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Table 2 Perceptions and attributes of traditional versus current landscapes in Montesinho and Douro International Natural Parks, Trás-os-Montes

From: Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

Traditional landscape Main sign Current landscape Signs of change
Wilderness Presence of nature Tameness Wind turbines, antennas
Continuous Land cover patterns Fragmented Road network
Humanized Crops and cattle Abandoned Scrubland and wildfires risk
Multipurpose Mosaics of species Monoculture Fast growing species
Availability of resources Wild gathering Restriction of resource Hunting regulations
Intensive labor Crop lands Absenteeism Afforestation of crop lands
Landraces Good performances Exotic species Invasive species, diseases
Small settlements Inconspicuous Larger villages Noticeable, modern houses
Communal facilities Management Individual facilities e.g. Many bread ovens
Lack of infrastructures Rustic and hardy Infrastructures Lifestyle improvement
Cultural heritage Local architecture Global and homogeneous Similar public places in several villages