)

                E

                Unidentified

                SK065

                Not given

                Nagepa [B : S]

                Headache

                L, F & Stem

                All parts are cooked together with pig meat

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ003

                Unidentified

                Imetchale [I : J]

                Malaria

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ016

                Icacinaceae

                Kawikaule [I : J]

                Strong cough

                L

                Fresh or dry

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ025

                Scrophulariaceae

                Imetchale [I : J]

                Malaria and Asthma

                A

                Fresh or dry

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ026

                Solanaceae

                Kwagi'Kuwogie [I : J]

                Persistent cough

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ028

                Unidentified

                Kimamite (small) [I : J]

                Malaria / mental enhancement

                L, Stem

                Leaf Fresh / Stem charred and inhaled

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ031

                Unidentified

                Kat'tungje [I : J]

                Strong cough with rhinorrhea (decongestant)

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ034b

                Unidentified

                Ammate [I : J]

                Dyspnea

                soft L

                Fresh

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ035

                Unidentified

                Kimamite (big) [I : J]

                Headache / Malaise

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ040

                Euphorbiaceae

                Klalebongbonge [I : KA]

                Magical

                soft shoot / L

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL008

                Leguminosae

                Orovia [F : Y]

                Abdominal discomfort / bodyaches [also magical: make people like bearer]

                F

                Fresh

                O

                Unidentified

                WL012

                Unidentified

                Kuougo [U : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                Stem [dried]

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL016

                Euphorbiaceae

                Kamira [KT : F]

                Excessive menstrual bleeding

                L

                Concoction

                O]

                Unidentified

                WL026

                Unidentified

                Tewesa [F : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                A

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL027

                Myrtaceae

                Kuta [K : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic] [also magical as protection for bearer]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL028

                Unknown

                Nonhe [F : Y]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L & B

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL041

                Unidentified

                Eso-Aginogi [K : E]

                Weight Loss with severe bodyaches and GI complications

                A

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL050

                Unidentified

                Veya [Ki : A]

                Swollen Hands and Feet

                A

                Concoction

                O / E

                Unidentified

                WL055

                Lamiaceae

                Natano [Ki / K : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL057

                Sapindaceae

                M-e [Ki : A]

                Pains [BodyAches]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL060

                Theaceae

                Alau / Kalau [Ki / K : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL061

                Unidentified

                Kaviaya / Kamagafa [Ki / K : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                B

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL068

                Melastomataceae

                Masirita [Ki : A]

                GIT / Swelling [Magic]

                L

                Concoction

                O

                Unidentified

                WL076

                Unidentified

                Hapalaga Hitirifae [K : NI (E)]

                Diarrhea

                F / Fruit

                Fresh

                O

                Unidentified

                RJ050

                Unidentified

                Tungoje [I : J]

                Cough

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Usnea strigosa (Ach.) Eaton

                WL063

                Parmeliaceae

                Oleazu [Ki : A]

                Headache

                A

                Concoction

                O

                Vaccinium sp. [13], [14]*, [21]*, [15]*

                RJ019

                Ericaceae

                Yopengchale [I : J]

                Strong cough, asthma/dyspnea, fertility, stop menstruation

                L

                Fresh

                O

                Zingiber officinale Roscoe [810, 16, 22, 26, 30]

                RJ059

                Zingiberaceae

                Imate [I : J]

                Sore throat / Magical

                Rhizome

                Concoction

                O

                Zingiber officinale Roscoe [810, 16, 22, 26, 30]

                WL073

                Zingiberaceae

                Atu [K : NI (E)]

                Common Ingredient

                R

                Concoction

                Many

                Languages: Gahuku – G; Siane – S; Bena – B ; Ipma-Baruya Language – I ;Fore – F ; Keyagana – K ;Kimi = Ki ; Unknown – U.

                Villages: Amusa - A; Ande - AD; Aniruvi - AN; Egera-Haga - E; Ginipauka - G; Jomuru -J; Kimi - K; Kam'mwa - KA; Kamiyovindi-Tunuku - KT; Masiga - M; Mala and Boiko M-B; Numurapoka - N; Niruvi - NI; Orumba - O; Sekagu -S; Unknown - U; Wauko - W; Yawanita Haya -Y.

                Route: Oral – O ; External – E; D – direct on tooth; I - Inhaled.

                Plant parts: Aerial parts – A; Bark – B; Flowers – F;; Leaves – L; Tubers – T; Root – R; Vine – V; Whole – W; young – y.

