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Table 1 Mammals parts used and reasons

From: Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon

Animal Part used Use(s) and use method(s) Reason(s)
Peter’s duiker Cephalophus callipygus Teeth3 - Design necklaces For prestige
Skin2,3 - Making of drums Durable, produces the desired sound, easily malleable and it is an inherited practice from the elders. Also, the skin is not good for consumption.
- Decorating houses of Ekpe society members during liberation ceremonies Traditional inherited practice
Meat1 - Consumed by pregnant women for blood regeneration For better development of the foetus
African forest buffalo Syncerus caffer Horn1,2,3 (Figure 6) - Musical instrument Announcing bad news
- For drinking wine (traditional cup) (see also [48]) Has the shape of a cup
- Sold to Nigerians For money
- Design necklaces Traditional inherited practice
Skull3 - Decoration Traditional inherited practice
Bones1,4 - Used by sorcerers Not revealed
- Treats goiter: grind the bones and mix with palm kernel oil (manyanga) and apply on goiter locally called “nkongho illness” Medicinal
Limbs1 - Treats abscesses: mix with oil palm and apply on abscess Medicinal
Skin2,3 - Making of drums Resistant
- Decoration Shows hierarchy between members of the Ekpe society
Meat1 - Consumed Believed to treat goiter patients
Yellow back duiker Cephalophus sylvicultor Skin1 - Treat skin inflammations: apply on swollen parts Medicinal
Bay duiker Cephalophus dorsalis Skin2,3 - Decorate the seat of the chief of Ekpe society Denotes hierarchy
- Making of drums Resistant
Blue duiker Cephalophus monticola Skull1,3 - Sold to Nigerians and used to design necklaces For money
Jaws1 - Treats tooth ache and intestinal worm problems: burn, grind and mix with leaves of Aframomum melegueta locally called “alakata pepper” Medicinal
Bones1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Skin2 - Making of drums (Figure 7) Elastic, easily malleable, has little or no fats, light, durable and resistant
- Decorate the seat of the chief of Ekpe society Denotes hierarchy
Hoofs1 - For purging children Renders the child strong and active
Meat1,4 - For liberation ceremonies: cook with plantains Musa sp.; and/or cassava Manihot esculenta and given to ancestors Considered as a dead animal and can link the living to the dead
- Marriage ceremonies: cook with plantains Traditional inherited practice
- Consume during death and traditional dance ceremonies Easily hunted
Ogilby’s duiker Cephalophus ogilbyi Horn, tail limbs, Skull and hoofs1,3 - Sold to Nigerians For money
- Decoration Traditional inherited practice
Skull1 - Treats frontal headache: burn, grind and apply on the forehead Medicinal
Oil from the bones1 - Treats inflammations: apply on swollen parts Medicinal
Jaws1 - Treats toothache and intestinal worms: burn, grind and mix with Aframomum melegueta and consume Medicinal
Bones1,2 - Musical instrument: used together with the shell of tortoise The bones are big
- Sold to Nigerians For money
Skin2 - Making of drums Produces a good and desired sound, durable, light and elastic. Has no fats and the skin is not good for consumption
Meat4 - For liberation, marriage and death ceremonies to appease and communicate with ancestors: during such ceremonies, it is cooked with plantains. During incantations, part of the meal is poured on the ground (around graves, sacred sites) together with palm wine (Raphia sp.;), oil palm, water, tobacco, cola nuts (Cola acuminate) and coins It is considered as the incarnation of dead people and can act as a mean of communication between the living and the spirits of deaths. It is also used because goats are scarce and very expensive
Red-capped mangabey Cercocebus torquatus Skull1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Head1 - Treats tuberculosis: burn, grind and mix with oil palm and consume Medicinal
Hammered bat Hypsignathus monstrosus Fur1 - Treats burns: plaster on the burned parts Medicinal
Water chevrotain Hyemoschus aquaticus Limbs1 - Sold to Nigerians and to tradi-practitioners For money
Meat4 - Most used during ceremonies: cook in meals Traditional inherited practice
Bones of limbs1 - Treats fractures: apply on fractures of the legs Medicinal
Skin2 - Making of drums Resistant and produces the desired sound
Veins of limbs1 - Treats paralyses: mix with roots of Aframomum melegueta. The paste produced is applied on cuts made on the body using the teeth of viper Medicinal
Meat4 - Liberation ceremonies: cooked with Ogilby’s duiker and other medicines. During incantations, part of the meal is poured on the ground around graves, sacred sites Traditional inherited practice
Ellioti chimpanzee Pan troglodytes Skull, bones and limbs1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
