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Table 5 Reconstructed core inventory of Middle Eastern materia medicaInorganic

From: Ethno-diversity within current ethno-pharmacology as part of Israeli traditional medicine – A review

Name Main Uses
Alum General tonic, reduces liver size, disinfection
Citric acid Digestive aid
Galena Cosmetic, eye diseases
Lead Skin diseases, evil eye
Sulfur Fertility, skin diseases
Animals    
Scientific Name English Name Part or Product Main Uses
Apis mellifera L. Honey bee Wax & Honey Purgative, reduces eye inflammations, sore throat, burns, coughs
Physeter catodon L. Ambergris Secretion Reinforces potency, kidneys, and General
Scincus scincus L. Medical skink Dry body, Skin Fertility of men and women
Sepia officinalis L. Cuttle fish Skeleton Skin diseases, mania
Plants    
Scientific Name English Name Part or Product Main Uses
Aloe vera L. Aloe Juice Skin diseases, heals wounds, purgative
Alpinia galanga willd. Galingale Root Cleans digestive system, reproductive system problems
Artemisia herba-alba Asso. Wormwood Foliage Asthma, sore throat
Boswellia carteri Birdw. Frankincense Resin Flatulence, heart diseases, general tonic
Cassia acutifolia Delile. Senna Leaf Purgative
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Cinnamon Bark Cleans the female genital system after childbirth
Coriandrum sativum L. Coriander Seed Reduces sugar, stomachache
Crocus sativus L. Saffron Stigma Sore throat, blood pressure
Cuminum cyminum L. Cumin Seed Flatulence
Curcuma longa L. Turmeric Root Disinfects sores
Elettaria cardamomum White & Maton Cardamom Fruit Blood sugar, stomach acidity
Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb. Clove Flower Local anesthetic, general remedy
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel Seed Stomachache, intestinal diseases
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Liquorice Root Heartburn, coughs, blood cleansing
Laurus nobilis L. Laurel Leaf Arthritis, sugar in blood
Lawsonia inermis L. Henna Leaf Wound healing, hemorrhages, fungi
Lepidium sativum L. Garden-cress Seed Stomachache, hair strengthening, aphrodisiac
Linum usitatissimum L. Flax Seed Hormonal regulation, calcium supplementation
Matricaria aurea Boiss. Chamomile Flower Respiratory canals, stomachache
Mentha spicata L. Mint Branch Flatulence, acidity neutralization
Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nutmeg, mace Seeds and fruit peels Intoxicant, aphrodisiac, painkiller
Nigella sativa L. Black cumin Seed Dizziness, sugar in blood
Olea europaea L. Olive tree Oil Skin diseases, many medications
Peganum harmala L. Syrian rue Seed Tonic, heart diseases, sugar in blood
Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. Parsley Seed Kidney stones, impotence
Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Pimento Fruit Stomachache, flatulence
Pimpinella anisum L. Anise Seed Stomachache, aphrodisiac
Pinus pinea L. Stone-pine Seed Tonic
Piper nigrum L. White pepper Fruit Coughs, reinforces stomach
Pistacia lentiscus L. Mastic tree Resin Heartburn, soothes stomach
Prunus mahaleb L. Perfumed cherry Seed Digestive system, children's pains, flatulence
Rhus coriaria L. Tanning sumach Fruit Perspiration stimulant, diarrhea, cholesterol reduction
Rosa sp. Rose Water, flowers, fruits Perfume production, cleanses facial skin
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rosemary Foliage Kidney stones, sugar in blood
Saccharum officinarum L. Sugar cane Juice Tranquilizer, tonic, respiratory canals
Salvia fruticosa L. Sage Leaf Hemorrhages, intestinal diseases and pains
Sinapis alba L. Mustard Seed Pains and infections
Tamarindus indica L. Indian date Fruit Cleanses blood and stimulates circulation
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek Seed Sugar reduction, diuretic
Zingiber officinale Rosc. Ginger Root Flatulence, digestive system, impotence