                Medicinal preparation: Fresh – F.

                *** now known as Osmoxylon eminens (W.Bull) Philipson.

                A * following a reference number indicates no reference to medicinal use of the plant was made in the cited source.

                Plant parts utilized, preparation and administration

                Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed (Figure 2). This was followed by bark and stems as the next most likely plant parts to be used. Exceptions to this rule were the reports from Gahuku and Siane language groups where stems and flowers were reported to be used more frequently than bark. The mixture of two or more ingredients is the most common mode of preparation recorded in the Eastern Highlands, except for the Gahuku and Marawaka regions where the consumption of fresh material or fresh succus (expressed juice) was reported as more common (Figure 3). Also reported was the occasional practice of the storage and consumption of dried medicinal plants. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral consumption of medicinal plants was the most common administration practice recorded (Figure 4). Topical application was the second most widely practiced mode of administration.
                http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1746-4269-8-47/MediaObjects/13002_2012_299_Fig2_HTML.jpg
                Figure 2

                The plant parts used for traditional medicines in the Eastern Highlands by study area.

                http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1746-4269-8-47/MediaObjects/13002_2012_299_Fig3_HTML.jpg
                Figure 3

                Methods of preparation of medicinal plants prevalent in the Eastern Highlands region of PNG. (The use of a plant as a wrapper/container to prepare medicines may not imply medicinal action by itself).

                http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1746-4269-8-47/MediaObjects/13002_2012_299_Fig4_HTML.jpg
                Figure 4

                Route of consumption of medicinal plants and preparations by frequency of use or mode. Note: For reasons of clarity the language groups have been folded into LLGs (Unggai-Bena LLG for Bena, Gahuku and Siane languages; Okapa LLG for Fore, Kimi and Keyagana languages and Obura-Wonenara LLG for Ipma-Baruya language).

                Commonly used plant species among healers that were interviewed

                Ascarina philippinensis is a fairly widespread tree in the PNG highlands [33]. Reports of its medicinal use are uncommon, although its use in ritual food preparation (“kirai” in the Chimbu region of the highlands) for which health promotion is a component of the ceremony, has been reported [21]. A concoction incorporating leaves of Ascarina philippinensis is used by the Fore to treat "poison", however in Marawaka the fresh leaves and fruit are used to treat high fevers and weight loss. In both areas the preparations are consumed with other ingredients, in the Fore area after heating.

                Bidens pilosa is a medicinal plant used widely in PNG, often applied topically for sores and boils. The freshly squeezed succus from leaves of Bidens pilosa is utilized by the Keyagana group to treat sores and wounds, in the Marawaka area the succus of leaves and shoots is used for the same conditions. In both areas the application method is topical. B. pilosa is a common weed widely distributed from low altitudes to over 2,000 m in Papua New Guinea [16]. An additional recorded use is the use of fresh leaves, gently heated, and placed over the affected eye to treat red or sore eyes [9, 16].

                Crassocephalum crepidioides, is widespread in subtropical and tropical areas around the World. Succus from fresh leaves is used in the Gahaku areas for fresh cuts and wounds, in the Kayagana group the leaves are heated and then succus is used for sores and wounds. In both cases application is topical. Leaves and petioles have been reported to be heated and crushed and applied to sores in the Mt. Hagen area of the highlands [13], and the application of crushed leaves to sores was reported by Holdsworth from Goodenough Island [9]. Crassocephalum crepidioides is widespread in subtropical and tropical areas around the world. Antimalarial and antimicrobial dihydroisocoumarin compounds have been isolated from an endophytic Geotrichum sp. fungus of this plant [34], although there is no evidence that the coumarin compounds contribute to the putative medicinal properties of this plant.

                Gahaku-speaking people cook chopped leaves and fruit of Ficus pungens and use them to treat "shivering hands and feet", while in Marawaka liquid extract from fresh leaves is used to treat thrush (oral candidaiasis). In both cases the traditional medicines are consumed orally. Ficus pungens is common throughout the lowlands of Papua New Guinea [33] and there are many reports of its medicinal use in PNG [9, 10, 13, 14, 16]. Its use for coughs has been repeatedly reported; e.g., in Holdsworth [9] coughs are treated in the Sepik by swallowing sap obtained from the root. Also, the leaves of Ficus pungens are crushed together with the leaves of a species of Mallotus, and mixed with water and consumed to relieve a bad cough in Buka, Bougainville [9]. A solution made from crushed and squeezed bark is taken orally for a week for treatment of asthma [16]. Other reported uses include: in the previous Northern District of PNG, leaves were heated over a fire and applied topically to alleviate body pains [13, 35]. Also, the Traditional Medicine Database records the use of fresh leaves in the treatment of inguinal hernia (swelling of testicles) by brushing the leaves upwards against the testicles [16]. The application of leaves to sores was also reported by Telban [10].

