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Table 3 Medical use of plants to heal malaria in Calabria, mentioned by historical sources used for the research.

From: Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

Plants Family/Scientific Name Pliny Dioscorides Galen Serenus Sammonicus
Adoxaceae     
Sambucus nigra L. To cure dropsy To cure dropsy To cure spleenomegaly To cure dropsy
  (Naturalis Historia XXIV, 52) (De Materia Medica IV, 172) (Galeni Opera Omnia XIII, 244) (Liber Medicinalis XXVI, 498)
  [13] [16] [21] [22]
Alliaceae     
Allium cepa L.   To cure dropsy   
   (De Materia Medica II, 181)   
   [16]   
Allium sativum L. To cure quartain fevers    To cure quartain fevers
  (Naturalis Historia XX, 23)    (Liber Medicinalis XLIX, 899)
  [15]    [22]
Apocynaceae     
Nerium oleander L.     
Asteraceae     
Achillea millefolium L.     
Artemisia absinthium L. To cure hepato-spleenomegaly To cure dropsy and spleenomegaly To cure spleenomegaly To cure quartain fevers
  (Naturalis Historia XXVII, 28) (De Materia Medica III, 23) (Galeni Opera Omnia XIII, 240) (Liber Medicinalis XLIX, 903)
  [15] [16] [21] [22]
Centaurea benedicta (L.) L.     
Centaurea centaurium L.   To cure fevers To cure fevers  
   (De Materia Medica III, 6) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 19)  
   [16] [20]  
Matricaria chamomilla L.   To cure fevers   
   (De Materia Medica III, 144)   
   [16]   
Boraginaceae     
Borago officinalis L.     
Heliotropium europaeum L. To cure quartain fevers To cure tertian and quartain fevers   
  (Naturalis Historia XX, 29) (De Materia Medica IV, 190)   
  [15] [16]   
Capparaceae     
Capparis spinosa L. To cure spleenomegaly To cure spleenomegaly To purge; To cure spleenomegaly and dropsy  
  (Naturalis Historia XX, 59) (De Materia Medica II, 204) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 9)  
  [15] [16] [20]  
Cactaceae     
Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.**     
Cucurbitaceae     
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich.**   To cure dropsy To cure jaundice  
   (De Materia Medica IV, 154) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 122)  
   [16] [20]  
Dryopteridaceae     
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott.   To cure spleenomegaly   To cure dropsy
   (De Materia Medica IV, 158)   (Liber Medicinalis XVI, 511)
   [16]   [22]
Euphorbiaceae     
Ricinus communis L.   To purge; To cure dropsy To purge  
   (De Materia Medica IV, 141) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 26)  
   [16] [20]  
Fabaceae     
Lupinus albus L. To cure spleenomegaly To cure spleenomegaly   
  (Naturalis Historia XXII, 74) (De Materia Medica II, 132)   
  [15] [16]   
Fagaceae     
Quercus spp.   To expel urine   
   (De Materia Medica I, 143)   
   [16]   
Gentianaceae     
Erythraea centaurium (L.) Borkh.   To cure dropsy To cure spleenomegaly  
   (De Materia Medica III, 7) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 20)  
   [16] [20]  
Gentiana lutea L.   To cure hepatomegaly   
   (De Materia Medica III, 3)   
   [16]   
Juglandaceae     
Juglans regia L.*     
Hyacinthaceae     
Urginea maritima (L.) Baker To cure dropsy To cure dropsy and jaundice To cure hepato-spleenomegaly; To expel urine  
  (Naturalis Historia XX, 100) (De Materia Medica II, 102) (Galeni Opera Omnia XI, 746, 749)  
  [15] [16] [18]  
Lamiaceae     
Ajuga chamaepitys Guss. To cure dropsy To cure jaundice To expel urine; To cure spleenomegaly  
  (Naturalis Historia XXIV, 30) (De Materia Medica III, 175) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII 155; XIII, 240)  
  [13] [16] [20, 21]  
