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Table 3 Wild food species used in the northern slope of the Qinling mountains (plant families given according to APGIII [69])

From: Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China)

Family Name Part used for food Habitat Frequency in Houzhenzi Frequency in Dali Name in Houzhenzi Name in Dali Ma Voucher specimen no.
  VASCULAR PLANTS           
Actinidiaceae Actinidia chinensis Planch. fr f *** *** yemihoutao 野猕猴桃 yemihoutao 野猕猴桃   193
  Actinidia polygama Franch. & Sav. fr f   1    gezaomihoutao 葛枣猕猴桃   
Amaranthaceae Achyranthes bidentata Blume ap e *   niuxi 牛膝     185
  Amaranthus caudatus L. ap r ** 1 tianximi 天西米 ximi 菥蓂   
  Amaranthus retroflexus L., A. paniculatus L., A. viridis L. etc. ap r **** **** hancai, renhancai 汉菜, 人汉菜, hancai, renhancai 汉菜, 人汉菜,   56, 150
  Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium giganteum D. Don ap r **** *** huihuicai 灰灰菜 huihuicai 灰灰菜 x 49, 160, 216
  Chenopodium glaucum L. ap         x  
  Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. ap e * yes tiesaoba 铁扫把 dudusaozhou 独独扫帚   118, 218
Amaryllidaceae Allium funckiacfolium Hand.-Mazz. ap         x  
  Allium senescens L. ap e        x  
  Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mazz., Allium cf victorialis L. ap, u e * * gejiu, yejiu 茖韭, 野韭 gejiu 茖韭   200
  Allium paepalanthoides Airy Shaw ap, u e *** 1 tiansuan 天蒜 tiansuan 天蒜   27
  Allium spp. (Allium cf. senescens L.; Allium macrostemon Bunge) ap e **** **** aijiucai, aisuan, yesuan, yongbaotou, luoerjiu, zongbaotou, yejiucai 崖韭菜, 崖蒜, 野蒜, 罗儿韭,棕包头, 野韭菜 xiaosuan, luoerjiu, yancong, aisuan 小蒜, 罗儿韭, 岩葱, 崖蒜   201, 202, 229
  Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. ap e   1    yejiucai 野韭菜   227
Anacardiaceae Rhus potatninii Maxim. ap f 1 * wubeizishu 五倍子树 wubeizi 五倍子   
  Rhus verniciflua Stokes ap f * 1 qishu 漆树 qishuya 漆树芽   18
Apiaceae Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk. ap f *   yajiuban 鸭脚板     103, 171
  Daucus carota L. ap r        x  
  Ligusticum sinense Oliv. 'Chuanhsiung ' ap r * 1 chuanxiong 川芎 chuanxiong 川芎   51
  Ligusticum levisticum L. ap r   1    gaoben 藁本   
  Oenanthe javanica DC. ap x 1 ** beizhe 背折 shuiqincai 水芹菜 x 65, 213
  Pimpinella sp. ap f w ****   shuiqincai, shaqincai 水芹菜, 沙芹菜     105, 159
  Tongoloa silaifolia (de Bois.) Wolff ap e   1    taibaisanqi 太白三七   
Araliaceae Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W.Sm. ap f        x  
  Aralia chinensis L. ap f ** ** cilongpao 刺龙袍 cilongpao, cichuntou, laohanchuizi 刺龙袍, 刺椿头, 老汉锤子 x 2
Aristolochiaceae Asarum himalaicum Hook.f. & Thomson ex Klotzsch ap, u f *   maoxixin 毛细辛     7
  Asarum sieboldii Miq. ap, u f *   xixin 细辛     24, 163
Asclepiadiaceae Cynanchum giraldii Schltr. u f *   geshanxiao 隔山消     133
Asparagaceae Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua u f 1   huabeimaoqi 华北毛七     74
  Polygonatum megaphyllum P.Y.Li and Polygonatum odoratum L. u f *   yuzhu, yuzhushen 玉竹, 玉竹参     31, 34
