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Table 2 Ethnomedicinal plants of Terai forest in western Nepal and their traditional therapeutic uses

From: An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

Botanical name, family, voucher no. F Local name/habit/availability Parts used Usages
Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd., Fabaceae, AGS-45 22 Khayar (N/M)/Tree/Wild/Rare Bark, wood *Bark powder is applied on tooth ache. *Wood decoction is given orally in intestinal pain. Bark paste is applied in skin diseases.
Acalypha indica L., Euphorbiaceae, AGS-66 15 Mukta barshi jhar (N),/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant *Plant decoction is given orally in toothache and earache. *Leaf paste is applied on burns. *Fresh leaf juice is applied on rheumatoid arthritis.
Acorus calamus L. Acoraceae, AGS-71 27 Bojho (N)/Katara (Th)/Herb/Wild Root Juice of root is given orally in stomach disorders, bronchitis, fever and its small piece chewed to clear the throat and open the voice.
Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae, AGS- 33 33 Ulta chirchiri (Th)/Datiwan (N)/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant Decoction of plant is given as diuretic. Root juice is applied to treat toothache. *Root juice is given orally asthma. Stem is used as toothbrush in tooth problems.
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb., Rutaceae, AGS- 25 20 Bel (N/Th) /Tree/Cultivated Fruit pulp, leaf and root Fruit juice is given orally in Diarrhoea and dysentery. Leaves are given orally in stomach disorders. *Root juice is given orally in fever and vomiting.
Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae, AGS-49 38 Gandhe jhar (N)/Gandhaula (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Leaf Leaf juice is given to cure bleeding from cuts and wounds. Plant paste is applied to cure muddy wounds between toes during rainy season.
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Aloaceae, AGS- 38 35 Ghiu Kumari (N)/Ghrit Kumari (Th) Herb/Cultivated Leaf juice Leaf pulp *Leaf pulp is given orally in lung disease and stomach disorders. Leaf pulp is applied on skin burns.
Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae, AGS-15 38 Ban lunde (N)/Kande Lundo (M)/Herb/Wild, easily Tender shoot, root Root decoction is given as diuretic. Tender shoot is given to cure leucorrhoea, flatulence, and colic pain.
Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae, AGS-11 36 Bharbhanda (Th)/Herb/Wild, easily Milky juice and root Milky juice of the plant is applied on tumors and skin diseases. Root paste is applied on skin diseases and flatulence.
Artemisia indica Willd. Asteraceae, AGS-52 18 Tite pati (N)/Pati (Th)/Herb/wild or cultivated Tender shoot and leaves *Leaf juice is given orally in bronchitis. Leaf paste is applied in skin diseases. Dried tender shoot powder is given orally in fever.
Asparagus racemosus Willd., Liliaceae, AGS-28 31 Kurilo(N)/Santawar (Th)/Herb/cultivated Tuberous root Dried root powder is given orally with hot water to cure urinary troubles. Root decoction is given orally after delivery as tonic. Tuberous root powder is given orally to increase lactation.
Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, AGS- 8 76 Neem (N/M/Th)/Tree/Wild and cultivated Tender shoot, leaf and bark/Tree Decoction of fresh leaves is used to wash skin to treat scabies. Young stem is used as tooth brush in tooth problems. Fresh leaves are given orally for the purification of blood and for control of sugar level. Tender twigs paste is applied on wounds for early healing.
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel, Scorphulariaceae, AGS-21 16 Jal nim, Brahami(N)/Khole Sag (M/Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily in northern parts, rare in southern parts Entire plants/Herb Plant juice is given orally as diuretic, cardiac tonic and memory enhancer. Plant juice is given as hair tonic especially in thinning and falling hairs.
Bauhinia variegata L. Fabaceae, AGS-68 42 Koiralo (N)/Koilar (Th)/Tree/cultivated Bark and flower juice *Bark decoction and flower juice are given in Diarrhoea, dysentery, indigestion and body ache. *Bark decoction is given to cure tumors.
Bombax ceiba L. Bombacaceae, AGS- 35 22 Simal (N)/Semar (Th)/Tree/Wild/Rare Root Root decoction is given as tonic, anti-dysenteric and in urinary troubles. *Bark decoction is given orally in bronchial diseases.
Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T. Aiton, Asclepiadaceae, AGS-12 15 Aank (N)/Madar (Th)/Shrub/Wild/Easily Root, Milky latex and flower/Shrub Root paste applied on boils, pimples, and skin disease. Milky latex is applied on muscular pain, cut, wounds, boils, and ringworm. *Flower powder is given orally in cough, cold, and bronchitis.
