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Table 2 The medicinal plants of Kikuku village, Muleba District, Kagera Region

From: Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

Botanical Name [Family] (Voucher Number) Vernacular name Life Form Uses Part used Method of preparation and/or administration Literature reports supporting claims
Justicia striata (Ktotzsch) Bullock [ACANTHACEAE] (MJM 3515) Akalaza H Used as an antipyretic L The leaves are boiled and the decoction administered to children  
Whitfieldia elongata (P.Beauv.) De Wild & T.Durand [ACANTHACEAE] (MJM 3062) Lugenge/Ekigenge S For treating Chicken pox and other skin conditions AP Aerial parts squeezed and given to children. The sap also can be applied topically for the treatment of skin conditions or also drank for the treatment of rectal prolapse Also reported in Bugabo for the same uses [3]
Amaranthus spinosus L. [ AMARANTHACE] (MJM 3176] Olulele H For treating peptic ulcers L The leaves are boiled with unskimmed cow milk and the preparation drank Antispasmodic activity [11]
Dysphanius ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants [AMARANTHACEAE] (MJM 3178) Orwita marago/Kaitamarogo S For making soap and as a lucky charm L The leaves are applied topically.  
Crinum papillosum Nodal [AMARYLIDACEAE] (MJM 3236] Ekiwakye kitunguru H For treating swollen breast, legs and abdomen. May also have anti-cancer activity? TB The underground tuber is mixed with anthill soil. Reported to have disinfectant and anti-inflammatory activity [12]
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. [APOCYNACEAE] (MJM3243) Kiua S Treating hypertension L The leaves are boiled and the decoction administered Hypotensive effect of leaves extract confirmed in a rat model of hypertension [13]
Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel. [APOCYNACEAE] (MJM3114) Omuatabusinde/Kinyabusinde T Treating Malaria L The leaves are boiled to make a decoction Reported to have strong antiplasmodial activity [14]
Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. [ASPARAGACEAE] (MJM 3128) Omuramura/Isale S To increase CD4 counts in HIV/AIDS patients R The roots are boiled with water and a glass taken daily  
Dracaena steudneri Engl. [ASPARAGACEAE] (MJM 3169) Mgologolo T For treating hernia, splenomegally, asthma and chest problems in children and fibroids and infertility in women L The leaves are burnt and the ash is then combined with soda ash and the powder licked  
Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L. [ASTERACEAE] (MJM 3211) Omwigara H Used as a cough remedy, for constipation/peptic ulcers and for fibroids in women or those with difficulties to conceive R/L The roots are chewed fresh as an antiacid and antiseptic while the leaves are boiled the decoction taken as tea. Antiulcer and antispasmodic activity [1517]
Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.)Kuntze [ASTERACEAE] (MJM 3188) Ibuza H For treating mouth ulcers and eye infections L The leaves are pounded together with those of Ageratum conyzoides and the sap squeezed and applied into the eyes as drops. Antibacterial activity [18]
Melanthera scandens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Roberty [ASTERACEAE] MJM 3190] Byabarwoya H For ulcers, wounds and lowering blood glucose levels L The leaves are boiled to make a thick decoction which is then drank or the paste applied on a wound Leaf extracts and fractions inhibited indomethacin, ethanol and histamine induced ulcers in mice [19]
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze [ ASTERACEAE] (MJM 3175) Omuhe/Mkuraiju S For cleansing airways, treating scalds, cough and flu. L The leaves are pounded and the sap is squeezed into the nostrils. Used for treatment of headaches, and colds [20]
Vernonia auriculifera Hiern [ASTERACEAE](MJM 3177) Kishwiya S For treating febrile convulsions L The leaves are boiled and decoction administered  
Senecio stuhlmanii Klatt [ASTERACEAE] (MJM 3134) Kikarabo/eirarire CL H For treating wounds, swellings, coughs and stiff neck. Also used as an emetic following poisoning L The leaves are used for covering containers for making local brews but sometimes are also taken with the local brew. They can also be pounded anded used as an antiseptic dressing. For the treatment of coughs the leaves are baked with s with salt and then chewed  
Canarium schweinfurtii Engl. [BURSERACEAE] (MJM 3036) Muubani T For treating malaria and syphilis SB The bark is ground into powder and boiled. An aromatic gum is produces which can then be burnt and used as a scent. Essential oil has antimicrobial activity [21]
Canna indica L. [CANNACEAE] (MJM 3172) Amarango/Embakyo H For the treatment of infertility in men and women. It makes a woman conceive easily L The leaves are dried, groud and the powder is then used or pounded, soaked in a small amount of water and a patient given a spoonful. Used in Argentina and China for regulation of fertility [22, 23]
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume [CANNABACEAE] (MJM 3212) Muge T For treating yellow fever and as a haematinic AP The leaves are pounded, then boiled with the leaves of Combretum collinum and Erythrina abbyssinica. The resulting decoction is used to treat yellow fever.
