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Table 2 An inventory of floral diversity documented by local respondents (n=450) from three districts (Faisalabad, Sargodha and Lahore) of Punjab, Pakistan for the treatment of equine disease

From: Diversity of flora used for the cure of equine diseases in selected peri-urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan

Sr. Botanical name/ Local name Family Part (s) used Usage diversity No. of Part of
No. English name prescriptions remedies
1. Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile Desi kikar Fabaceae Branches Internal parasites, swelling 2 2
2. Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don Piyaz Liliaceae Bulb Anorexia, bad habits, bronchitis, colic, diarrhea, fever, heat stress, indigestion, pain, quidding, weakness 11 33
3. Allium sativum L. Lehsan Liliaceae Bulb Bronchitis, fever, indigestion 3 3
4. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Kawar gandal Aloaceae Leaves Anorexia, bronchitis 2 2
5. Amomum subulatum Roxb. Ilaichi Zingiberaceae Fruit Fever 1 1
6. Anethum graveolens L. Soye Umbelliferae Seeds Anorexia, bronchitis, colic, fever, indigestion, lameness, toxemia, weakness 8 10
7. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem Meliaceae Leaves Dermatitis, external parasites, lameness, wound 5 13
8. Bambusa bambos L. Bans Bambusaceae Leaves Bronchitis 1 1
9. Brassica campestris L. ssp. napus Duthie and Fuller Surson Brassicaseae Seeds, seed oil Colic, dermatitis, diarrhea, external parasites, lameness, retention of urine, swelling, weakness, wound 8 47
10. Calotropis procera (Ait.) W.T.Ait. Aak Asclepiadaceae Buds Weakness 1 1
11. Capsicum annum L. Subz mirch Solanaceae Fruit Anorexia, bronchitis, fever, indigestion, lameness, quidding, retention of urine, toxemia, weakness 9 19
12. Cascuta reflexa Roxb. Akas bail Cuscutaceae Whole plant Lameness 1 1
13. Cicer arietinum L. Kalay chaney Fabaceae Seeds Dermatitis, lameness, wound 3 4
14. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Kor tumma Cucurbitaceae Fruit Anorexia, fever, indigestion, weakness 4 9
15. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. Nimbu Rutaceae Fruit Lameness, wound 2 2
16. Cocos nucifera L. Giri Arecaceae Oil Lameness 1 1
17. Curcuma longa L. Haldi Zingiberaceae Rhizome External parasite, lameness, wound 3 8
18. Eruca sativa Mill. Tara mera Cruciferae Seed, seed oil Dermatitis, external parasite, wound 3 5
19. Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Loung Myrtaceae Fruit Anorexia, lameness, pain 3 4
20. Euphorbia caducifolia Haines. Danda thor Euphorbiaceae Branches Colic 1 1
21. Ficus religiosa L. Pipal Moraceae Bark Swelling 1 1
22. Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill. Sounf Apiaceae Seeds Indigestion, weakness 2 2
23. Geranium wallichianum D. Don Ex Sweet Ratan jot Geraniaceae Seeds Lameness, wound 2 4
24. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Mullathi Fabaceae Roots Bronchitis 1 7
25. Grewia asiatica L. Falsa Tiliaceae Fruit Lameness 1 1
26. Halorrhena pubescens Wall. ExG. Don. Kuro Apocynaceae Bark Heat stress 1 1
27. Hordeum vulgare L. Jow Poaceae Seeds Heat stress 1 1
28. Lagenaria siceraria Molina Kuddo Cucurbitaceae Leaves Internal parasite 1 1
29. Lawsonia inermis L. Mehndi Lythraceae Leaves Wound 1 7
30. Lens culinaris Medik. Masoor Fabaceae Seeds Wound 1 1
31. Lepidium sativum L. Halion Apiaceae Seeds Internal parasites, weakness 2 2
32. Linum usitatissimum L. Alsi Linaceae Seeds Internal parasites 1 1
33. Mallotus philippinensis (Lamk.) Meull. Arg. Kamela Euphorbiaceae Fruit Anorexia, internal parasites 2 4
34. Mangifera indica L. Aam Anacardiaceae Fruit Lameness 1 1
35. Medicago sativa L. Lusan Papilionaceae Leaves Lameness 1 1
36. Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Podina Lamiaceae Leaves Anorexia 1 1
37. Myristica fragrans HOUTT. Jaful Myristicaceae Fruit Lameness, pain, tetanus 3 5
38. Nicotiana tabacum L. Tambaku Solanaceae Leaves Colic, pain 2 3
39. Nigella sativa L. Kalonji Ranunculaceae Seeds Anorexia, bronchitis 2 2
40. Olea europaea L. Zaytoon Oleaceae Fruit Lameness 1 1
41. Oryza sativa L. Chawal Poaceae Whole plant Internal parasites 1 1
42. Peganum harmala L. Hurmil Zygophyllaceae Fruit Anorexia, lameness, pain, swelling 4 4
43. Pennisetum glaucum L. Bajra Poaceae Whole Lameness 1 1
44. Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth. Kourdh Scrofulariaceae Rhizome Anorexia, fever, indigestion, lameness, tetanus, weakness 6 11
45. Piper betle L. Paan Piperaceae Leaves Anorexia 1 1
46. Piper nigrum L. Kali mirch Piperaceae Pepper corn Anorexia, bronchitis, toxemia 3 5
47. Prunus dulcis Mill. Badam Rosaceae Seed Diarrhea 1 1
48. Ricinus communis L. Arind Euphorbiaceae Flower oil Internal parasites 1 1
49. Rosa damascena Mill. Gulab Rosaceae Flowers Bronchitis 1 4
50. Sesamum indicumL. Til Pedaliaceae Seeds, seed oil Colic, dermatitis, lameness, pain 4 7
51. Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill. Ajwain Apiaceae Seeds Anorexia, bronchitis, colic, fever, heat stress, indigestion, lameness, retention of urine 8 19
52. Trifolium alexandrinum L. Barseem Papilionaceae Whole plant Wound 1 1
53. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Methray Fabaceae Seeds Toxemia 1 1
54. Triticum aestivum L. Gundum Poaceae Flour, grain External parasites, lameness, weakness, wound 4 5
55. Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd. Kali zeeri Asteraceae Seeds Anorexia, bronchitis, colic, diarrhea, heat stress, indigestion, lameness, toxemia, + Weakness+ Wound 10 23
56. Withania coagulans Dunal Paneer Solanaceae Leaves Anorexia, fever, indigestion, weakness 4 4
57. Withania somnifera L. Dunal Aksan Solanaceae Leaves Wound 1 1
58. Zea mays L. Makai Gramineae Flour Anorexia, haematuria, weakness, wound 4 5
59. Zingiber officinale Roscoe Adrak Zingiberaceae Rhizome Anorexia, bronchitis, colic, fever, heat stress, indigestion, lameness, pain, tetanus, weakness 10 26
60. Ziziphus jujuba L. Lam., non P. Mill. Beri Rhamnaceae Leaves Wound 1 1