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Table 2 The medicinal plant uses in traditional veterinary medicine of the Sierras de Córdoba. (*) Veterinary medicinal use coincide with human medicinal use

From: Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

Species (Family) (Voucher number) Local name Application Plant part use Way of preparation and administration Recipes
Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. (Fabaceae) (AMP 2046) tusca wounds and injuries (*) Aerial part/decoction/washes Wash the wound with white soap before the treatment.
Acacia caven (Molina) Molina var caven (Fabaceae) (AMP 1851) espinillo o aromito wounds and injuries (*) Aerial part/decoction/washes A decoction is prepared alone or with "moradillo", and applies after washing with white soap.
Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) (AMP 2215) albahaquilla del campo, curabichera sores and ulcers (*) Leaves/decoction/washes  
Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) ajo wounds and injuries (*) Bulb/fat creams/external Prepare a cream with beeswax and a few cloves of "ajo" and apply to the udder and injures of animals.
   intestinal parasites(*) Bulb/milled/beverage Chop four cloves of "ajo" and placed in 1 liter of water and 1 tablespoon of creosote, and is applied in one shot.
   animal and insect bites(*) Bulb/milled/beverage Prepare milk and cooking oil with "ajo" and gives drink to the dogs affected by snakebites
Aloe saponaria Haw. (Asphodelaceae) (AMP 2105) aloe de vera, aloe vera, penca aloe treatment of cattle castrated Mucilage/direct application/external  
   wounds and injuries(*) Mucilage/direct application/external Applied in the "mataduras", sores or injuries of the back
Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook. Ex Hook.) Tronc. var. gratissima (Verbenaceae) (AMP 2069) palo amarillo wounds and injuries(*) Leaves/decoction/washes Apply a decoction of "palo amarillo" alone or with "duraznillo", "doradilla", "cebacaballo" and "manzanilla".
   treatment of retained placenta Aerial part/decoction/beverage Combined with "liguilla"; specially for goats.
Anemia tomentosa (Savigny) Sw. (Schizaceae) (AMP 1830) doradilla wounds and injuries(*) Fronds/decoction/washes Apply a decoction of "palo amarillo" alone or with "duraznillo", "doradilla", "cebacaballo" and "manzanilla".
Aristolochia argentina Griseb. (Aristolochiaceae) (AMP 2200) charrúa muscle pains(*) Aerial part/alcoholic macerate/friction and massage It applies to air blows or others cold diseases. Prepare an alcoholic macerate of "charrúa", "ruda macho y hembra", "alcanfor" and "lavanda".
Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae) (S/d) ajenjo chileno wounds and injuries whole plant/decoction/washes  
Baccharis crispa Spreng. (Asteraceae) (AMP 2058) carqueja stomach and abdominal pains(*) aerial part/decocciòn/beverage  
Calvatia cyathiformis (Bosc.) Morgan (Lycoperdaceae) (2229 CORD) polvillo del diablo, hongo del diablo wounds and injuries(*) spores/direct application/topical Used when the fungus oxidize taking a brown color
   myiasis spores/direct application/topical  
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (Brassicaceae) (AMP 2076) bolsa de pastor breastfeeding, care of the udder Whole plant/milled/food intake Mix with food to enhance the udders and to get turgid and pink teats.
Capsicum annum L. (Solanaceae) pimiento (pimentón) treatment of cattle castrated fruit/milled/external  
Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch) Liebm. (Celtidaceae) (AMP 2006; AMP 2008) tala distemper bark/smoke bath/inhalation Is incinerated on lighted coals with sulfur stick.
Cestrum parqui L'Hér. (Solanaceae) (AMP 2072) duraznillo negro wounds and injuries(**) leaves/decoction/washes Apply a decoction of "palo amarillo" alone or with "duraznillo", "doradilla", "cebacaballo" and "manzanilla".
   parasites leaves/decoction/beverage It applies to treat Gasterophyllus spp. parasitosis preparing a decoction of "yerba mate", leaves of "duraznillo" and two tablespoons of creosote per liter. Another recipe suggests grinding "duraznillo" with salt in a one liter bottle of water.
   treatment of retained placenta leaves/decoction/beverage Applied to cattle
   distemper root/decoction/beverage It applies with creosote.