An infusion made from the leaves is also drank as an haematinic
Reported to be used for treatment of chickenpox Nigeria [24]
Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch & Ziz [CHENOPODIACE AE] (MJM 3158) Omwetango H For treating venereal diseases and mouth ulcers L The leaves are boiled and the decoction drank. The decoction can also be used for bathing  
Cleome gynandra (L.)[CLEOMACEAE] (MJM 3239] Eshobyo/Mgagani H For treating arthritis and rheumatism L The leaves are eaten as vegetables Methanol extract of leaves exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in rat adjuvant arthritis [25]
Cucurbita maxima Dúchense [CUCURBITACEAE] ( MJM 3168) Mwongu/boga H Epixstasis, excessive menstrual bleeding FR The fruit is baked under ashes and squeezed into the nostrils/vagina  
Zehneria scabra Sond. [CUCURBITACEAE] (MJM 3150) Akabindizi CL. For treating skin diseases, gonorrhea, syphilis, cleansing uterus before a child is delivered and malaria L The leaves are boiled and decoction drank. Often is mixed with several other plants for treatment of malaria Ethanol extract of tubers exhibited antibacterial activity against gran negative bacteria [26, 27]
Dioscorea praehensilis Benth. [DIOSCORIACEAE] (MJM 3246) Amasoma Cl. For hypertension and diabetes TB The tubers are eaten as food  
Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill.[EUPHORBIACEAE] (MJM 3166) Mshamako T For yellow fever, malaria, amenorrea and dysmenorrhea R Roots are boiled with water to make decoction which is drank. Antimalarial activity [28] and antibacterial activity [29]
Euphorbia hirta L.[ EUPHORBIACEAE] (MJM 3184) Kahyebulimbe empango H For non-lactation, hypertension, warts and cataracts (local application) AP The aerial parts are mixed with Solanum nigrum and boiled and the decoction given to mothers to enhance lactation. Large amounts are sometimes drank to induce diuresis. It is also considered a very safe galactagogue Reported to have galactogenic activity [3034]
Euphorbia mossambicensis (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss. [EUPHORBIACEAE] (MJM 3185) Kahyebulimbe Enkye H As a galactagogue and for treating cataracts L The leaves are boiled and the decoction administered orally. The decoction can also be applied to the eye to treat cataracts.  
Jatropha curcas L.[ EUPHORBIACEAE] (MJM 3187) Ekiho S For mastitis and koilonichia L The leaves are baked under fire, and the sap squeezed into the affected area for 5 days. It should never be taken orally Antibacterial activity [3538]
Ricinus communis L. [EUPHORBIACEAE] (MJM3142) Kijuna H For skin diseases and cancer L, R The leaves are burnt and the ash wetted with water is applied vtopically to the affected area.  
Tragia furialis Bojer [EUPHORBIACEAE ] (MJM 3186) Omugonampili T For malaria, cancer and peptic ulcers L. In the treatment of cancers, the leaves are burnt in an earthen pot, and the smoke directed to the affected area. A decoction of the leaves in combination with those of other plants is used for treatment of malaria. The leaves are boiled with milk and taken for the treatment of peptic ulcers  
Abrus precatorius L. [FABACEAE] (MJM 3013) Kaligaligo CL For malaria L The leaves are pounded and boiled with water. The resulting decoction is administered orally. An isoflavanquinone, abruquinone B, isolated from aerial parts exhibited antiplasmodial activity [39]
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. [FABACEAE] (MJM 3226) Entandaigwa S For poisoning, nausea and swelling of legs AP The aerial parts are burnt and the ash taken with water for the treatment of poisoning The leaves are boiled with water and one glass of the decoction obtained is taken daily for the treatment of nausea during pregnancy. The leaves are also used for massaging swollen legs. Ethanol extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity against galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats [40]
Dolichos kilimandscharicus Taub. [FABACEAE] (MJM 3247) None H For malaria, gonorrhea and syphilis L The leaves boiled together with other plants  
Sesbania microphylla E.Phillips & Hutch.[FABACEAE] (MJM 3171) Msenga/Mbondo S For malaria and febrile convulsions in children L The leaves are boiled together with the leaves of Orthosiphon suffrutescens and Solanum aculeastrum and the decoction administered to children  
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link [FABACEAE] (MJM 3179) Omwetanjoka S For spasms, malaria and as an antihelmintic R The roots are pounded and then boil with water and natural salt. The resulting decoction is then drank for de-worming. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat malaria. Antimalarial activity [41, 42], and antispasmodic activity [43]
Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir [HYPERICACEAE] (MJM 3119) Omujumbojumbo T For yellow fever and as an anthelminthic SB, SD The stem bark is soaked in water or or dried, pounded and the resulting powder is taken with tea The seeds are dried and then powdered. The powder is taken orally for the treatment of all types of worm infestations Reported to have antihepatotoxic activity [2, 44]
Tetradenia urticifolia (Baker) Phillipson [LAMIACEAE] (MJM3125) Omushunshu H For ulcers, tonsils, wounds, malaria and insect bite L The leaves are boiled to make a decoction which is then drank or pounded and used for dressing. For malaria the leaves are boiled with water and a glass of the decoction taken three times a day.  
Orthosiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen [LAMIACEAE] (MJM 3182) Lwamo H For malaria and febrile convulsions L The leaves are boiled and the decoction given to children who are sometimes also bathed in it. The leaves are mixed with those of Solanum aculeastrum) Used for malaria treatment in Rwanda [45]
Plectranthus barbatus var. grandis (L.H.Cramer) Lukhoba & A.J.Paton [LAMIACEAE] (MJM 3132) Akajera akake S As an antidote for insect bites AP Aerial parts are crushed and rubbed on the affected area  
Hibiscus fuscus Garcke [MALVACEAE] (MJM 3070) Omusingasinga S For polio L The leaves are pounded and mixed with fat (Ghee) and massaged on the affected area. Extracts of the plant exhibited antiviral activity [46]
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd) Royle [PHYLLANTHACEAE] (MJM 3183) Mturuka S For gonorrhea and skin conditions L The leaves are boiled and the decoction administered orally or applied topically. Used to treat skin conditions and has proven antifungal activity [47, 48]
Oxygonum cordofanum (Meisn.) Dammer [POLYGONACEAE] (MJM 3061) Akanyunyambuzi/Akaikutukura H For wounds and warts L The leaves are burnt and the ashes licked  
Tricalysia coriacea (Benth.) Hiern [RUBIACEAE] (MJM 3173) Omwani Kibira S For skin diseases, epixstasis and malaria/ yellow fever (jaundice) L, R The leaves/roots are boiled and the decoction drank  
Cardiospermum halicacabum L. [SAPINDACEAE] (MJM 3180) Oluzibula S To treat people with urinary obstruction L The leaves are boiled to make a decoction.  
Capsicum frutescens L. [SOLANACEAE] (MJM3170) Obuguluma/pilipili H As a cough remedy L The leaves are chewed Decoction is used in Nicaragua as cough remedy [49]
Cyphomandra crassifolia Kuntze [SOLANACEAE] (MJM 3117) Mtomatoma/mtomasi T As a cardiotonic, haematinic or for septic rashes in children. Also used to lower blood sugar levels FR The fruits are eaten as food to increase blood. The dried seeds are pounded into powder and the powder taken for the treatment of heart condition (cardiotonic)  
Physalis peruviana L. [SOLANACEAE] (MJM 3147) Ntuntunu H For typhoid fever FR The fruits are squeezed and the juice is used for treatment of typhoid  
Solanum nigrum L. [SOLANACEAE] (MJM 3174) Shwiga S For de-worming (hookworms) and treating ring worms and warts. Also used for blood pressure and preventing children from bed wetting LFR For the treatment of ringworms the leaves are pounded and applied topically. The leaves can also also be pounded and baked under fire before being used for dressing a wart. The ripe fruit is used to treat bed wetting Reported to have hypertensive activity and has shown hypotensive effect in the dog [50, 51]
Solanum aculeastrum Dunal [SOLANACEAE] (MJM 3138) Omulembezi/Entobatobe S For malaria, febrile convulsions and goitre FR, L The fruits are placed under ash fire and then applied to the affected area. It is also used to rub the adder of a cow to stimulate milk production. It is mixed with the leaves of Orthosiphon suffrutescens) and Sesbania sesban for treatment of febrile convulsions  
Clerodendrum myricoides R.Br. [VERBENACEAE] (MJM 3198) Ekisheke S For malaria, febrile convulsions, abdominal colics and used for making soap and as a lucky charm SBRL The stem bark is boiled with water and half a teaspoonful of the decoction is administerd orally. It can also be applied topically. as a lucky charm or as soap Root extracts showed invitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum [52, 53]
  1. Key: S shrub, T Tree, H herb, CL climber, CL-H Climber herb: SB Stem bark, R roots, L leaves; AP aerial parts, FR fruits, SD seeds TB Tubers