Ballota nigra L.    To cure spleenomegaly To cure hepato-splenomegaly
    (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 108) (Liber Medicinalis XXII, 417)
    [20] [22]
Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi   To cure jaundice To cure dropsy To cure spleenomegaly and dropsy
   (De Materia Medica III, 28) (Galeni Opera Omnia XIII, 264) (Liber Medicinalis XXII, 419; XVI, 504)
   [16] [21] [22]
Hyssopus officinalis L. To cure spleenomegaly To cure dropsy and spleenomegaly To cure dropsy  
  (Naturalis Historia XXVI, 48) (De Materia Medica III, 28) (Galeni Opera Omnia XIII, 263)  
  [13] [16] [21]  
Rosmarinus officinalis L. To cure hepato-splenomegaly To cure jaundice To cure jaundice To cure hepato-splenomegaly
  (Naturalis Historia XXIV, 59) (De Materia Medica III, 89) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 60) (Liber Medicinalis XXII, 408)
  [13] [16] [20] [22]
Salvia officinalis L.   To expel urine   To cure hepatomegaly
   (De Materia Medica III, 35)   (Liber Medicinalis XXI, 381)
   [16]   [22]
Teucrium chamaedrys L. To cure spleenomegaly and dropsy To cure spleenomegaly To cure spleen; To expel urine  
  (Naturalis Historia XXIV, 131) (De Materia Medica III, 102) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 153)  
  [13] [16] [20]  
Lythraceae     
Punica granatum L.     
Myrtaceae     
Eucalyptus spp.     
Oleaceae     
Olea europaea L.   To expel urine   
   (De Materia Medica I, 141)   
   [16]   
Papaveraceae     
Chelidonium majus L.   To cure jaundice To cure fevers  
   (De Materia Medica II, 211) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 156)  
   [16] [20]  
Fumaria officinalis L.   To expel urine To expel urine  
   (De Materia Medica IV, 108) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 8)  
   [16] [20]  
Piperaceae     
Piper nigrum L.   To cure periodical fevers To cure quartain fevers To cure hepatomegaly
   (De Materia Medica II, 158) (Galeni Opera Omnia XIV, 524) (Liber Medicinalis XXI, 384)
   [16] [19] [22]
Poaceae     
Arundo donax L. To cure dropsy    
  (Naturalis Historia XXIV, 50)    
  [13]    
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.    To expel urine  
    (Galeni Opera Omnia XI, 810)  
    [18]  
Rosaceae     
Prunus spinosa L.     
Rutaceae     
Citrus bergamia Risso     
Citrus limonum Risso     
Ruta spp.   To cure dropsy To expel urine; to cure dropsy  
   (De Materia Medica III, 45) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 101; XIII, 257)  
   [16] [20, 21]  
Salicaceae     
Salix spp.     
Smilacaceae     
Smilax aspera L.     
Solanaceae     
Solanum dulcamara L.    To expel urine  
    (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 145)  
    [20]  
Capsicum annuum L.     
Capsicum annuum L. Var. acuminatum Fing.     
Tamaricaceae     
Tamarix spp. To cure spleenomegaly To cure spleenomegaly To cure spleenomegaly To cure spleenomegaly
  (Naturalis Historia XXIV, 61) (De Materia Medica I, 116) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 80) (Liber Medicinalis XXII, 408)
  [15] [16] [20] [22]
Urticaceae     
Parietaria officinalis L.     
Urtica dioica L., Urtica urens L. To cure spleenomegaly; to expel urine To cure spleenomegaly   
  (Naturalis Historia XXII, 15) (De Materia Medica IV, 102)   
  [15] [16]   
Valerianaceae     
Valeriana officinalis L.   To cure jaundice To expel urine  
   (De Materia Medica I, 6) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 85)  
   [16] [20]  
Verbenaceae     
Verbena officinalis L. To cure fevers To cure tertian and quartain fevers   
  (Naturalis Historia XXV, 59) (De Materia Medica IV, 61)   
  [13] [16]