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) (AMP 2170) paico indigestion ("empacho") (*) whole plant/decoction/beverage With the root of "quiebraarado".
Chenopodium aff. murale L. (Chenopodiaceae) (AMP 1979) quina wounds and injuries(*) aerial part/decoction/compresses Prepare a decoction with 20 g of "quina" and passed through the wounds with a cotton swab.
Chenopodium album L. (Chenopodiaceae) (AMP 2243) quina wounds and injuries(*) aerial part/decoction/compresses Prepare a decoction with 20 g of "quina" and passed through the wounds with a cotton swab.
Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) (AMP 1978) achicoria bowel purgative aerial part/food intake  
Citrus limon L. (Rutaceae) limón ocular diseases fruit/washes Wash the affected eye with a rag soaked with water, lemon, salt, crushed leaves of "llanten" and mucilage of the floral bracts of "Santa Lucia".
Clematis montevidensis Spreng. var. montevidensis (Ranunculaceae) (AMP 2070) barba de indio, cabello de angel, aloconte distemper fruits/smoke bath/inhalation Burn the fruits with rags, sugar and some drops of creosote and shake the animal to inhale the smoke, to eliminate distemper.
Colletia spinosissima J.F.Gmel. (Rhamnaceae) (AMP 1896) tola tola, barba de indio wounds and injuries aerial part/decoction/washes  
Commelina erecta L. var. erecta(Commelinaceae) (AMP 1981) Santa Lucía ocular diseases(*) mucilage/topical application Wash the affected eye with a rag soaked with water, lemon, salt, crushed leaves of "llanten" and mucilage of the floral bracts of "Santa Lucia".
Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cornquist var. bonariensis (Asteraceae) (AMP 2038) yerba carnicera diarrhea whole plant/decoction/beverage  
Croton subpannosus Müll. Arg.ex Griseb. (Euphorbiaceae) (AMP 1959) pulmonaria bronchial and lung diseases aerial part/infusion/beverage With honey
Cucurbita spp. [Cucurbita maxima Duchesne ssp. maxima; Cucurbita sp.] (Cucurbitaceae) (AMP 2278; AMP 2284) zapallo treatment of retained placenta seed/decoction/beverage With salt and "liguilla de chañar" (a shot of a liter per day).
Ephedra ochreata Miers (Ephedraceae) (AMP 2146) tramontana, pico de loro hits or inflammations(*) aerial part/cooked/external Plant fragments are fried in pork fat and applied in the joints of animals and in the "sobrehueso"
Ephedra triandra Tul. emend. J. H. Hunz. (Ephedraceae) (AMP 2214) tramontana, pico de loro hits or inflammations(*) aerial part/alcoholic macerate/friction and massage With "jarilla" and "guayacán".
   hits or inflammations (*) aerial part/cooked/external Plant fragments are fried in pork fat and applied in the joints of animals and in the "sobrehueso"
Equisetum giganteum L. (Equisetaceae) (AMP 2123) cola de caballo kidney diseases(*) aerial part/infusion o decoction/beverage  
Cfr. Eryngium sp. (Apiaceae) (Indet.) bolo urinary disorders (difficulty urinating) flowers/decoction/beverage  
Eucalyptus cinerea F.v. Muell. (Myrtaceae) (AMP 2129) eucaliptus medicinal distemper(*) leaves/decoction/inhalation  
Gaillardia megapotamica var. scabiosoides (Arn. ex DC.) Baker (Asteraceae) (AMP 1846) topasaire wounds and injuries(*) flowers/macerated in oil/frictions Inflorescences are added in oil burning car, and exposed to the sun for a week.
