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Table 4 Examples of how information provided by fishers can be used to manage seahorses and their habitats in Brazil

From: Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

Objective Information provided by fishers
Identify threats to seahorses populations
Determine those populations targetted by fisheries, the incidental capture in fisheries, and other sources of mortality
Population declines through overharvesting and bycatch; habitat damage.
Identify and document useful practices for maintaining seahorses in captivity (live trade) Keeping seahorses in the wild until selling the specimens
Identify economic incentives that threaten seahorse wild populations Brooding seahorses are captured because they are accepted by buyers;
No control of seahorses caught as bycatch in commercial nets; specimens enter the dried trade
Reduce to the greatest extent practicable the incidental capture and mortality of seahorses in nets through the development of spatial and seasonal closures Fishers detain a broad knowledge of seahorses' habitats and main areas of occurrence.
Establish necessary measures to protect and conserve seahorse habitats, through the identification of areas of critical habitat. Fishers detain a broad knowledge of seahorses' habitats and main areas of occurrence, and of possible migrations
Gather information on seahorse populations and their habitats
Initiate and/or continue long-term monitoring of priority seahorse populations
Fishers' knowledge on seahorses' habitat use, colour patterns and skin filaments can be used to monitor seahorse populations, and to better delimit seahorse populations from a taxonomic viewpoint.