Carica papaya L. Caricaceae 18 Mewa (N)/Papita, Larmewa (Th)/Shrub/cultivated Latex and fruit *Milky latex is given in toothache and dysentery.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Apiaceae, AGS- 36 29 Ghod Tapre (N)/Ghortapya, Bhatbhate(Th)/Herb/wild Entire plant Plant decoction is given orally as diuretic, tonic, blood purifier and in skin diseases, leprosy, and mental disorder. Leaf juice is given orally in indigestion.
Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae, AGS-9 27 Bethe (N)/Bethuwa (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Tender shoot and flower Tender shoot and flower juice is given orally to kill and expel the round worm and in constipation.
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. Rutaceae, 49 Kagati (N)/Nibuwa (Th)/Shrub/Cultivated Leaves and fruit *Leaves are chewed to expel intestinal worms. *Rind paste and fruit juice is applied in pimples and dandruff.
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Araceae, AGS-19 20 Pindalu, Karkalo (N)/Gabha, Ghuiya (Th)/Herb/cultivated Corm and tender aerial parts *Petioles used as green vegetables in liver problems. *Corm paste is applied over cuts/wounds to stop bleeding.
Coriandrum sativum L. Apiaceae 18 Dhaniya (N/M/Th)/Herb/cultivated Leaf and seeds *Leaf paste is applied on allergic inflammation. *Green leaves are used in the preparation of soft drink along with sugar and given orally inx stomachache.
Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae 84 Besar (N)/Hardi (Th)/Herb/Cultivated Rhizome Rhizome decoction is given as stimulant, tonic, and blood purifier. Rhizome paste is externally applied on strains, wounds, and injuries. Fresh rhizome juice is given as anthelmintic. Rhizome powder is given orally with luck warm water in jaundice and liver disorders.
Curcuma amada Roxb. Zingiberaceae, AGS-34 31 Aama haldi (N)/Amaadi (Th) /Herb/ Cultivated Rhizome/Herb *Rhizome powder is given as digestive to clean throat and tongue. *Rhizome paste is externally applied on strains, rheumatism, and inflammation.
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Convolvulaceae, AGS- 65 53 Aakashbeli (N)/Baora (Th)/Parasitic climber/wild Entire plant *Juice of the plant is given orally to treat fever. Plant paste is applied externally to treat headache, stomachache and rheumatism. Plant paste is applied on fractures.
Cymbopogon citratis (DC. ex. Nees) Stapf, Poaceae, AGS-50 16 Pire ghans (N)/Kagati ghans(Th)/Herb/Cultivated Leaves Leaves are used to make tea and given orally in cough, cold, headache, and fever.
Cyperus rotundus L. Cyperaceae, AGS-48 20 Mothe (N)/Bhada (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Tuber Tuber infusion, with sugar/salt is given orally in dysentery, Diarrhoea, and indigestion and as anti inflammatory agent.
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Poaceae, AGS-5 27 Dubo (N)/Dub (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant Plant paste is applied on cuts and wounds. *Root infusion along with sugar is given orally in bleeding piles and indigestion. *Plant juice used as eardrop in earache.
Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Fabaceae, AGS-40 18 Sisau (N)/Sisava (Th)/Tree/cultivated and wild Bark and leaf juice Bark and leaf juice are given orally in Diarrhoea, dysentery and as anthelmintic. It is applied externally on cut and wounds. *Leaf decoction is given orally in gonorrhea.
Datura metel L. Solanaceae, AGS-3 16 Kalo Dhaturo (N/M)/herb/Wild/Easily Leaf, stem and seed Leaves juice is given orally in epilepsy. *Dried stem and leaves are smoked in asthma. *Seeds are boiled in mustard oil and massaged on joint pains.
Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn. ex Munro, Poaceae, AGS-67 27 Tama Bans (N/M)/Shrub/Wild/Easily Tender shoot and stem node *Stem node paste is applied on boils. *Tender shoots (Tama) is consumed as vegetable as aphrodisiac.
Dioscorea pentaphylla L., Dioscoreaceae, AGS-32 18 Bhyakur (N)/Ban Tarul (Th)/Climber/Wild Rhizome *Boiled Rhizome is given orally in abdominal pain.
Drymaria diandra Blume Caryophyllaceae, AGS-64 16 Abijalo (N), Sirbire Jhar (Th)/Herb/Wild/Rare Entire plant Root juice is inhaled to treat sinusitis.