  Smilacina japonica A.Gray , Smilacina henryi (Baker) Hara ap f * * piantoucai 偏头菜 piantoucai 偏头菜   6, 129
Asteraceae Carduus crispus L. ap         x  
  Anaphalis aureopunctata f.flavescens Lingelsh et Borza ap e *   shiqucao 鼠曲草     137
  Anaphalis margaritacea Benth. & Hook.f. ap e *   qingmingcai 清明菜     116, 161
  Arctium lappa L. ls, u x *   niubangzi 牛蒡子    x 23, 156
  Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. ap         x  
  Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot ap         x  
  Artemisia capillaris Thunb. ap         x  
  Artemisia subdigitata Mattf. ap r * * ai shuihao 水蒿   21
  Cacalia roborowskii (Maxim.) Y.Ling ap e *   xiongerduo 熊耳朵     44
  Cirsium arvense var. setosum (Willd.) C.A.Mey ap r ** ** honghuamiao, ciji 红花苗, 刺蓟 ciji 刺蓟   178, 210
  Cirsium spp. eg Cirsium botryoides Petrak ex Hand.-Mzt. ap r *   xiaoji 小蓟    x 62, 101, 117
  Cirsium segetum Bunge ap r         
  Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist ap r 1   guangguangcao 冠罐草     141
  Erigeron acer L. ap r 1   guangguangcao 冠罐草     59
  Hieracium sp. ap r **   kuma(i)cai 苦荬菜     197
  Ixeris denticulata (Houtt.) Stebbins ap r        x  
  Ixeris chinensis Nakai. ap f        x  
  Ixeris sonchifolia Hance ap r *** *** kumaicai 苦荬菜 kuqu   x 122
  Kalimeris pinnatifida (Maxim.) Kitam. ap e *   malantou 马兰头     52, 135, 180
  Lactuca serriola L. ap r **   xiaobaijiang, xiaokumacai, kumacai 小苦荬菜, 苦荬菜     107
  Leontopodium japonicum Miq. ap e *   shuqucao 鼠曲草     136
  Picris hieracioides L. ap r *   kumaicai 苦荬菜     123, 181
  Saussurea dolichopoda Diels ap f *** *** kongtongcai, kongxincai 空筒菜, 空心菜 xiangtongcai, kongxincai 响筒菜, 空心菜   177, 235
  Senecio scandens Ham. ap     jiuliming 九里明     
  Sinacalia tangutica (Maxim.) B.Nord. u e f * * shuiluobo 水萝卜 shuiluobo 水萝卜   43, 151
  Sonchus asper L ap r        x  
  Sonchus oleraceus L. ap r        x  
  Sylibum marianum L. ap         x  
  Taraxacum mongolicum Han.-Mzt ap r ** ** pugongying, kumaicai, dakucai 蒲公英,苦荬菜,大苦菜 pugongying 蒲公英 x 8
Balsaminaceae Impatiens notolopha Maxim. ap f *   daolaonnen 到老嫩     179
Begoniaceae Begonia sinensis A.DC. ap f *   yikouxie 一口血     138
Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris Medik. ap r *** * didicai 地地菜 diercai, didicai 地儿菜, 地地菜 x 25
  Cardamine engleriana O.E.Schultz. ap w   1    guangtoushansuimiji 光头山碎米荠   
  Cardamine macrophylla Willd. ap f w *** **** shijiacai 石夹菜 shijiacai 石夹菜   20
  Cardamine spp. (other smaller species e.g. Cardamine flexuosa With., C. hirsuta L.) ap f * * xiaoshijiacai 小石夹菜 huadidi, huadier 花地地(small caidamine)   228
  Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl ap e **   yinchen, mihao 因陈 , 米蒿     142
  Rorippa montana Small ap r * ** manjingcai, lalacai 蔓茎菜, 辣辣菜 lalacai, lazicai 辣辣, 辣子菜 x 234
  Rorippa indica L. ap r        x  
  Thlaspi arvense L. ap r *** * jidanhuang 鸡蛋黄 kugen 苦根   10, 228