Heimia salicifolia (Kunth) Link (Lythraceae) (AMP 2020) quiebraarado hits or inflammations(*) aerial part/decoction/compresses  
   ocular diseases root/decoction/eye bath Prepare a decoction of root of "quiebraarado", root of "cepacaballo" and applies cold as an eye bath
   indigestion ("empacho") (*) root/decoction/beverage With "paico"
   diarrhea(*) root/decoction/beverage With leaves of "guayacán"
   treatment of cattle castrated aerial part/washes  
Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.var. paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae) yerba mate parasitosis aerial part/decoction/beverage It applies to treat "bicho del cuajo" (Gasterophilus parasitosis) preparing a decoction of "yerba mate", leaves of "duraznillo" and two tablespoons of creosote per liter.
   distemper aerial part/decoction/beverage Give to drink a beverage of creozota, cooking oil and mate.
   intestinal parasites aerial part/decoction/beverage Prepare 1 l of mate with salt, creosote and edible oil to treat bug rennet (Gasterophilus parasite).
   diarrhea aerial part/decoction/beverage To cattle
Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) (AMP 2179) sombra de toro, peje urinary disorders (difficulty urinating) aerial part  
Larrea divaricata Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) (AMP 2217) jarilla hits or inflammations(*) aerial part/alcoholic macerate/friction and massage With "guayacán" and "tramontana"
   muscle pain(*) aerial part/decoction/friction and massage With "jarilla", "ortiga" and salt.
   treatment of retained placenta aerial part/decoction (with yerba mate)/beverage  
   constipación aerial part/decoction with yerba mate/beverage  
   kidney diseases(*) aerial part/alcoholic macerate/friction and massage Rub the macerate in the back of the animal to relieve kidney pain.
Lavandula officinalis var. angustifolia (DeGring.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) (AMP 2285) lavanda o alhucema itching and irritation(*) aerial part/friction and massage Prepare a cream with salt, lime, sulfur, and lavender and apply in areas of eczema with pus.
Lepidium didymum L. (Brassicaceae) (AMP 1974) quimpe bleeding gums(*) whole plant/Fricciones  
Ligaria cuneifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Tiegh. (Loranthaceae) (AMP 2222) liguilla de flor roja diarrhea aerial part/decoction/beverage With root of "quiebraarado" and "guayacán".
   treatment of retained placenta aerial part/decoction/beverage Prepare a drink with salt and a tablespoon of cooking oil and ash. It uses a small branch in 2 liters of water. It is also prepared in decoction with pumpkin seeds (one takes 1 l per day) or "palo amarillo"
Lippia turbinata Griseb. (Verbenaceae) (AMP 2142) poleo stomach and abdominal pains(*) aerial part/decoction/beverage It applies to the cure of indigestion in calves
   wounds and injuries leaves/decoction/washes  
   kidney diseases whole plant/symbolic action A symbolic magical cure is applied for kidney disease of horses. They must pass three times above the plant of "poleo".
   mastitis leaves/decoction/compresses It applies in the injured udders of goats and cows, cloths with washes of "malva" and "poleo" with salt.
Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae) (AMP 2081) malva intestinal colic(*) leaves/decoction/enema With cooking oil, white soap and water boiled.
   ocular diseases leaves/decoction/washes Prepare a brine wash with water of "malva" and "ruda".
   wounds and injuries(*) leaves/decoction/compresses With water boiled of "malva" and "ruda macho" or "ruda hembra".
   mastitis leaves/decoction/compresses It applies in the injured udders of goats and cows, cloths with washes of "malva" and "poleo" with salt.
Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) (AMP 1924) malva intestinal colic(*) leaves/decoction/enema With cooking oil, white soap and water boiled.
   ocular diseases(*) leaves/decoction/washes Prepare a brine wash with water of "malva" and "ruda"
   wounds and injuries(*) leaves/decoction/compresses With water boiled of "malva" and "ruda macho" or "ruda hembra".
   mastitis leaves/decoction/compresses It applies in the injured udders of goats and cows, cloths with washes of "malva" and "poleo" with salt.