Eclipta prostrata L. Asteraceae, AGS-6 22 Bhringi jhar, Bhringraaj (N)/Bhangaraila (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant Plant paste is applied on cut, wounds, skin diseases, and pimples.
Euphorbia hirta L. Euphorbiaceae, AGS-22 33 Dudhe Jhar (N)//Doodhe Jharra (Th) Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant Plant juice is applied on cuts and wounds. Leaf juice is given orally in diarrhoea.
Ficus benghalensis L., Moraceae, AGS-30 29 Bar (N)/Bargad (Th)/Tree/Wild/Easily Bark and milky latex/Tree Bark infusion is given orally in diabetes. *Milky latex is applied on muscular pain.
Gloriosa superba L., Liliaceae, AGS-31 38 Karihari, Kewari (N)/Climber/Wild/Easy   *Rhizome paste is applied externally on ringworm and other skin diseases.
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Convolvulaceae, AGS-16 40 Kerunga Sag (N)/Kermua Sag, Karmaiya Sag (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Tender shoot *Tender shoot is used as vegetable in gastric trouble and general debility.
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae 16 Shakarkand (N)/Herb/Cultivated Tuberous root and leaf juice *Leaf juice is given orally in diabetes.
Ipomoea carnea Jacq. ssp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D. Austin, Convolvulaceae, AGS-23 16 Behaya (Th),Besharam (N)/Shrub/Wild/Easily Latex of leaf and tender shoot *Latex of leaf and tender shoot are applied as antiseptic on wounds between toes in rainy seasons.
Justicia adhatoda L., Acanthaceae, AGS-14 42 Asuro (N)/Ross (Th)/Shrub/Wild/Easily Leaf Warm decoction of the leaves is given to treat asthma. Juice of fresh leaves along with honey is given orally as expectorant. Juice of leaf is inhaled in bleeding nose (sinusitis). Dried powder of entire plant parts is given in bronchitis and cough.
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Cucurbitaceae 18 Lauka (N)/Climber/Cultivated Leaf, fruit and seed *Leaf decoction with sugar is given in jaundice. Fruit juice is given in diarrhoea and, dysentery *Seeds are given as mental tonic.
Lepidium sativum L., Brassicaceae, AGS-63, 33 Chamsur (N/Th)/Herb/Cultivated and wild Entire plant Seed paste is applied on rheumatism. *Fresh leaves are given orally in liver problems.
Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, 18 Tishi (Th), Alasa (N)/Herb/Cultivated Seed, and seed oil Seed oil is applied on burns and boils. *Seed poultice is applied on rheumatic and swellings.
Malva parviflora L., Malvaceae, AGS-31 25 Laphe sag (N)/Bariyara (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Tender shoots & Seeds Decoction of seeds is given orally in cough and bronchitis. Tender shoots are given orally to treat swollen glands of throat. *Decoction of tender shoot and seeds are given orally to control irregular menstrual cycle.
Melia azadirachta L., Meliaceae, AGS- 41 60 Bakaino (N)/Bakain (Th)/Tree/Wild/Easy Entire plant Root decoction is given orally as blood purifier. Leaf paste is applied on scabies. Poultice of flower is applied externally in skin eruption.
Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae, AGS-18 38 Pudina (N)/Patina (Th)/Herb/Cultivated Entire plant Leaves decoction is given orally to cure throat infection and indigestion. *Decoction of leaves with cinnamon is given orally to women for easy delivery.
Mimosa pudica L., Fabaceae, AGS-60 20 Boohari Jhar (N)/Lajjalu Jhar (Th)/herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant *Leaf paste is applied on hydrocele. *Leaf and root paste are given orally in piles. Decoction of plant is given in Diarrhoea, dysentery and leucorrhoea.
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., Fabaceae, AGS-53 27 Kauso (N)/Kewanch (Th) Climber/Wild/Easily Roots, fruits and seeds Root decoction is useful in frequent urination. *Leaf decoction is given orally in weakness and headache.
Musa paradisiaca L., Musaceae 18 Kera (N/M/Th)/Shrub/Cultivated Leaf, flower and fruit Unripe fruits are roasted and given orally in Diarrhoea and dysentery. Extract of flowers, fruits and leaves are applied on skin burns. Stem extract reduces sugar level in blood.
Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Lamiaceae, AGS-24 47 Krishna Tulsi (N)/Kalo Tulsi (M)/Tilsi (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plants/Herb Decoction of, plant is given in fever, cough, cold, headache, nausea, Diarrhoea, dysentery and skin diseases. Leaf juice is used as ear drops in earache. Leaf powder with honey is given orally in diabetics.
