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Table 1 Ethnobotanical uses of plants of Patriata, New Murree

From: Ethnobotanical appraisal and medicinal use of plants in Patriata, New Murree, evidence from Pakistan

S. no Plants names/voucher number Local name Family Ethnobotanical uses
01 Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd/ej-03 Kikar Mimosaceae Bark along with leaves of Olea ferruginea were used for tea making by the people in early days used for treating skin diseases and as cooling agent. Wood is used in roof thatching, fuel wood, coal formation and fencing.
02 Acacia modesta L./ej-04 Phulai Mimosaceae Branches are used as tooth stick (Miswak) for teeth cleansing and tooth decay. The gum is used as tonic and given in general weakness. Wood is used for agricultural implements e.g. Hull, fuel, branches used for fencing fields and leaves are browsed by goats.
03 Achyranthis aspera L./ej-06 Puth Kanda, Chooroon Amaranthaceae Roots and leaves are boiled in water to make decoction, which is given in toothache and digestive problems. Leaf paste is applied externally on insect bite. The powder of roots is used in bloody diarrhoea.
04 Adiantum capilus - veneris L./ej-07 Hansraal Adiantaceae Decoction of leaves is prescribed in cold, cough, flue and asthma.
05 Aesculus indica (Wall ex Camb.) Hook. f./ej-09 Ban khor Hippocastinaceae Oil extracted from fresh fruits is applied externally on wounds. The powder of seeds is taken orally against acidity and digestive problems for both humans and animals. Leaves are used as fodder and dried branches are used for fuel source.
06 Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Ex Benth./ej-11 Guchi Lamiaceae The leaf paste is used orally against constipation.
07 Aloe vera (L.) Burm f./ej-12 Kanwar gandal Aloaceae The salt is dusted on pulp and kept overnight under moonlight which is given early morning to treat tumours in the digestive tract. The same is given as an appetizer and tonic. As an appetizer and treatment of leprosy, the same is given to cattle.
08 Alternanthera pungens Kunth./ej-13 Lundri Amaranthaceae The powder of plant is used in jaundice. Whole plant is used for fodder.
09 Amaranthis viridis L./ej-14 Ganiar Amaranthaceae Fresh green leaves are used as potherb and given to treat constipation. Aerial parts are used as fodder and leaves are given to young animals to induce puberty.
10 Artimesia scoparia Waldst & Kit./ej-22 Chahoo Asteraceae Juice of fresh leaves mixed with brown sugar and given orally in malarial fever, skin disease like scabies, pimples and supposed to possess cooling effects. The plant is used as fodder.
11 Asparagus adscendense Roxb./ej-24 Sumbloo, Sufaid Musli Asparagaceae The extract of tuberous roots is used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Tubers are also used for animal problems. Leaves are browsed by goats.
12 Bauhinia variegata L./ej-30 Kachnar, Kuliarh Caesalpinaceae Buds locally called “Kalian” are used as vegetable given in digestive problems. The leaves are used as fodder and branches as fuel.
13 Berberis lycium Royle./ej-31 Sumbal Berberidaceae The paste of root bark is externally applied on wounds. Powdered bark is mixed in water and the paste is applied on bone fracture. Crushed bark is soaked in water and the resultant extract is taken early morning to treat diabetes, scabies, boils and pimples. The extract possesses cooling effect and seldom used in winter season. Fruits are edible. Leaves are used as fodder and dried branches for fuel.
14 Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb./ej-32 Bhat-Phay Saxifragaceae The powder of roots is given along with Deesi ghee in diabetes and skin diseases. The same is believed in reducing blood cholesterol.
15 Bergenia stracheyi (Hook f. & Thoms.) Engle./ej-33 Bhat-Phay Saxifragaceae The powder of roots is dusted on wounds. The powder of roots is given with milk orally early morning for digestive ulcers. Aerial parts of the plant are grazed by animals.
16 Bombax ceiba L./ej-36 Sanbal Bombacaceae Large pieces of bark are removed and tied over the wounds to heal. The wood is used for fuel source. Cottony fibres attached with seeds used in stuffing pillows.
17 Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L’Herit ex Vent./ej-37 Jangli Toot Moraceae This plant is planted in sliding areas because of its rapid vegetative propagation. Leaves are used as fodder and other parts for fuel wood.
18 Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br./ej-39 Aak Asclepiadaceae The leaves are warmed and tied over the wounds and used as poultice for their quick healing. The latex from stem and leaves is applied upon teeth to get rid of the worms. Extreme care must be taken because latex is extremely poisonous. Latex is applied externally on skin diseases.