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garke ssp. coromandelianum (Malvaceae) (AMP 2151) yerba del potro wounds and injuries(*) whole plant/decoction/washes  
   hits or inflammations(*) aerial part/decoction/compresses  
Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (AMP 1966) yerba del sapo wounds and injuries aerial part/smeared in oil and heated/poultice Fry in oil or mix with green oil and apply as a poultice on infected wounds or animal bites to relieve.
Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae) (M-ACOR 45) manzanilla wounds and injuries(*) flowers/decoction/washes Apply a decoction of "palo amarillo" alone or with "duraznillo", "doradilla", "cebacaballo" and "manzanilla".
   treatment of cattle castrated aerial part/infusion/washes With warm oil, in crescent moon
Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) (AMP 2094) paraíso fleas(*) fruits/macerate/baths The fruits are soaked in water for a day, applying the macerate to dogs with fleas
Mentha x rotundifolia (L.) Huds. (Lamiaceae) (AMP 2230) hierba buena diarrhea(*) aerial part/decoction/beverage With peel of "granada"
Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (Lamiaceae) (AMP 1894) peperina myiasis leaves/direct application/poultice It applies in the affected area a handful of crushed or chewed leaves, covering it with horse manure.
   liver diseases aerial part/decoction/beverage A decoction with baking soda is given to horses.
Nicotiana glauca Graham (Solanaceae) (AMP 1845) palan palan wounds and injuries, maturative(*) leaves/direct application/poultice To mature spines and wounds
Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae) tabaco "tasca" leaves/beverage Prepare with "tobacco", milk and cooking oil.
   distemper leaves/smoke bath/inhalation  
   scabies leaves/fat creams/external Apply some of the following mixtures:
     - "Unto sin sal", sulphur, creosote and tobacco, to treat scabies ("sarnilla").
     - lemon, onion and milled tobacco with white soap in warm water.
   parasitosis leaves/decoction/beverage It applies to treat "bicho del cuajo" (Gasterophilus parasitosis) preparing 1 l of yerba mate with 100 cc of creosote.
Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (AMP 2132) orégano wounds and injuries(*) aerial part/macerado/washes Soak for a day, two handfuls of oregano in a half liter of water.
Phacelia pinnatifida Griesb. ex Wedd. (Hydrophyllaceae) (AMP 1964) yerba meona urinary infection(*) whole plant/infusion/beverage Applies when the urine of animals is "charged, heavy, gummy" and prepare an infusion of 6 or 7 plants in a bucket of water.
Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae) (AMP 1940) llantén liso, llantén grande hits or inflammations leaves/smeared in oil and heated/poultice It applies in internal hits or "tumors" when a horse suffers a heavy blow
   wounds and injuries(*) leaves/decoction/washes  
   ocular diseases mucilage/topical application Wash the affected eye with a rag soaked with water, lemon, salt, crushed leaves of "llanten" and mucilage of the floral bracts of "Santa Lucia".
   bowel purgative infloerscence and fruits/Food intake  
Porlieria microphylla (Baill.) Descole, O'Donell & Lourteig (Zygophyllaceae) (AMP 1941) guayacán hits or inflammations aerial part/alcoholic macerate/friction and massage With "jarilla" and "tramontana"
   diarrea(*) aerial part/decoction/beverage With peel of "Granada" and ember or sugar. With root of "quiebra-arado" and "liga roja".
Populus sp. (Salicaceae) (s/d) álamo wounds and injuries leaves/decoction/washes  
Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) (AMP 2294) granada diarrhea(*) fruit peel/decoction/beverage Alone or with "hierba Buena" or with "guayacán".
Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) (AMP 2244) ruda macho intestinal parasites(*) aerial part/alcoholic macerate/beverage  
   musculoskeletal disorders sprains(*) aerial part/macerated in kerosene/friction and massage  
   ocular diseases leaves/decoction/washes Prepare a brine wash with water of "malva" and "ruda".
   wounds and injuries aerial part/decoction/compresses With wáter boiled of "malva" and "ruda macho" or "ruda hembra".