- Fortify men: grind and mix with Aframomum melegueta, and applied on cuts made on the body with a razor blade Believed to be a strong animal
Skull3 - Making of necklaces For money
Hands and limbs4 - Consume mainly by chiefs Not revealed
Bones1 - Consume by pregnant women Believed to be a strong animal
- Fortify man: grind and mix with Aframomum melegueta, water and leaves of Ageratum cornisoides and applied on body cuts Believed to be a strong animal
- Fortify children: purge by pregnant women and apply on body cuts made on children Believed to be a strong animal
Skin2 - Making of drums Resistant to stress
Meat4 - For death, marriage and cultural ceremonies: cook in meals Traditional inherited practice
African civet Civettictis civetta Anus1 - Treats convulsions: inhaled by children because of its pronounced odour Medicinal
Nails4 - Close two mystical of the four eyes of sorcerers: mix with Ageratum cornisoides and perform rituals Deliverance from evil
Limbs1 Ease walking of children: mix with herbs and purge into children Medicinal
Skin2,3,4 - Decoration: hang in houses of members of Ekpe society (Figure 8) Strong and prestigious animal and can be used in replacement of the skin of the leopard
Denotes hierarchy between the members of Ekpe society
- Making of drums Gives the desired sound since it is thick and resistant
- Used as a carpet by chiefs and elders Demonstrates hierarchy between members of Ekpe
- For initiation ceremonies and decoration of the chair of the chief of Ekpe Replaces the skin of the leopard
Fur1 - Treats convulsions: apply on the eyes of children with palm kernel oil Medicinal
Tail3 - Decoration Traditional inherited practice
Testes1 - Treats sexual weakness of men: grind and mix with leaves of «besug-etig» Medicinal
Preuss’s red colobus Procolobus preussi Skull1 - Treats cough/tuberculosis: burn, grind, mix with oil palm and consume Medicinal
- Sold to Nigerians For money
Bones1 - Renders man strong and active: grind and apply on cuts made on the skin Believed to be a strong animal
Bones of limbs1 - Fortify children: grind and mix with leaves (locally called «Njichondick» or blood leaves). The resulting solution is purged by pregnant women Believed to be a strong animal
Limbs and head1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Skin2 - Making of drums Resistant
Fur1 - Treats skin burns and dries fresh wounds: plaster on the burned part Medicinal
- Treats cough: mix with oil palm, Ageratum cornisoides and the coat of palm kernel fruits and consume Medicinal
Western tree hyrax Dendrohyrax dorsalis Skin2 - Making of drums Light and easily malleable
Drill Mandrillus leucophaeus Skull and limbs1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Teeth3 - Making necklaces For prestige
Bones1,2 - For drumming Traditional inherited practice
- Treats fractures: tie around fractured hand or leg Medicinal
Skin2 - Making of drums Gives a good sound, resistant and thick
Flying squirrel Funisciurus sp.; Fur1 (Figure 9) Treats fire burns and dries fresh wounds: plaster on the burned part and wounds Medicinal
Tropical forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis Dung1 - Treats stomachache: consume Medicinal
  - Treats sterility in women: consume Medicinal
Hoofs1 - Treats elephantiasis: cut into seven parts, and burned then mixed with wood ash. The infected leg is cut using a razor blade and placed on the smoke produced by the fire in which the hoofs are being burned. This is done for seven days Medicinal
Tusks1,3,4 - Sold to Nigerians For money
- Making necklaces and jewelry For chiefs and elders
- Decoration For prestige
- Protection Traditional inherited practice
Bones1 - Treats waist pains: grind, mix with the bone marrow and apply on cuts made on the waist with a razor blade Medicinal
- Sold to Nigerians For money
Skin of the ear2 - Making of drums Solid, durable, resistant and elastic
Tail fur3 - Decorate the cap of chiefs For prestige
Meat4 - Liberation ceremonies Not revealed
Western gorilla Gorilla gorilla Skull and limb bones1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Right hand bones1,2 - Fortify man: grind and mix with palm oil then apply on cuts made on the body with a razor blade Believed to be a strong animal
- Fortify babies and children: grind and mix with seeds of Aframomum melegueta and used for purging pregnant women Believed to be a strong animal
- For drumming Traditional inherited practice
- Fortify children: massage of children Believed that the gorilla is a strong animal
Skin2 - Making of drums Produces quality sound
Meat1 - Fortify foetus: consume by pregnant women Believed to be a strong animal
Putty nosed Guenon Cercopithecus nictitans Skin2 - Making of drums Resistant, produces quality sound and it is elastic
Leopard Panthera pardus Teeth3,4 - Decoration Traditional inherited practice