19 Carrisa opaca Stapf. Ex. Haines/ej-42 Garanda Apocynaceae Decoction of fresh leaves is used against hepatitis and jaundice. Fruits are edible and used as digestive stimulant. Fruits are edible and also sold by poor people for generating their income. Dried branches are used for fuel and the leaves are browsed by goats.
20 Cassia fistula L./ej-43 Amaltas Caesalpinaceae The pulp of fruits is used against constipation. Leaves are used as fodder and dried branches are used for fuel. The fruits are collected by local herb sellers called “Pensaries” and Hakeems and used in various herbal medicines. Pulp of fruits is also used to relieve constipation in cattle.
21 Cedrus deodara (Royle. ex Lamb.) Loud./ej-44 Diarr, Deodar Pinaceae Small pieces of stem are boiled in water to get oily extract called “Lou” which is used as aphrodisiac. The wood of plant is used for making doors, windows and cupboards. It is considered very unique for interior wood-work due to its characteristic smell, insect resistance and is also very expensive.
22 Chinopodium album L./ej-48 Bathu, Karhan saag Chinopodiaceae Fresh green leaves are used as spinach. It is used as a digestive stimulant. Leaves are used as fodder.
23 Cissampelos pareira L./ej-52 Ghorhi Sumbi, Pla jarrhi Menispermaceae Fresh leaves are crushed and the extract mixed with sugar is used against diarrhoea and dysentery. Leaves are used as fodder.
24 Convolvulus arvensis L./ej-58 Lily Convolvulaceae Leaves are used as spinach to get rid of intestinal worms. The plant is having purgative effect and is also used against constipation.
25 Cotinus coggyra Scop./ej-63 Bhann, Phann. Anacardiaceae The leaves are used for fodder purpose. Dried branches are used for fuel wood. Its young branches are used to make baskets. It branches are twisted to be used as ropes.
26 Dabregeasia salicifolia (D. Don) Rendle/ej-68 Sindwaar Urticaceae The fruits are grinded and are used against bloody diarrhoea. Leaves and branches are used as fodder.
27 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb./ej-71 Shishum, Taali Papilionaceae Its plant is excellent source of furniture wood. The wood is highly durable and insect resistant. Wood is also used for fuel.
28 Diosypros lotus L./ej-74 Amlok Ebenaceae The fruits are edible and are used against stomach problems and dyspepsia. The leaves are used as fodder and dried branches for fuel.
29 Dodonea viscosa (L.) Jacq./ej-75 Sanatha Sapindaceae The leaves are boiled in water and steam is inhaled to get relief from respiratory problems like cold, cough and asthma. Dried branches are used for fuel for producing heat without smoke.
30 Dryopteris ramosa (C. Hope) C. Chr./ej-76 Pakha, Pakhi Dryopteridaceae Collection of Young leaves is made in spring season and used as vegetable. It is effective against gastric ulcer and constipation. Leaves are used as fodder.
31 Duchesnia indica (Andr.) Focke/ej-77   Rosaceae Fruits paste is used against bloody diarrhoea. Whole plant is also used as fodder.
32 Echinopes echinatus Roxb./ej-78 Hand, Barhong Asteraceae Leaves are boiled and the decoction is taken orally against swelling in the body. The leaves are also used as spinach. Aerial parts are used as fodder for camels.
33 Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruct./ej-79 Amla Euphorbiaceae Fruits are boiled, the pulp is dried and stored and later on used for making curry called “Chitt”. It is also a strong digestive stimulant and also has a cooling effect. Extract of the dried fruits alone or mixed with yoghurt is also used against jaundice. Leaves are browsed by goats. Dried wood is used for fuel. Fruits are sold in the market.
34 Eruca sativa L./ej-82 Tara Meera Brassicaceae The leaves and young branches are used as spinach and are believed to be effective against skin diseases, constipation and digestive ulcers. Whole plant is used for fodder.
35 Ficus glomerata Roxb./ej-87 Phagwarh Moraceae Young leaves are tasted, if not bitter are collected as “Phagwalla” and cooked in “Lassi” (remains of milk after extracting butter) and is especially effective in treating intestinal problems. Fruits are edible and are effective against constipation. Fruits called “Phagwara” are edible. Branches are used as fuel.
36 Ficus virgata Reinwardt. ex Blume/ej-90 Tussi Moraceae Fruits are edible and are effective against digestive problems especially constipation. The young leaves called “barh kandlaan” are cooked in “Lassi” and are effective against digestive problems and have cooling effect. Dried branches are used for fuel wood.