                Both Oxalis corniculata and Plantago major are used in Bena and Gahaku speaking communities. In Bena areas Oxalis corniculata is cooked with pig meat and eaten to treat painful menses, while in Gahaku areas its fresh fruit and flowers, as well as freshly squeezed succus, are recorded as consumed orally to relieve labor pains. Oxalis corniculata is found everywhere in Papua New Guinea, but most commonly in the Highlands [33]. Traditional uses include pulping of the whole plant to extract sap that is drunk to treat syphilis and prostate cancer [16]. To treat burns, the whole plant is crushed, chewed and spat onto the burn [9].

                According to Zubair [36], “Plantago major (common plantain) has been used in folk medicine all over the world, mainly for the healing of wounds.” We have found reports of its medicinal use in PNG are uncommon, however. Plantago major is cooked whole in Bena areas and consumed orally as treatment for diarrhea, while in Gahaku areas leaves and succus from stems are reported to be applied topically to treat deep wounds.

                Zingiber officinale is found in many preparations in Kaygana speaking areas where the rhizome is used as an additive to improve taste and texture of medicinal preparations; however in Marawaka it is used in a concoction to treat sore throat and for magical purposes. Zingiber is grown as a culinary and ornamental plant [16]. It is widely used for a plethora of indications too numerous to list here e.g., [810, 16, 21, 22, 26, 30].

                Lesser known medicinal plant species of PNG

                It is frequently the case in reports such as this that it is not always possible to find references for medicinal use in PNG for all the species listed. Plants identified to the species level reported here, but not found listed as medicinal in the PNG literature we reviewed, include: Begonia rex, which is consumed orally for boils and sores, including tropical ulcers, in the Ipma-Baruya language area. There are several Begonia species reported as used medicinally in PNG [9, 10, 13, 14, 20, 2224], but not B. rex. So far as we can tell the species Begonia rex has only been reported from West Papua to this point [33]. Likewise, there are records of Calycacanthus magnusianus in PNG [33], but not of its medicinal use. This is also the case for other plants listed in this report: Ascarina philippinensis; Chionanthus ramiflorus; the lichen Cladonia scabriuscula; Decaspermum bracteatum; Dianella ensifolia; Eustrephus latifolius; Gordonia papuana; Kibara katikii; Litsea exsudens; Ludwigia hyssopifolia; Ludwigia octovalvis; Melastoma malabathricum; Ophiorrhiza nervosa; Pittosporum sinuatum; Selaginella emmeliana*, a spike moss; Sigesbeckia orientalis; Timonius belensis and Usnea strigosa*; (* Known to exist in PNG, personal communication, Prof. Robert Johns, Botanical Research Institute of Texas, New Guinea Research Program).

                Leaves of Boerlagiodendron eminens, also known as Osmoxylon eminens, were recorded in Sekagu village, Bena speaking area, to be cut and eaten to suppress sexual desire in men. This plant is not listed in the PNG Plants database [33] and maybe a unique record. Blackwood [22] reported leaves from a Boerlagiodendron sp. to be eaten by the Kukukuku people of the Highlands. Other lesser known medicinal plants in this report that are not represented in PNG Plants database [33] include Dendrocnide interrupta (Fleurya interrupta); Polyscias filicifolia; Sambucus javanica; and Sanchezia nobilis var. glaucophylla. We assume that Sanchezia is likely recently introduced as an ornamental species.

                Conclusions

                As described by Feil [37], “Highlanders may inhabit similar altitudes but within this range there are distinct sub regions…” The Eastern Highlands are relatively drier and historically became heavily populated later than the wetter western regions. The contemporary cultural and botanical diversity of the Eastern Highlands, the continued reliance on medicinal plants in rural communities there, and the innovation and experimentation of the practitioners, combine to yield a rich and dynamic area for study. While many traditional practitioners continue to treat symptoms attributed to “witchcraft”, modern perceptions of disease etiology are penetrating even remote villages, resulting in mixed rationales for giving treatments that reflect these changes in understanding.