- Protection: wear as necklaces by chiefs Traditional inherited practice
Limbs1 - Fortify foetus: grind and mix with cold water and ground roasted plantains. The resulting concoction is purged by pregnant women Believed to be a strong animal
Skin3 - Decoration of homes of Ekpe members Signifies prestige and denotes hierarchy between members of Ekpe society
- Dressing Hierarchy
- Making drums played only by Ekpe members Shows strength of the society and produces quality sound
- Sold to Nigerians and village chiefs For money
- As carpet and for decorating the chair of the chief of Ekpe society Traditional inherited practice
Marsh mongoose Atilax paludinosus Teeth1 - Treats snake bites: used as a blade to wound the bitten part before applying the remedy Medicinal tool
Mona guenon Cercopithecus mona Skull1 - Treats whooping cough: burn, grind and mix with oil palm and consume by children Medicinal
Bones4 - For charming: mix small pieces with roots of Mimosa invisa and put into the pocket. Then call the name of the desired person several times Traditional inherited practice
African palm civet Nandinia binotata Skin2 - Making of drums Produces quality sound
- Decoration: hang in the room of a dead member of the Ekpe society in substitution of the skin of a leopard (Figure 10) Denotes hierarchy between members of Ekpe
Tail4 - Tie on the hands of women (those who have been proposed marriage) during the ‘monenkim’ traditional dance (dance of women) (Figure 11) Traditional inherited practice
- As a scarecrow when drying cocoa For scaring birds and domestic animals
Fur1 - Treating fire burns: burn, grind and mix with leaves of Aframomum melegueta and apply on the burned part Medicinal
Head1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Pangolin Phataginus tricuspis/Uronamis tetradactyla Scales4 - Blade It is sharp
Skin2 - Making of drums Produces quality sound, not good for consumption
Meat4 - Seduction: very appreciated by women when cooked It is believed that the fat attracts women
Brushed-tailed porcupine Atherurus africanus Spines3,4 - Decorating the caps of members of Ekpe (Figure 12) Heritage and denotes hierarchy between members of Ekpe society
- Used as a fork It is pointed
Tail1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Meat1,4 - Gives respect between members in the Ekpe society: prepare and share with other members Traditional inherited practice
- Widely used in all ceremonies Abundant
Red-river hog Potamochoerus porcus Teeth3 - For making necklaces: it is traditionally called ‘masanga’ and is worn by chiefs (Figure 13) Tradition and prestige
Denotes hierarchy between members of Ekpe
Skin1,2 - Prevents miscarriage: boil and use the resulting concoction for purging pregnant women Medicinal
- Making of drums Solid
Head1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Potto Perodicticus potto Skull and hands1 - Fortify children and men: scrape and purge Believed to transmit its strength to children and men
Skull and limbs1 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Right hand and limb bone1 - Treats hernia: boil in water and mix with the bark of Okan Cylicodiscus gabonensis or burn, grind and mix with water and herbs locally called “Tsinabub” (Figure 14). The resulting concoction is purged by pregnant women and children Medicinal
- Strengthen children: burn, grind, mix with herbs locally called “Ntemaker” (Figure 15), “Njichondick or blood leaves” or “Osseleayong leaves” (Figure 16) and purge Believed to be a strong animal
- Strengthen man: burn, grind, cook with Aframomum melegueta and apply on cuts made on the body using a razor blade Believed to be a strong animal
- Promotes breast milk abundance and fortifies kids: cook and consume by women who have just given birth Medicinal
Skin2,3 - Decoration Shows the importance of the holder
- Making of drums Solid and produces desired sounds
Fur1 - Treat burns: plaster on the skin The wound dries rapidly
Monkeys Cercopithecus spp.; Skull2 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Limbs, head and young monkeys2 - Sold to Nigerians For money
Jaws1 - Treats toothache and intestinal worms: burn, grind and mix with Aframomum melegueta then consume Medicinal
Bones1,2 - Musical instrument: used by members of the Obhon society The bone is big
- Sold to Nigerians For money
- Renders men strong: grind and mix with water then purge Believed to be a strong animal
Skin2,4 - Making of drums Durable, produces quality sound, light, resistant and elastic
- Making of baby carriers Resistant
Meat4 - Cook during death, marriage and traditional ceremonies Traditional inherited practice
  1. Note: 1Animals with food, medicinal and sales values.
  2. 2Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy.
  3. 3Animals used in decoration and jewelry making.
  4. 4Magico-religious and multipurpose animals.