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Table 5 Literature study of the surveyed medicinal plants and their relevant ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological studies and known chemical constituents

From: Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand

Scientific name Relevant ethnobotanical citations Relevant pharmacological citations Known chemical constituents
Acorus calamus L. Stomachache*, carminative [60] antidiarrhoeal activity [61] asarones [62]
Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don stomachache [60], diarrhea [63] NA steroidal saponins, oligospirostanosides, oligofurostanosides, aspafilioside [64]
Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. flutulence*, indigestion [65] antiulcer activity [66], hepatoprotective activity [67] boesenbergin, cardamonin, pinostrobin, pinocembrin, alpinetin [68]
Cassytha filiformis L. liver disease [69] dysentery, gastric ulcer [29] NA aporphine alkaloids, cassyformine, filiformine [70]
Celastrus paniculatus Willd. laxative 71] NA malkanguniol [71]
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. gastric ulcer* [72], diarrhea* [73] ulcer protective effect** [74] centelloids, pentacyclic triterpenoid, polyacetylenes, asiaticosides [75]
Croton kongensis Gagnep. acute gastroenteritis*[76] NA NA
Croton robustus Kurz NA NA trachyloban-19-oic acid, trachyloban-19-ol, poilaneic acid [77]
Curcuma longa L. Carminative [78] antiulcer activity**, hepatoprotective activity [40] curcuminoid [79], zingiberene, sesquiterpenes, α-phellandrene [78]
Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees dysentery [80] NA NA
Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. diarrhea [81], jaundice [82] NA betulinic acid, naringenin 7-galactosyl, dihedral quercetin 5-glactoside [83]
Embelia sessiliflora Kurz diarrhea [62] NA NA
Engelhardtia spicata Blume var. colebrookeana (Lindl. ex Wall.) Kuntze mouth ulcer [21], diarrhea [62] NA Engelhardtione, oleanolic acid [84]
Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman gastritis, constipation [9], food poisoning* [60] NA NA
Euphorbia heterophylla L. laxative*, constipation [85] NA stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, benzoic acid, 4 – hydroxyl benzoic acid [85]
Euphorbia hirta L. vomitting [86], diarrhea [73] antidiarrhoeal activity [87] quercitrin, myricitrin, Afzelin [88]
Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. toothache* [89], diarrhea* [90] liver disease [91] antidiarrhoeal activity** [92] phenolics, tannins, terpenoids [93]
Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr. indigestive, flatulence [90] hepatoprotective activity** [39] fleminone, flemiphyllin [94]
Gmelina arborea Roxb. diarrhea [95] stomach-hepatic diseases* [96] antidiarrhoeal activity [97], hepatoprotective activity [98] monoacylated, diacylated, triacylated iridoid glycosides [90]
Gymnopetalum integrifolium Kurz. NA NA cucurbitacin [99]
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker gastric ulcer* [100] antiulcer activity** [42] methoxyflavones (5,7,4′ trimethoxyflavone, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone) [100]
Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. diarrhea* [69] NA flavonids, leucoanthocyanidins, galic acid, amorphous froth forming acid [101]
Melastoma malabathricum L. diarrhea, dysentery [102], toothache [103] antidiarrhoeal activity [102] ellagic acid, anthocyanin, nobotannin B [103]
Musa sapientum L. gastric ulcer [104], diarrhea*, dysentery [105] antidiarrhoeal activity* [32], antiulcer activity [106] alkaloids, pectins, flavonoids, catecholamines, acyl steryl glycosides [105]
Mussaenda sanderiana Ridl. laxative, toothache* [90] NA NA
Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. jaundice*, mouth ulcer [21] digestive tonic [107] NA ochnaflavone, dihydroochnaflavone, lophirone, calodenone [107]
Psidium guajava L. diarrhea* [108] antidiarrhoeal activity** [57] tannins, polyphenolic compounds, triterpenoid, guajanoic acid [31]
Punica granatum L. diarrhea* [109] antidiarrhoeal activity** [26] punicalagins, ellagic acid, tannin, anthocyanins [30]
Senna alata (L.) Roxb. laxative*, colon cleanser [110] stimulant laxative activities** and againt costipation [36] anthraquinoes, phenols, tannins, saponins, flavonoids [34]
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link laxative* [111], liver disease [112] gastrointestinal disease [113] stimulant laxative activities** [50] anthaquinones [35]
Tamarindus indica L. laxative* [114], gastric ulcer [112] stimulant laxative activities** [37] antiulcer activity [115] tamarindienal, tartaric acid, malic and tartaric acids potassium acid [37]
Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. stomachache, carminative [9] hepatoprotective effects** [116] iridoid glucosides, delphinidin, apigenin [52]
Zingiber montanum (J.König) Link ex A.Dietr. flatulence*, carminative [5] antiulcer activity* [41] terpinen-4-ol, phenylbutenoids, zerumbone [52]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe flatulence* [113] prokinetic activity [117] hepatoprotective activity [118] gingerols, shogaols [119]
Zingiber ottensii Valeton jaundice [120] NA zerumbone, terpinen-4-ol, p-cymene [52]
Ziziphus cambodiana Pierre NA NA triterpenes, saponins, cyclopeptide, alkaloids [121]
  1. *ethnomedicinal knowledge in other ethnic groups which have similar usage to medicinal plants used by the Karen.
  2. **pharmacological study which is relevant to the medicinal plants used by the Karen.
  3. NA: data not available.