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Table 1 The usages of tar in the study area and from literatures in Turkey

From: Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey

Kind of usages Usages in the study area/application type* Usages in Turkey/application type*/[Literature]
Ethnomedicinal (for human and animal) usages - To cure Osteomyelitis/Ext. -Antiseptic in both the respiratory and urinary tracts, dermatological diseases/Int., Ext./ [6]
-Ear infection (otalgia)/Ext.
-Skin wounds/Ext. -Treatments for skin conditions, asthma, wounds, bronchitis, the common cold and cough/Ext., Int., Inf./ [18]
-Acne/Ext. -Eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, mange and psoriasis/Ext./ [24]
-Fungus/Ext. -Common cold, diaphoretic, skin softener, pain reliever and muscle relaxant/Ext./ [26]
-To treat skin diseases such as mange on goats and sheep/Ext.
-Foot-and-mouth disease of sheep and goats/Ext., Int. -Antiseptic on dermatologic lesions and as a topical antifungal on the skin. Respiratory tract and urinary tract diseases/Ext., Int./ [27]
-Viral infections/Int., Ext. -Oral antiseptic and for covering wounds/Int., Ext./ [28]
-To protect the digestive system from endoparasites/Int.
-To cure wounds inflicted by wolves/Ext. -To treat stomachaches in children and cracked hands and feet during the winter and for calluses/Int., Ext./ [29]
-Rolling into the feet to kill the bacteria Mycoplasma agalactiae causing a reduction in goat’s milk/Ext. -To treat ulcers, ectodermal parasites, wounds, cuts, bruises, asthma and upper respiratory disease/Int., Ext./ [16, 31]
-To cure wounds, scars and purple spots created by Tabanus bovinus/Ext. -To kill the bacteria Mycoplasma agalactiae causes a reduction in goat’s milk/Ext./ [26, 32]
-To cure for fluke disease in sheep/Int./ [33]
-To kill the Varroa destructor parasite/Inf./ [34]
Technical -To prevent water leaks from wooden roofs/Ext. -Coating on wooden products for houses and stables/Ext./ [16]
-On boats, ships, and ropes as waterproofing and protection against fungi and aquatic animals/Ext./ [20]
Repellent or insecticide -Acts as a snake and rodent repellant/Inf. -To repell ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, and horseflies, snake, mice, spides, and scorpion/Ext., Inf./ [16]
  1. *Ext.: External, Int.: Internal, Inf.: Infusion.