Campanulaceae Adenophora spp. (Adenophora capillaris Hemsl., Adenophora polyantha Nakai) ap, u e *** *** naijiangcai 奶浆菜 naiercai, nainaicai 奶儿菜, 奶奶菜   134, 198, 199, 226
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera standishii Carr. fr f * ** kutangpao 苦糖泡 yangnaizi, kutangpao 羊奶, 苦糖泡   26
  Sambucus williamsii Hance ap f 1 1 jiegumu 接骨木 shuhuacai 树花菜   47
  Viburnum sargentii Koehne fr f 1   [no name]      99
Caryophyllaceae Arenaria serpyllifolia L. ap         x  
  Lychnis senno Siebold & Zucc. ap e *   honghuacai 黄花菜     57, 186
  Silene conoidea L. ap r * ** maipiancai 麦片菜 maihuaping 麦花瓶 x 140
  Stellaria media (L.) Vill. ap r *   eerchang 鹅儿肠     33, 152
  Vaccaria segetalis (Neck.) Garcke ap r   1    pangwawa 胖娃娃   
Celastraceae Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. ap f **** *** baiwanye 白蔓叶 baiwanye 白蔓叶   17
  Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold fr f 1 1 bashu, bamu 巴树, 巴木 bamu 巴木   
  Parnassia wightiana Wall. ap f 1   xinyecao 心叶草     147
Cephalotaxaceae Cephalotaxus sinensis (Rehder & E.H.Wilson) H.L.Li fr f * 1 baigeiguo, bizishu, shuibai, sunguo 白盖果,篦子树,水柏,松果 sanjianshanguo 三尖杉果   14, 164
Commelinaceae Commelina communis L. ap r *   danzhuye, zhuyecao, miandazi 淡竹叶,竹叶草,面鞑子     106, 158
Convallariaceae Tricyrtis macropoda Miq. ap f *** *** huangguacai 黄瓜菜 huangguacai 黄瓜菜   4, 176
Convolvulaceae Calystegia hederacea Wall. ap r   *    dawanhua, labahua 打碗花, 喇叭花 x  
  Cuscuta cf chinensis L. ap e   1    wugencao 无根草   
Cornaceae Cornus kousa Bürger ex Miq. fr f *** * shizao 石枣 shizaozi, yelizhi 石枣子, 野荔枝   16, 165
Corylaceae Corylus heterophylla Fisch. ex Besser fr f * 1 zhenzi, maoli, maolizishu, 榛子, 毛栗子树 zhenzi 榛子   15, 167
Crassulaceae Sedum aizoon L., S. sarmentosum Bunge, pampaninii Raym.-Hamet, S. lineare Thunb. ap e ** ** gouyaban, gouzacai, machijie, dabusi, chuipencao 狗牙瓣, 打不死 shitouya, gouyacai, manaocai 石头芽, 狗牙菜, 玛瑙菜   75, 131, 120, 127, 153, 192, 222
  Sedum amplibracteatum K.T.Fu ap f *** *** huaqiaoman, lazimiao, lajiaomiao, yelacai 花荞蔓, 野辣子苗苗, 辣椒苗, 叶辣菜 lajiaomiao, lalacai, lazicai, yelazi 辣椒苗, 辣子菜, 野辣子   168, 182
  Sedum verticillatum L. ap e   1    jingtiansanqi 景天三七   
Cucurbitaceae Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino ap e 1   jiaogulan 绞股蓝     no
Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn ap, u x **** **** juecai, juegen, longzhua 蕨菜, 蕨根, 龙爪菜 yangjuecai, yangjuegen 羊蕨菜, 羊蕨根 x 9, 214
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea batatas Decne. u f * * shanyao 山药 yeshanyao 野山药   53, 191, 209
Dryopteridaceae Cyrtomium fortunei J.Sm. ap         x  
  unidentified fern cf. Dryopteridaceae ap f 1   xiaojitoucai 小鸡头菜     111
Ebenaceae Diospyros lotus L. fr x   *    shishu, junqianzi 柿树, 君迁子   
Eleagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. fr e *** 1 yangnaizi, niunaizi 羊奶子, 牛奶子 jianzi 剪子   29, 232
  Hippophae rhamnoides L. fr x   1    xiaoguoshaji 小果沙棘   
Ericaceae Pyrola decorata Andres ap f *   hongru, shoucha 红茹,寿茶     68
  Pyrola rotundifolia L. ap f *   bairu, shoucha 白茹,寿茶     69
