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Table 3 Plants used to treat different diseases/conditions and how they are used

From: Ethnopharmacological practices by livestock farmers in Uganda: Survey experiences from Mpigi and Gulu districts

Relative availability*; IUCN statusa Voucher number Family Species and common name*** Vernacular name (Luganda, Acholi) Habit; part used**** Preparation method (Amounts vary with species and age of animal)
Disease/condition: Helminthosis in all livestock and poultry
Common weed, invasive: +++; NE NI 039 Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. Klotzsch & Garcke (Milk weed) Kisandasanda H; L - Boil leaves and drench (too much causes diarrhoea)
Rare weed by road sides: +; NE NI 002 Caesalpinaceae Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Stinking weed) Muttanjoka; Ayila S; L, R - Pound roots, add water and rock salt then drench
- Crush fresh leaves, or use dried powder, add water and drench
Ubiquitous, easily located: ++; NE NI 003 Asteraceae Vernonia amygdalina Delile Kuntzea (Bitter leaf) Mululuza; Labwori S; L, R, B - Crush fresh leaves, add water and drench
- Boil roots with water and give to drink
- Give animal that has just delivered fresh leaves to eat
Rare due to restrictions: +; NE NI 036 Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa (Lam.) E. Small & Cronquist b (Hemp, Marijuana) Njaga; Lakera H; L, S - Crush fresh leaves or add dried powder and mix with water
- Crush, mix with water and crude lake salt and give to drink
Wild, some grow it: ++; NE; APP II* NI 038 Xanthorrhoeaceae Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f (Babados aloe) Kigaji H; L - Slice and boil the leaves and give to drink
- Slice fresh leaves and add to feeds
Commonly grown for sale: +++; NE NI 021 Solanaceae Nicotiana tabacum L. (Tobacco)c,d Taaba; Muvuavui H; L - Crush leaves and mix with water then drench
- Boil dried leaves, leave to cool and drench
Commonly eaten in households: +++; NE NI 040 Solanaceae Capsicum annuum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill Kamulali; Obolo H; L, Fr - Crush fruits or leaves, mix with ash and water then drench
- Crush fruits or leaves and mix with tobacco or cannabis and ash then drench
Common fruit: +++; VU NI 037 Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Linn. (Pawpaw) Papaali; Owak T; R, S - Roots crushed, boiled with water and little paraffin, then drench
- Dried seeds crushed and boiled with water, then drench
Ubiquitous: ++; NE NI 005 Lamiaceae Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Ginger-bush) Kyewamala; Omwombyer S; L - Crush leaves, mix with water and give to drink - Crush leaves and put on the wound
- Drench with decoction before calf suckles (ECF)
Ubiquitous by roadsides: +++; NE NI 001 Caesalpinaceae Senna hirsuta (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Stinking cassia) Gasia; Coga macon S; L - Boil dry leaves with little rock salt and drench or crush fresh leaves and drench.
- Cut and give the animals as fodder
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 004 Leguminosae Tephrosia vogelii Hook f. (Fish-poison bean) Muluku; Kineke S; L - Crush fresh leaves and drench
- Boil dried leaves, cool and drench
Cultivated: ++; NE NI 032 Euphorbiaceae Jatropha curcas Linn. McVaugh (Purging nut) Kiloowa; Olwiro S; L, Fr - Crush fresh leaves and fruits then drench
- Crush leaves and put on the wound
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 033 Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis Linn. (Castor oil) Nsogasoga; Laliya S; L, S - Decoction by boiling leaves and crushed seeds; cooling and drenching
Wildy growing or planted: ++; NE NI 006 Meliaceae Azadirachta indica Linn. A. Juss. (Neem tree) Niimu; Nyakanyaka T; L - Crush fresh leaves and drench
- Crush fruits, boil them, cool and drench
Rare herb: +; NE NI 031 Leguminosae –Papilionoideae Pseudarthria confertiflora (A. Rich.) Baker Kikakala H; L, B - Boil leaves or bark for one hour, cool and drench
Common weed, invasive: +++; NE NI 027 Poaceae Digitaria abyssinica (A. Rich.) Stapf (Couch grass) Lumbugu; Coga macon G; L, R - Boil leaves and roots, cool then drench
Wildly growing, rare: +; NE NI 034 Caesalpinaceae Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Peanut butter cassia) Mukyula; Lakera/Lurogo T; L - Boil leaves, mixed with Senna occidentalis and drench
- Crush fresh leaves, mix with water and spray on skin (ectoparasites)
Grown in some homes: ++; NE NI 007 Moringaceae Moringa oleifera Lam. (Horseradish tree) Moringa S; L, Fr - Crush fresh leaves, add ash and red pepper then drench
- Boil dried leaves then cool and drench
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 026 Papilionoideae Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC.e (Flame tree) Jirikiti; Lucoro T; B - Pound the bark and leave to dry. Soak 3 handfuls of pounded dried bark in water (2 hours) and drench 1 cow or 2 goats.