                Several of the species reported here are used in the Eastern Highlands but not frequently reported in the literature for medicinal use elsewhere in PNG. These include both plants that are known to be widely distributed in PNG (e.g., Ascarina philippinensis and Calycacanthus magnusianus) and also those that are not known to be widely distributed in PNG (e.g., Boerlagiodendron eminens and Aristolochia indica). The medicinal use of those plants that are localized geographically might reflect potent activity accessible only to those fortunate enough to live there, while the unique use of widely distributed plants might reflect either the local discovery of a useful property, or experimentation of local healers in plant use – practices perhaps not yet spread to or reproduced elsewhere in PNG. In any case, efforts to validate the utility of PNG medicinal plants cannot completely skirt these issues. Subjecting traditional plant preparations to laboratory testing can demonstrate specific bioactivities that may help validate the traditional use, but unfortunately, it is beyond the capacity of the PNG Department of Health or the University system to test for all the bioactivities represented in the wide range of plant uses recorded by the surveys. In these circumstances, the consistent use of a particular plant for specific indication by a large number of healers, across a wide range of ethnic traditions, is notable and may support the notion of a particular herbal remedy’s efficacy.

                The effort to document and validate medicinal plant use in PNG is part of a larger strategy that is under way to meet the health care needs of citizens of PNG. As described by Waruruai et al. [8], the Traditional Medicines survey project complements other programs supported by the PNG Ministry of Health to promote the use of efficacious herbal remedies in underserved communities. Traditional healer associations have already been established in several provinces and basic manuals on diagnosis and plant use have been drafted. The aim is to promote integrated medical treatment options in an approach to health care that combines effective and accessible traditional practices with Western protocols (when available). The medicinal plant surveys reported here are the product of collaboration amongst the faculty at UPNG and the University of Utah, with support provided by the Fogarty International Center of the NIH, USA [38], and the PNG Ministry of Health. The Traditional Medicines survey project utilizes a university training tutorial as one component of a larger strategy aimed at providing improved health care options to a burgeoning population.

                Declarations

                Acknowledgements

                The student reports accessed for the information in this manuscript are titled: “Documentation and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine Practices in Marawaka area of Eastern Highlands Province”, 2005, by Ronald Y. Jorim; “Documentation and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine Practices in the Keyagana, Fore and Kimi Constituencies of Okapa, Eastern Highlands Province”, 2006, by Wauwa Legu, and “Traditional Medicine Practices in the Unggai-Bena LLG Eastern Highlands Province”, 2010, by Seva Korape. We gratefully acknowledge contributions and sharing of the Siane speaking people of Ginipauka and Orumba villages, the Gahuku speaking people of Orumba, Numurapoka, Ginipauka, Masiga and Numurapoka vilages, the Bena speaking people of Sekagu village, the Ipma-Baruya language people of Jomuru, Mala, Boiko, Wauko, Ande, Gawol, Kwaksiolo and Kam'mwa villages and Marakawa station, the Keyagana speaking people of the Egera-Haga, Yavanita Haya, Aniruvi (Haga), Amusa, Aniruvi (Egera-Haga) and Niruvi (Egera-Haga) villages, the Fore speaking people of the Yavanita Haya, Kamiyovindi-Tunuku, and Egera-Haga villages and the Kimi speaking people of the Amusa and Kimi villages. Without their invaluable input this publication would not be possible. We wish to thank Professor Robert Johns, Head New Guinea Program, Botanical Research Institute of Texas, for input on plant identification while visiting the UPNG herbarium, and Robin L. Hyde, Visiting Fellow, Department of Anthropology and Resource Management, ANU College of Asia & the Pacific, for providing personal notes, many useful references on medicinal and other plant use in PNG, and helpful suggestions concerning the presentation of these studies. We also acknowledge UPNG and FRI Herbarium staff for assistance in identification of medicinal plant vouchers. This work was funded by US NIH support through the Fogarty International Center, ICBG 5UO1T006671. Dr. Rai, Dr. Matainaho and students were also supported by the National Department of Health, Papua New Guinea and the University of Papua New Guinea.

                Authors’ Affiliations

                (1)
                School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea
                (2)
                Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah

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                © Jorim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​2.​0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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