Fabaceae Cercis chinensis Bunge ap f   1    momoye 馍馍叶   208
  Kummerovia stipueacea (Makim.) Makino ap e      qiabuqi 掐不齐   
  Medicago sativa L. ap r *   muxicai 苜蓿菜     54
  Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi u e ** * gegen 葛根 gegen 葛根   
  Robinia pseudoacacia L. ap f * 1 huaihua 槐花 huaihua 槐花 x 40
  Vicia cracca L. ap r *   yewandoujian 野豌豆尖     3, 71
  Vicia sp. ap r   1    maoshaozi 毛苕子   
Fagaceae Castanea mollissima Blume fr f ** ** yemaoli, yebanli 野毛栗, 野板栗 yemaoli, yebanli 野毛栗, 野板栗   130
  Quercus variabilis Blume fr f 1   xiangzishu 橡子树     
Grossulariaceae Ribes glaciale Wall. fr f 1   [no name]      37
Helwingiaceae Helwingia japonica (Thunb.) F.Dietr. ap f **** **** yeshanghua 叶上花 yeshanghua, yeshanhua 叶上花, 叶扇花 x 22, 175
Juglandaceae Juglans cathayensis Dode fr f ** ** yehetao 野核桃 yehetao 野核桃   
Lamiaceae Caryopteris divaricata Maxim. ap f **** 1 choulaohan, laohanxiang 臭老汉/老汉香 choulaohan 臭老汉   109
  Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. ap f *   choumudan, choulaohan 臭牡丹,臭老汉     11
  Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth. ap e *   yebaicai, zelan 野白菜,泽兰     98
  Mentha haplocalyx Briq. ap e 1   bohe, yuxiangcao 薄荷,鱼香草     114
  Stachys affinis Bunge u r *   diguniu 地牯牛     67, 157
Lardizabalaceae Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. fr f *** **** bayuegua, bayuezha 奶浆菜, 八月炸 bayuegua, bayuezha 奶浆菜, 八月炸   119
  Decaisnea fargesii Franch. fr f *** *** maoshigua, yexiangjiao 猫屎瓜, 野香蕉 yexiangjiao, maoshigua, maoershi 野香蕉, 猫屎瓜, 猫儿屎   173
Liliaceae Hemerocallis spp. (Hemerocallis dumortierii C.Morren, Hemerocallis fulva L.) fl e ** * yehuanghua 野黄花 yehuanghua 野黄花   42, 139
  Lilium brownii F.E.Brown ex Spae u f        x  
  Lilium giganteum Wall. u w,f **   shuibaihe 水百合     35
  Lilium longiflorum Thunb. u         x  
  Lilium lancifolium Thunb. (as L. tigrinum) u x,w **   yebaihe 野百合     64, 124, 184
Linnaeaceae Abelia engleriana Rehder ap f *** * shenxiandoufu 神仙豆腐 shenxiandoufu 神仙豆腐   36
Malvaceae Grewia biloba G.Don. Var. Parviflora (Bge) Hand.-Mzt. fr e   1    gebengbeng 咯嘣蹦   
  Malva sinensis Cav. if r 1 1 dawanhua 打碗花 yejinkui 野锦葵   162, 221
Meliaceae Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. ap e **** **** xiangchun 香椿 xiangchun 香椿 x 5
Menispermaceae Cocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC. ap x   1    heimanye 黑蔓叶   233
Moraceae Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. ap, fl r * * goushuguo, gouye 构树果,构 叶 goutao 构桃 x 132
  Morus australis Poir. fr f *   sangpao, sangshu 桑泡,桑树     45
Onocleaceae Matteucia struthiopteris (L.) Tod. ap x **** **** jitoucai 鸡头菜 jiwacai, jiercai 鸡娃菜, 鸡儿菜   46, 174, 220
Orchidaceae Bletilla striata Rchb.f. u f 1   baiji 白芨     206
  Gastrodia elata Blume u f   1    tianma 天麻   
Oxalidaceae Oxalis spp. (O. griffithii Edgew. & Hook.f., O. corniculata L.) ap f r * 1 suancao, suancai, suansuancao 酸草,酸菜,酸酸草 suanjiji 酸唧唧   13, 55, 183
Penthoraceae Penthorum chinense Pursh. ap f        x  