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 028 Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca dodecandra L'Her. (Endod) Luwoko; Olango H; L, Fr - Infusion of the leaves, fruits then drench
Disease/ condition – African Swine Fever
Practice 1     Human urine N/A - Collect, add ash and ethanol, give orally
Disease/ condition - New Castle Disease
Practice 2     Human urine N/A - Mix with ash and rock salt, give to drink
In homes: ++; NE NI 008 Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens L. Kuntze (Red pepper) Kamulali; Pilipili H; L, Fr - Add ash + water to freshly squeezed leaves then drench
- Mix with Cannabis sativa, sisal (Agave sisalana) juice and ash then drench
- Mix with Aloe spp (Flower and leaf)+ Opium.
Disease/condition: Bovine Ephemeral Fever
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 022 Acanthaceae Acanthus pubescens (Thomson ex Oliv.) Engl. (Grey goddess) Amatovu; Achika S; L - Beat the legs with ends of the leaves until animal stands
Wildly growing: +; NE NI 016 Vitaceae Cyphostemma adenocaule Descoings. ex Wild & R. B. Drumm. (None specified) Kibombo; Ogali H; L - Crush leaves, add ash and drench
In grazing lands: ++; NE NI 018 Asteraceae Albizia anthelmintica Brongn (Cherry-blossom tree) Mweramanyo; Owak T; L, B - Decoction from leaves and bark then drench
Common weed: ++; NE NI 029 Lamiaceae Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br. (Sun-bird flower) Kifumufumu; Okwero/ Achika H; L - Drench with warm decoction twice daily for three days
Practice 3      N/A -Drench with decoction from boiled grass hoppers
Disease/condition: Constipation
Rare herb: +; NE NI 035 Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria sphaerica (Sond.) Naudin (Wild calabash) Kifuula; Lango H; L - Drench of decoction made by boiling leaves, adding little rock salt and cow ghee
Practice 4     Cooking oil N/A Use large bore tube e.g. horse pipe to give orally
Practice 5     Omo liquid/very soapy water N/A Give animal to drink
Disease/condition: Theileriosis/ East Coast Fever
In grazing lands: +; NE, APP II* NI 009 Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia candelabrum Tremaux ex Kotschy (Toothbrush tree) Enkukuulu; Acak-Acak T; La - Break and drop sap onto the lymph node or wound
- Decoction drench removes afterbirth
Around paddocks: ++; LC NI 010 Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia tirucalli L. Klotzsch & Garcke (Pencil tree) Lukoni, Labuka S; La - Break the leaves and put sap on the lymph nodes or wounds
Rare, in grazing lands: +; NE NI 025 Lamiaceae Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst.) Moldenke Butterfly weed Mukuzanyana; Okwero S; R - Pounded roots put in boiling water for one hour, cooled then drench
- Same to treat Bovine Ephemeral Fever
- Same for helminthosis
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 030 Asteraceae Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze (Secondary bush) Akafugankande S; L, R - Decoction of the roots then drench to relieve respiratory distress in ECF
Wildly growing: +; NE NI 012 Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia umbellata (Pax) Bruyns (African milk bush) Kafumba H; L, Fl - Break leaf and put sap on lymph node; irritate and dry the skin
Condition - Lice, fleas, mites, mange and wounds
Commonly grown: +++; NE NI 020 Poaceae Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Sorghum) - Fermentation residue Muwemba; Any wagi - Enkanja G; S - Mix crushed fruits with roots of Cyphostemma adenocaule and apply on wound
