Mangrove land degradation in Cameroon: (A) Sand extraction within mangrove forest. The background shows uncut sparse adults trees. (B) Elevated areas of previously cleared mangrove stands waiting for housing. (C) Clear-felled corridor within the mangrove used for wood transport or as access path. (D) Complex of cut branches and prop roots (Rhizophora spp.) left in situ. (Photographs by ANA).