Phragmites vallatoria (L.) Veldkamp, Poaceae, AGS-64, 21 Narkat (N//M/Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Root/Herb *Root decoction is given orally as refrigerant, diuretic and diaphoretic.
Phyllanthus emblica L., Euphorbiaceae, AGS-17 45 Amala (N)/Aura (Th)/Tree/cultivated, Bark juice and fruit. Bark juice is given orally in dysentery, constipation, and body ache. Fruits decoction is given orally in shore throat and as tonic.
Polygonum barbatum L., Polygonaceae, AGS-26, 13 Pire Jhar (N)/Bisnair (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant Poultice is applied externally on swelling parts of the body. *Root is given orally as astringent and cooling agent. Leaf decoction is applied externally to wash ulcers.
Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz Apocynaceae, AGS-37 47 Sarpagandha (N)/Chand maruwa (M)/Dhaldhaliya (Th)/Shrub/Rare in southern parts and Cultivated in northern parts Leaf & root Dried root powder is given orally to reduce high blood pressure. Root infusion is given orally in intestinal disorders. *Leaf juice is used as remedy for the removal of opacities of cornea. Root paste is applied on cuts, wounds, or boils.
Rumex nepalensis Spreng, Polygonaceae, AGS-61 24 Halhale Sag (N/Th)/Ban Palungo (M)/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant Seeds infusion is used in mouth disorders. Root paste applied externally on joint pains and wounds. Fresh leaf extract and sap is applied on cuts, wounds, and swellings.
Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae, AGS-4 31 Ander (N)/Redi, Yamyam (Th)/Shrub/Wild/Easily Root and seed Root juice is given orally in diarrhoea, dysentery, and skin diseases. *Seed oil is applied as massage for babies and also applied on sole to relief from burning sensation. Seed oil is given orally in constipation and rheumatic pain.
Shorea robusta C.F. Gaertn., Dipterocarpaceae, AGS19 20 Sal (N)/Sakhuwa (Th)/Tree/Wild and cultivated Root, Bark, resin and seed Decoction is given orally in Diarrhoea and bloody dysentery. *Bark juice is used as eardrop in earache.
Solanum nigrum L., Solanaceae, AGS-2 36 Kali gedi (N)/Kamai (Th)/Herb/Wild/Easily Entire plant *Unripe fruits paste is applied on ringworm. Ripe fruits are given orally in constipation. Plant paste is applied externally in headaches and joint pain. Plant juice is given orally in liver enlargement, dysentery and fever
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Myrtaceae, AGS-29 40 Phader (N)/Jamuno (M)/Jam (Th)/Tree/Wild and cultivated Bark and fruit Bark juice is given orally in Diarrhoea, dysentery, cut and wounds. Fruits are given orally in indigestion and constipation. Bark, Leaf and seed powder is given orally to reduce sugar level in blood.
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Combretaceae, AGS-39 36 Barro (N)/Baheda (Th)/Tree/cultivated Stem bark and fruit. Bark juice is applied externally in cut, wounds, and skin diseases. Fruits powder is given orally in cough, cold, respiratory problems, fever, and indigestion.
Terminalia chebula Retz., Combretaceae, AGS-64 36 Harro (N)/Harad (Th)/Tree/cultivated Stem bark and fruit. *Bark is chewed in urinary problems. Fruits are given orally in cough, cold, respiratory troubles, fever, and indigestion and stomach problems.
Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae, AGS-47 16 Gokharu, Gaikhure Jhar (N)/Herb/Wild/Rare Entire plant *Decoction is given orally in urinogenital tract infection.
Vitex negundo L., Vitaceae, AGS-69 38 Simali (N)/Shrub/Wild/Easily Leaf juice and bark Leaf juice is given orally in cough, cold, sinusitis, fever, stomach problems, and rheumatic swellings. Bark paste is applied on boils.
Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae 73 Aduwa (N)/Suntho (Th)/Herb/cultivated Rhizome Rhizome juice is given in cough, cold, fever, indigestion, and constipation. Rhizome is chewed in bronchial infections.
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam., Rhamnaceae, AGS-43 51 Bayer (N)/Tree/Wild/easily Stem bark and fruit. The juice of bark is given orally to treat Diarrhoea and dysentery. Ripe fruit are given orally in indigestion, constipation and other stomach problems.
  1. #Exact doses and duration of treatment are considered as intellectual property of informants, so as per their request this information is not included in the present paper. F = Frequency of citation; N = Nepali; M = Magar; Th = Tharu. * = New reports.