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Table 5 Common folk diseases and treatment practices in traditional veterinary medicine in the Sierras de Córdoba

From: Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

Diseases Traditional therapeutical practices
A) Diseases and treatments related to animal reproduction (gestation, pregnancy, animal birth and breeding)
Retained placenta - Wipe the hindquarter of the animal with wood ash
  - Hang up the rest of the umbilical cord of the spine bone of a dead animal smeared in oil, in order to drain and make a counterweight
Abscesses (Mastitis, inflammation of the udder) - "Unto sin sal" (Unsalted fat; (Fat soft belly of pork) air dried.
  - Melted fat of a cow
  - Beeswax and garlic
B) Digestive diseases
"Empacho" (indigestion) and diarrhea - Milk serum curd with salt
  - Draw a cross with cow's milk on the back of foals or calves
C) Respiratory diseases
"Moquillo" (Distemper) - Mark the face of the horse, drawing a muzzle with kerosene or fat
  - Smoke bath with rubber, and chicken manure incinerated
  - Smoke bath with creosote and a jute bag or rags incinerated
  - Smoke bath with cobs of corn and rags incinerated
  - Puncturing the sinuses in horses with a sharp cane
  - Cut of the ears dogs and leave bleed; then placing a necklace of seven (or an odd number) of burned corn cobs, leaving him in the neck until it heals
  - Cut of the ears of the horse
  - Incision below the "carretilla" (in the region of the jugular vein) of horses
  - Pour one tablespoon of cooking oil in each ear of the horse
  - Break a raw egg on the forehead of the animal
D) Diseases of the skin and hair
Pimples and boils - Poultice of manure of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey, fat iguana (Tupinambis spp.), and bread crumb with milk
Wounds and injuries - Burned mineral engine oil
  - Sugar
  - Human stool ("defecation of a christian")
  - Honey
  - White soap
"Mataduras" (Sores) (Healing of wounds on the back of horses) - Ointment shoes (prefference color like the hair affected animal)
  - Lime
  - Copper sulfate
  - Oil
  - White Liniment
  - "Unto sin sal" (Unsalted fat) with lard
  - Human urine with grated brick
"Capaduras" (Castration) (Scarring of castrated cattle) - Hot kerosene to remove the "pasmo" (similar to a spasm) due to cold entrance when the animal was castrated
  - Kerosene with salt
  - Ashes with fresh cow manure
  - Preparation of egg yolk, oil and lime
  - Burned mineral engine oil
Hemorrhage - Spiderweb
  - Paprika
Snake bites (dogs) - Necklace of braid straw (Stipa brachychaeta) wrapped in the neck until it heals
  - Brushstrokes of kerosene in the affected area
E) Parasitosis
"Embichaduras": Myiasis caused by the larvae flies of the "screwworm" (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Calliphoridae) and others. - Hang three leather washers of a male animal, to treat females and, conversely, three female leather washers to treat the males
  - Apply to the navel or to affected areas of a newborn calf an implement fleece (like a cotton swab) dipped in creosote, horse manure, and burned mineral engine oil
Scabies: Caused by the mites Psoroptes bovis, (Psoroptidae) and Sarcoptes sp. (Sarcoptidae). - Burned mineral engine oil (sheep scab) applied with corncob
  - "Unto sin sal" (Unsalted fat) with tobacco, sulfur and creosote
"Bicho del cuajo" (Bug rennet): Internal parasitosis due to larvae flies of Gasterophilus spp. (Gasterophilidae) - Mate, salt, cooking oil and creosote intake.
F) Diseases of the senses
"Nubes" "Clouds" (Conjunctivitis) - Sugar in the inner of the eye (Equine conjunctivitis)
  - Washings with human urine and salt (Equine conjunctivitis)
  - Instill blood of dog ticks (Ovine Conjunctivitis)
  Practice a small incision in the lid of the eye as a cross-shaped
Hits on the eyes - Sugar
G) Diseases of the urinary ways
"Sarro en la verija" (Tartar in urinary ways) (Anuria due to urinary infections) - Place the horse under a stream of water and a knife in the genital area, and then hit three kicks until urine
H) Musculoskeletal diseases
Musculoskeletal pain - Friction with fat of iguana (Tupinambis spp), of lion (Puma concolor) or of chicken (Gallus gallus)
I) Poisonings
For consumption of "chuscho" (Nierembergia linariaefolia) - Break two eggs in the front and draw a cross
For consumption of "manzanilla silvestre" (Anthemis cotula) - Drill the crease of the swollen abdomen, with a knitting needle
"Tasca" (sound made by horses when hitting the jaws), For consumption of "paletaria" (indet.) - Tobacco, milk and oil intake
For consumption of "romerillo", "nío" or "mío - mío" (Baccharis coridifolia) - Rubbing the plant on the lips and gums of the animal, as a way of prevention
  - Milk and cooking oil intake, or other astringent drink like "anís" or "mate cocido"
  - Vinegar and starch intake