37 Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merrill/ej-91 Kokoh Flacourtiaceae The fruits are edible and are also used against diabetes. Leaves are used as fodder and dried branches are used for fuel wood.
38 Geranium rotundifolium L./ej-95 Ratan-jot Geraniaceae The roots are dried and grinded, sugar and milk are added in it, and it is used for pain in joints and also as antispasmodic. Its roots are grinded and along with brown sugar used against blockage of urine and also believed to be having cooling effect.
39 Grewia optiva Drum. Ex. Burret./ej-98 Tamman, Dhamman Tiliaceae Leaves are given to cattle especially during delivery for quick discharge of afterbirth. It is also given to young animals to induce puberty. Branches are soaked in water and the detached bark is used for making ropes. Leaves are used as fodder.
40 Hedera nepalensis K. Koch./ej-100 Baleri, Albhambar Araliaceae The dried branches and leaves are grinded and the powder is used early in the morning with water against diabetes.
41 Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth./ej-106 Aerh Convolvulaceae Leaves are grinded and the extract is used for washing hairs to get rid of lices. Whole plant is used as fodder.
42 Jasminum officinale L./ej-108 Chambeli Oleaceae The aqueous extract of leaves is externally applied on skin having scabies or any allergic problem. The plant is also planted as ornamental on graves.
43 Juglans regia L./ej-109 Akhore, Akhrot Juglandiaceae Seeds are edible and are also effective for cardiac patients and as tonic. Pericarp of fruit, fresh leaves and bark (locally called Dandaasa) is used for cleaning of teeth and mouth ulcers. Dried wood is light weight and is used for making furniture. Wood is also used for fuel.
44 Justicia adhatoda L./ej-110 Baikkarh Acanthaceae Leaves are grinded and dissolved in water and this extract is taken orally early morning against diabetes, scabies, boils, pimples and other skin diseases. It is having drying effect and deesi ghee is used during its use. Dried branches are used for fuel. Green Leaves are used in producing smoky fire to drive away the insects from cattle.
45 Lepidium sativum L./ej-120 Halyan Brassicaceae Its seeds are put in eyes, which produce mucilage which is very effective in cleaning eyes and especially used to get rid of dust from eyes. When the seeds are taken out they carry these materials out.
46 Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardwicke/ej-121 Phutuk Caprifoliaceae Fresh leaves are crushed and the extract is poured in eyes to cure the cataract and to improve vision. Fresh leaves are used as fodder for goats.
47 Mallotus philipensis (Lam.) Muell./ej-123 Kamila Euphorbiaceae The fruits are crushed and used orally to treat bloody diarrhoea. The leaves are used as “Koochan” to wash utensils. The leaves are used as fodder and branches for fuel.
48 Medicago polymorpha L./ej-127 Maeserhi, Maina Fabaceae Leaves and young branches are picked and used as spinach. It is also effective against constipation and other digestive problems. Whole plant is used for fodder.
49 Melia azedarach L./ej-128 Dharek Meliaceae The leaves are grinded and the extract is used against scabies, pustules, pimples, boils and other skin diseases. Leaves are used as fodder and dried branches for fuel. It is also planted in lawns for shade in summer.
50 Mentha arvensis L./ej-130 Kala Poodina Lamiaceae Leaves of Mentha arvensis, young fruits of Zanthoxylum alatum are grinded with seeds of Punica granatum, and green chillies to make “Chatni” which is carminative and have cooling effect. It is also a digestive stimulant.
51 Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson/ej-131 Sufaid Poodina Lamiaceae Leaves of Mentha longifolia, young fruits of Zanthoxylum alatum are grinded with seeds of Punica granatum, and green chillies to make “Chatni” which is carminative and have cooling effect. It is also a digestive stimulant. Dried leaves are taken orally to stop vomiting. Its leaves are added in green tea and used for digestive problems and cholera.
52 Morus alba L./ej-137 Sufaid Shehtoot Moraceae The fruits are edible and are used as digestive stimulant and to relieve constipation and other digestive problems. The leaves are used for fodder. Wood is used for furniture and fuel.
53 Morus nigra L./ej-138 Kala Shehtoot Moraceae The fruits are edible and are used as digestive stimulant and to relieve constipation and other digestive problems. The leaves are used for fodder. Wood is used for furniture and fuel.
54 Myrsine Africana L./ej-139 Khookhal Myrsinaceae Grinded fruits are used against intestinal worms. Leaves are used as fodder and branches for fuel.