- Smear on the skin
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 023 Cucurbitaceae Momordica foetida Schumach. (Snake food) Bombo; Bomo H; L - Water extraction of the leaves, drench
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 015 Lamiaceae Hoslundia opposita Vahl (White-tipped hemizygia) Kamunye; Odwongo S; L, Fl - Decoction applied daily externally with pressure on the wound for a week or more
Practice 6     Methylated Spirit N/A - Apply topically on wounds
Practice 7     Soapy water   - Add OMOR and wash the skin
Disease/condition: Parturition failure
Grown food: +++; NE NI 013 Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam (Sweet potato) Amalagala; Maku H; L - Give animal the vines to eat
- Crush leaves without water and smear on the vulva
Disease/condition: Retained placenta
Grazing land weed: ++; NE NI 014 Poaceae Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf (Jaragua grass) Ajuu G; R - Remove roots from stump, boil for one hour, cool and drench animal
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 019 Anacardiaceae Rhus natalensis Bernh. ex Krauss (Red cape beech) Kakwansokwanso; Atakarach H; L; Fr - Fresh fruits and leaves are crushed and mixed with water, sieved and drenched
Rare, in forests: +; NE NI 024 Ebeneceae Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F. White (African ebony) Mpojwa T; L, Fr - Leaves and dried fruits are crushed and a decoction is drenched
Ubiquitous wildly growing: +++; NE NI 011 Solanaceae Solanum incanum (L.) Kuntze (Sodom apple)f Entengotengo; Ocuga H; L, Fr - Smear crushed fresh fruit around the vulva
- Squeeze sap from burnt fruit to wound
Wildly growing: ++; NE NI 017 Solanaceae Solanum aculeastrum Dunal (C. H. Wright) Bitter (Thorny apple) Kikutizangalabi S; Fr - Squeeze fruits in water or milk then given orally as drench (cough)
- Heat ripe fruits and smear on the vulva
  1. *Availability of the plants varies; + Rare or endangered; ++ Available but not common; +++ Ubiquitous and quite common.
  2. **Month and year indicated for collection date.
  3. ***One commonly used English name; some have many while others have none as indicated in the table.
  4. ****Habit: G: Grass; H: herb; Li: Liana; S: shrub; T: tree.
  5. Plant parts: B - Bark; L - Leaves; La - Latex; Fl - Flowers; Fr - Fruits; R - Roots; S - Seeds.
  6. aBoil leaves or crush fresh leaves then drench; also used for stomach ache and fever in People or animals.
  7. bUsed on wounds, spray to prevent mites.
  8. cCrush and mix with water then spray animal to treat ectoparasites.
  9. dCrush and boil leaves – drench treats uterine prolapse; decoction also treats cattle skin diseases including mange.
  10. eAlso for estrus induction (bring animal to heat) and smear on the wounds for wound healing.
  11. fAlso treats theileriosis and wounds.
  12. Legend Table 3:
  13. A summary of 40 plants and seven practices used in treatment of livestock and chicken diseases in Gulu and Mpigi districts. Details of preparation, plant part used, conservation/biodiversity status, common English, Acholi and Luganda names are provided. Twenty plants were used to treat helminthosis; wounds and ectoparasites (8), Theileriosis (6), retained placenta (5), Bovine Ephemeral Fever (4), and one each for Newcastle disease, uterine prolapse, constipation and retained placenta.