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte ap, u, fr r   *    jiangliusheng 江柳绳 x 212
Plantaginaceae Plantago asiatica L. ap r e *   kaimenye, cheqiancao, cheqianzi 开门叶,车前草,车前子     1, 149
  Veronica didyma Tenore ap r        x  
Poaceae unidentified Bambusae ap f 1   zhusun 竹笋     
Polygonaceae Fagopyrum gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer ap r 1   yeqiaomai, qiaomaimiao 乔麦苗     143
  Polygonum aviculare L. ap r e 1 1 bianxu 萹蓄 bianxucai 萹蓄草   63, 219
  Polygonum ciliinerve (Nakai) Ohwi u e *   qiaomaitou 荞麦头     
  Rumex crispus L. ap e ** 1 niushetou, yedahuang 牛舌头,野大黄 luerduo 驴耳朵   66
Portulaccaceae Portulacca oleracea L. ap r e   1    machixian 马齿苋 x  
Primulaceae Lysimachia hemsleyana Maxim. ex Oliv. ap e 1   guoluhuang 过路黄     144
Ranunculaceae Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux (more often cultivated) u x 1 * wuyao 乌药 wuyao 乌药   50, 155
Rhamnaceae Berchemia sinica Schneid. fr f *   yaguteng 亚古藤,勾儿茶     121
  Hovenia dulcis Thunb. fr f   1    guaizao 拐枣   
  Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu fr e 1     shanzao 山栆   
Rosaceae Crataegus hupehensis Sarg. fr f * ** yeshanzha 野山楂 yeshanzha, mianli, mianlizi 野山楂, 面梨, 面梨子   
  Fragaria spp. (Fragaria corymbosa Losinsk., Fragaria pentaphylla Losinsk.) fr e *** * caomei, dipao, didipaoxiangpao 草莓, 地泡, 地地泡, 香泡 caomei, yecaomei 草莓, 野草莓   58, 169, 170
  Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. fr f   1    qiuzi 秋子   225
  Potentilla indica (Andrews) Th.Wolf u r e   *    shemei 蛇莓   217
  Potentilla sp. ap r *   guanyincha 观音茶     115
  Prunus armeniaca L. fr x ** ** yexing 野杏 yexing 野杏   
  Prunus canescens Bois, P. pilosiuscula Koehne fr f **   yeyingtao 野樱桃     39
  Prunus davidiana Franch. fr x 1   shantao 山桃     
  Prunus cfr polytricha Koehne fr f *   chuantao 川桃     28
  Prunus persica (L.) Batsch fr f ** *** yetaozi 野桃子 yetaozi 野桃子   38
  Prunus salicina Lindl. fr x *** *** yelizi, zemaili, huolizi, huoli, yemaili 野李子, 火李子, 火李, 野麦李 yelizi, kuli, huoli 野李子, 苦李, 火李   187
  Prunus tomentosa Thunb. fr f   ***    yeyingtao, maoyingtao, maotao 野樱桃, 毛樱桃, 毛桃   224
  Pyrus xerophila T.T.Yu fr e x *** ** yeli, mali, shanli 野梨, 麻梨, 山梨 yeli, mali 野梨, 麻梨   
  Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H.L.Li fr e 1   jiubingliang 救兵粮     
  Rosa omeiensis Rolfe fr e 1   cishiliu 刺石榴     
  Rosa sp. ap f *   cimeihua 刺玫花     110
  Rubus spp. fr e x *** * duanyangpao, xuangouzi 端阳泡, 悬钩子 meizi 莓子   
  Rubus coreanus Miq. fr e **   cipao, dipao, fupenzi 刺泡, 地泡,覆盆子     30
  Rubus flosculosus Focke fr e **   caizipao 菜子泡     195
  Rubus pungens Cambess. fr e x **   huangcipao 黄刺泡     61
Rubiaceae Galium aparine L. ap r   1    ranwawa 然娃娃   
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. ap, fr f * 1 yehuajiao 野花椒 yehuajiao 野花椒   no
Sabiaceae Sabia shensiensis H.Y.Chen ap f *   qingtengcai, tengercai 青藤菜, 藤儿菜 qingtengwan 青藤蔓   166
Salicaceae Salix cf babylonica L. ap e   1    liushu 柳树   
Santalaceae Buckleya henryi Diels fr f   *    mainhuli, mimianwong 面核梨, 米面翁   231
