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Table 1 Characteristic features of the buffer zone villages situated along an elevational gradient in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.

From: Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

Parameter Lower Middle Higher
Altitude (m) 1900–2400 2400–2800 2800–3600
Transhumance Not practiced Practiced (short migration) Practiced
Cropping pattern 3 crops per 2 years 3 crops per 2 years 1 crop per year
Distance from NDBR core zone (km) 5–8 3–4 <1.2
Main occupation Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture
Subsidiary occupation Animal Husbandry Animal Husbandry Animal Husbandry
Horticultural trees Present Present Present
Number of cultivated agricultural crops 14 12 10
Number of cultivated medicinal plant species 3 4 4
Land under traditional crops (ha) 105 61 107
Land under medicinal plants (ha) 2.12 3.49 5.79
Total arable land (ha) 107.12 64.49 112.79
Name of the villages Lata, Reni and Peng Tolma, Suki, Bhallagaon, Phagti and Laung Malari, Dronagiri Garpak and Niti