55 Nerium indicum Mill./ej-141 Ganeera, Kaner Apocynaceae The branches are used as Miswak (toothbrush) to get rid of worms, but its liquid extract in the branches and leaves is highly poisonous so extreme care should be taken not to be taken orally. The plant is used as ornamental due to its beautiful flowering.
56 Olea ferruginea Royle./ej-143 Kahu Oleaceae The leaves along with bark pieces of Acacia catechu were used by people in early days to make tea. It was especially used against cough, cold, flue and skin diseases. Young leaves are chewed to avoid toothache and mouth ulcers. Young branches are used as Miswak. The wood is extremely durable and is extensively used. Its elongated logs are used as guarders in roof thatching. The straight branches are used as handles for labour’s tools. The leaves are used as fodder and dry branches are used for fuel. The wood yield more heat without smoke so its wood is especially used during extreme winter. The wood is also insect resistant.
57 Olea glandulifera Wall. ex G. Don./ej-144 Barh-koh Oleaceae The leaves are used as fodder and dry branches are used for fuel.
58 Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss./ej-145 Chita jand Lamiaceae Leaves are boiled and the extract is taken orally against mouth ulcers and skin diseases. Young leaves are also chewed against mouth ulcers. The leaves are browsed by goats.
59 Oxalis corniculata L./ej-146 Khat-mith Oxalidaceae The leaves of the plant are crushed and the extract is used orally against jaundice. The whole plant is used for fodder.
60 Pinus roxburgii Sergent/ej-151 Chirr Pinaceae Juvenile apex of the stem is grinded and is used against bloody diarrhoea. Tuberculosis patients are advised to keep sitting under its shade for quick recovery. The wood of the plant is used for timber and fuel purpose. The resin obtained is used in soap industry. The seeds are edible. Dried leaves and logs are used in roof thatching. The heartwood is highly inflammable and its small pieces are used for ignition purpose at homes.
61 Pinus wallichiana Jackson/ej-152 Bainrh, Biarh Pinaceae The wood of the plant is used as timber and fuel. It is also used for obtaining resin. Dried leaves and logs are used in roof thatching.
62 Plantago lanceolata L./ej-153 Batti, Chamchi patra Plantaginaceae The leaves are crushed and mixed with brown sugar and used as cooling agent for stomach.
63 Punica granatum L./ej-159 Darruni Punicaceae The seeds along with young fruits of Zanthoxylum alatum, leaves of Mentha longifolia and green chillies are used to make “Chattni” which is a digestive stimulant. Its seeds are highly carminative. Extract of seeds have cooling effect and is especially used in summer. The rind of fruits is dried, powdered and mixed with sugar is used against diarrhoea for both humans and cattle. Branches are used for fuel and also for fencing the fields. Seeds are edible which are dried for making “Anar-dana” which is used as condiment.
64 Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don./ej-161 Batangi Rosaceae The fruit is edible and is used against diarrhoea. The dried fruit may be used after crushing. Fruit is edible and the leaves are also used as fodder. Branches are used for fuel.
65 Quercus incana Roxb./ej-162 Rein, Shah-baloot Fagaceae Pieces of bark are boiled in water to get their decoction, which is very effective against joint pain and is also having cooling effect. Elongated logs are used as guarders in roof thatching. Branches are used for fuel.
66 Ricinus communis L./ej-167 Arand, Hernoli Euphorbiaceae The oil extracted from seeds of the plant is called “Castor oil” which is used as purgative. The leaves are used as poultice in rheumatic joints. Branches are used for fuel.
67 Rosa brunonii Lindl./ej-168 Jangli Gulab Rosaceae Fresh flowers are externally massaged on skin infected from scabies. Flowers petals are used to make “Gulkand” which is believed to be effective against digestive and heart problems. The plant is used as ornamental.
68 Rubus ellipticus Smith./ej-169 Aakha Rosaceae Fruit is edible and is having cooling effect. Spiny branches are used as fence around fields. Leaves are browsed by goats.
69 Rubus fruiticosus L./ej-170 Aakha Rosaceae Fruits are edible and have cooling effect. Spiny branches are used in fencing. Leaves are browsed by goats.
70 Rumex dentatis L./ej-172 Khoe, Jangli Palak Polygonaceae The extract of the leaves is used as antiseptic against wounds and skin problems. Young leaves are used as vegetable. The whole plant is used for fodder.
71 Rumex haustatus D. Don/ej-173 Khatimmer Polygonaceae Leaves are grinded and used against jaundice. Decoction of roots is also used against jaundice.
72 Rumex nepelansis Spreng./ej-174 Khoe, Jangli Palak Polygonaceae The extract of the leaves is used as antiseptic against wounds and skin problems. Young leaves are used as vegetable.