Ruta graveolens L. (s/d) (Rutaceae) ruda hembra ocular diseases leaves/decoction/washes Prepare a brine wash with water of "malva" and "ruda"
   wounds and injuries aerial part/decoction/compresses With wáter boiled of "malva" and "ruda macho" or "ruda hembra".
Salix alba L. (Salicaceae) (AMP 2121) sauce alamo ocular diseases stem/ashes, burnt/within the eye Burn a small stem, grind a coal, and blown it with a cartridge of a leaf in the eye of the animal, to make it blink
Salix fragilis L. (Salicaceae) (s/d) mimbre ocular diseases tallos/ashes, burnt/within the eye See recipe in S. alba
Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (Adoxaceae) (AMP 2152) saúco wounds and injuries washes  
Schinus fasciculatus (Griseb.) I.M. Johnst. (Anacardiaceae) (AMP 2088) moradillo treatment of retained placenta aerial part/decoction/beverage In cattles
   hits or inflammations(*) resin ("essence")/direct application/friction and massage  
   wounds and injuries leaves/decoction/washes A decoction is prepared with "espinillo", and applies after washing with white soap.
Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) (AMP 2248) yerba del potro hits or inflammations(*) aerial part/decoction/compresses  
   wounds and injuries whole plant/decoction/washes The plant is milled and boiled and then prepares a sort of cream that is applied as a bandage to the animal maimed, crippled or injured by thorns
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae) (AMP 2156) altamisa wounds and injuries aerial part/decoction/washes With "altamisa" and "quina".
   animal and insect bites(*) aerial part/milled/external It is applied in snake bites with milk and oil, or fried in oil and tobacco.
   treatment of retained placenta leaves/decoction/beverage A decoction with "altamisa", flowers of "manzanilla", "moishcurt" (not identified) and three spoon of cooking oil.
Tripodanthus flagellaris (Cham. & Schltdl.) Tiegh. (Loranthaceae) (AMP 1970) liguilla de flor amarilla treatment of retained placenta(*) aerial part/infusion o decoction/beverage With salt and seeds of "zapallo" (a shot of a liter per day).
Trixis divaricata (Kunth) Spreng. ssp. discolor (D. Don) Katinas (Asteraceae) (AMP 1955) contrayerba diarrhea(*) aerial part/decoction/beverage  
   stomach and abdominal pains(*) root/decoction/beverage To treat "empacho" of calfs and goats.
   Fever root/decoction/beverage To treat calfs
   distemper(*) aerial part/smoke bath/inhalation A smoke bath of "contrayerba" with a few drops of creosote, and dry chicken manure is applied.
   sores and ulcers(*) aerial part/decoction/washes To treat varicose ulcers
   wounds and injuries aerial part/decoction/washes  
Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) (AMP 2210) ortiga, ortiga negra muscle pain(*) aerial part/decoction/friction and massage With "jarilla", "ortiga" and salt.
Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) (AMP 1841) gordolobo stomach and abdominal pains -- To treat "empacho" of calfs.
Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. et Hook. f. ex A. Gray (Asteraceae) (AMP 2292) Santa María wounds and injuries(*) aerial part/decoction/washes  
Xanthium spinosum L. var. spinosum (Asteraceae) (AMP 1864) cepacaballo ocular diseases(*) root/decoction/eye bath Prepare a decoction of root of "quiebraarado", root of "cepacaballo" and applies cold as an eye bath.
   wounds and injuries root/decoction/washes Apply a decoction of "palo amarillo", "duraznillo", "doradilla", "cepacaballo" and "manzanilla".
Zea mays L. (Poaceae) (M-ACOR 47) maíz distemper leaves, inflorescence/others/external Cut the tips of the ears of dogs and then put a collar made of cobs around the neck. A smoke bath of burned cobs is applied to treat distemper of the animals.
   scabies Inflorescence/others/external It spread a cob of corn with burned mineral engine oil and is applied to the affected sheep