Saururaceae Houttuynia cordata Thunb. ap r   1    yuxingcao 鱼腥草 x  
Saxifragaceae Bergenia scopulosa T.P.Wang ap w 1   yebaicai 野白菜     
  Chrysosplenium biondianum Engl. ap f *** *** hongjincai 红筋菜 hongjincai 红筋菜   188
  Chrysosplenium sinicum Maxim. ap         x  
Schisandraceae Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E.H.Wilson fr f **** **** wuweizi 五味子 wuweizi 五味子   48, 196
Solanaceae Physalis alkekengi L. ap r   *    guajindeng, denglonghuacai 挂金, 灯笼花菜   215
  Solanum nigrum L. ap r 1 * suanjiang 酸浆 heilaopo, longkai 黑老婆 x 70, 211
Staphyleaceae Staphylea bumalda DC., S. holocarpa Hemsl. ap, fl f ****   shuhuacai 树花菜     12, 189, 190
Ulmaceae Ulmus bergmanniana C.K.Schneid., Ulmus propinqua Koidz. ap, b, if f e ** * yushu 榆树 yushu 榆树 x 32, 60
Urticaceae Boehmeria gracilis C.H.Wright ap x *   honghema 红河麻     128, 194
  Boehmeria tricuspis Makino ap x *   hema 河麻     76
  Pilea mongolica Wedd. ap f *   daolaonen 到老嫩     207
  Urtica fissa E.Pritz. ex Diels ap x *   baihema 白河麻     41
Violaceae Viola cf. grypoceras A.Gray ap r 1   didingcao 地丁草     145
Vitaceae Vitis ficifolia Bunge fr f *** *** yeputao 野葡萄 yeputao 野葡萄   19
  FUNGI           
Auriculariaceae Auricularia sp. (more often cultivated) fb f * * muer 木耳 muer 木耳   
Boletaceae Boletus spp. fb f ** * niuganjun, dajiaogu 牛肝菌, 大脚菇 niuganjun 牛肝菌   204, 236
Cantharellaceae Cantharellus cibarius Fr. fb f ** ** huangsijun 牛肝菌 huangsijun, jiyoujun 牛肝菌, 鸡油菌   203
Gomphaceae Ramaria spp. fb f *** * shuabajun 刷把菌 guoshuajun 锅刷菌   205
Hericiaceae Hericium sp. fb f * * houtoujun 猴头菌 houtoujun 猴头菌   
Marasmiaceae Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (more often cultivated) fb f ** 1 yexianggu 野香菇 yexianggu 野香菇   
Meripilaceae Grifola umbellata (Pers.) Pilát fb f ** ** zhulingjun 猪苓菌 zhulingjun, zhulinghua 猪苓菌, 猪苓花   223
Morchellaceae Morchella sp. fb f *   yangquejun 羊雀菌     
Pleurotaceae Pleurotus sp. fb f *** * dongjun 冻菌 dongjun 冻菌   
Polyporaceae Laetiporus sulphureus (??) fb f *   jiguanjun 鸡冠菌     
Tricholomataceae Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito & S. Imai) Singer (?) fb f   *    songrongjun 松茸菌   
  UNIDENTIFIED MUSHROOM fb f *   qiaomianjun 荞面菌     
  UNIDENIFIED TERRESTRIAL GILLED MUSHROOM fb f ** ** banlijun 板栗菌 banlijun, maolijun 板栗菌, 毛栗菌   
  UNIDENTIFIED MUSHROOM fb f **   qiaomaijun 荞麦菌     
  UNIDENTIFIED MUSHROOM fb f 1   baogujun 包谷菌     
  UNIDENTIFIED MUSHROOM fb f   *    yangdujun 羊肚菌   
  UNIDENTIFIED MUSHROOM fb f   *    mabojun 马脖菌   
  1. Ma – Recorded by Ma et al. 2002 [38, 39].
  2. Habitat types: e – forest edges, shrubland, forest clearings, grassland; f – forest; r – ruderal; w – water edges; x – ubiquitous.
  3. Parts consumed: fr – fruit, ap –aerial parts, u – underground parts, fl – flowers, b – bark, fb – fruiting body, ls – leaf stalks, if – immature fruits.
  4. Frequency: **** > 50% of respondents; *** > 1/4 of respondents; ** > 1/8 of respondents; * from 2 to 8 respondents; 1 – one respondent.