73 Salix babylonica L./ej-176 Beiss Salicaceae Grinded roots are used for their cooling effects. The wood of the plant is used in making furniture. Dried branches are used for fuel. It is also planted in sliding areas.
74 Sapindus mukorrossii Gaertn./ej-178 Retha Sapindaceae The fruits are soaked in water and are used in washing hairs to make them healthy and silky. Dried branches are used for fuel.
75 Saussuria heteromala DC./ej-180 Kali Zeeri Asteraceae Seeds are grinded and used against skin diseases especially scabies, pimples etc. The plant is used for fodder.
76 Solanum nigrum L./ej-187 Mako, Kach maach Solanaceae Leaves and fruits are cooked and used against abdominal swellings and stomach-ache. It is also used as spinach by cardiac patients.
77 Solanum surratense Burm. F./ej-189 Mokrhi, Kandiari Solanaceae The extract of leaves is applied on body swellings to get relief. Its seeds are burnt in “Chehlum” and the smoke is inhaled to get relief from toothach. Fruits and leaves are boiled and the decoction is mixed in water and used for taking bath against skin diseases.
78 Solanum villosum (L.) Moench/ej-186 Kach-maach Solanaceae The leaves are cooked and used as spinach by cardiac patients.
79 Sonchus asper (L.) Hill/ej-190 Duddal Solanaceae Decoction of leaves and roots is taken orally against fever. It is also used against pimples, diabetes, scabies and other skin problems in the form of spinach. The plant is also used as fodder.
80 Spermadictyon suaviolens Roxb./ej-192 Phisanni Rubiaceae The leaves are used as fodder, and especially browsed by goats.
81 Swertia chiraita (Wall.) C.B. Clarke/ej-194 Charaita Gentianaceae The leaves are grinded and the paste is dissolved in water along with some brown sugar and is used against fever especially malaria.
82 Swertia cordata Wall./ej-195 Charaita Gentianaceae The leaves paste along with some brown sugar is used against fever especially malaria.
83 Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels/ej-197 Jaman Myrtaceae Fruits are edible and are believed to be effective against cardiac problems. The dried seeds are grinded and the powder is used against diabetes. The leaves are used for fodder purpose. Wood is used for fuel. Due to light weight wood is used to make furniture.
84 Tribulus terestris L./ej-202 Bhakrha Zygophyllaceae The whole plant is dried, powdered and is use to ease menstrual flow, relieve constipation and its high dose is used in abortion.
85 Trichodesma indica (L.) R.Br./ej-203 Hundusi, Gao-zaban Boraginaceae The leaves paste is mixed with water and brown sugar and is given orally against diarrhoea and dysentery.
86 Verbena officinale L./ej-206 Chooroon Verbenaceae Leaves paste is used against rheumatic and joint pain.
87 Viola canescense Wall. ex Roxb./ej-210 Banafsha Violaceae The leaves past is mixed with brown sugar to be used against cough, cold and other respiratory problems.
88 Vitex negundo L./ej-211 Marvan Verbenaceae Decoction of leaves is used orally in very small amounts, and externally for taking bath against skin diseases. Leaves and branches are placed in stored wheat grains and other cereals to avoid insect pests. Dried branches are also used for fuel.
89 Woodfordia fruiticosa (L.) S. Kurz./ej-213 Dhaawi, Taavi Vitaceae Flowers are dried and powdered. This powder is used locally by females for abortion. These are also used in fewer amounts to ease menstrual flow. Leaves are used as fodder and Branches as fuel.
90 Xylosma longifolium Clos./ej-215 Batti Flacourtiaceae Dried branches are used for fuel. Long and straight branches are used as support for various purposes.
91 Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb./ej-216 Timber, Timmer Rutaceae Young fruits are grinded with seeds of Punica granatum, leaves of Mentha longifolia and green chillies to make “Chatni”. Its fruits are highly carminative and also used against stomach-ach and dyspepsia. Young branches are used as “Miswak” just like toothbrush. Leaves are browsed by goats. Spiny branches are use as fence around fields. Straight branches are used as walking sticks.
92 Zizyphus mauritiana Lam./ej-217 Bair, Beri Rhamnaceae Fruits are edible and used as digestive stimulant. Leaves are browsed by goats. The spiny branches are used as fencing the fields.
93 Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew./ej-218 Amnui Rhamnaceae Roots are boiled in water to get decoction which is used against scabies, pustules and diabetes. Grinded roots are also used against jaundice. Fruits are edible and leaves are browsed by goats. Spiny branches are used in fencing the fields.