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Table 1 Comparison between fishers’ LEK* and the scientific literature about the diet of fish species in Ilhabela (Brazil)**

From: Fishers’ knowledge about fish trophic interactions in the southeastern Brazilian coast

Fish species (Local name) Food items from fishers’ LEK Food items from the scientific literature Likelihood
Bodianus rufus (Godião) Mud (42),
Guaiáa (35),
Manjuba (35),
Shrimp (19),
Shellfish (15),
Comidiob (12)
Shellfish, crabs, equinoids, may be cleaners of larger fish [45-49] High
Epinephelus marginatus (Garoupa) Sardinha (46)
Guaiá (38)
Bonito (35)
Manjuba (27)
Crab (23)
Rotten bait (12)
Crabs, moluscs (mainly cephalopods) and fish (mainly planctivorous) [47,50-55] High
Epinephelus morio (Garoupa) Sardinha (46)
Guaiá (42)
Bonito (35)
Manjuba (31)
Crab (23)
Fish and invertebrates, mainly crustaceans and cephalopods [51,52,56] High
Caranx latus (Xaréu) Manjuba (77)
Squid (23)
Comidio (19)
Shrimp (12)
Mainly fish and, in lower proportion, shrimp and other invertebrates, including pteropods and copepods [47,51,57,58] High
Umbrina coroides (Betara) Shrimp (73)
Squid (15)
Mud (12)
Manjuba (12)
Benthic organisms, mainly crustaceans (Amphipoda and Mysidacea) [59-61] High
Mycteroperca bonaci (Badejo) Shrimp (35)
Manjuba (35)
Sardinha (23)
Squid (19)
Guaiá (15)
Adults eat mainly fish and juveniles eat crustaceans and also cephalopods [46,51,56] High
Mugil curema (Parati) Water’s foam (58)
Sand (19)
Mud (19)
Dust (19)
Juveniles eat plankton and adults eat plant material, microalgae, benthic microorganisms, copepods, polichaeta and detritus from the substrate [45,62-64] Medium
Seriola lalandi (Olhete) Squid (46)
Manjuba (42)
Comidio (27)
Sardinha (19)
Fish, cephalopods and crustaceans [65,66] Medium
Bodianus pulchellus (Godião) Guaiá (46)
Mud (27)
Shrimp (15)
Barnacle (15)
Shellfish (12)
Pindác (12)
Don’t know (12)
Crustaceans, mollusks and ectoparasites from other fish [45-47,49] Medium
Oligoplites saliens (Guaivira) Manjuba (73)
Comidio (23)
Shrimp (12)
Squid (12)
Mainly fish and, in a lesser extent, cephalopods and crustaceans. This species may also eats scales from other fish [46,57] High
Pomatomus saltatrix (Anchova) Manjuba (69)
Sardinha (35)
Squid (27)
Comidio (19)
Shrimp (12)
Mainly fish, eventually mollusks, crustaceans and cephalopods [46,67-72] High
Caranx crysos (Xarelete) Manjuba (73)
Comidio (23)
Squid (19)
Shrimp (12)
Sardinha (12)
Fish, cephalopods, crustaceans and other benthic invertebrates [46,58,59] High
Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) Shrimp (69)
Squid (27)
Manjuba (19)
Crustaceans, cephalopods, anelids and fish [46,52,59,61,68,73] High
Cynoscion jamaicensis (Goete) Shrimp (54)
Squid (31)
Manjuba (27)
Sardinha (12)
Comidio (12)
Mainly fish and crustaceans [61,74] High
Stegastes fuscus (Café torrado) Shrimp (35)
Guaiá (31)
Mud (27)
Shellfish (15)
Mainly algae, crustaceans, cnidarians and small invertebrates [45,46,75,76] High
Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Sororoca) Manjuba (54)
Comidio (19)
Sardinha (19)
Shrimp (12)
Mainly fish, but also cephalopods and crustaceans [46,68,77,78] High
Centropomus parallelus (Robalo) Shrimp (65)
Manjuba (31)
Squid (15)
Fish and crustaceans [46,79] High
Mycteroperca acutirostris (Miracelo) Shrimp (54)
Manjuba (50)
Comidio (23)
Squid (15)
Mainly fish, plankton and small crustaceans [47,51,80] High
Abudefduf saxatilis (Tiniuna) Shrimp (31)
Guaiá (19)
Mud (19)
Barnacle (15)
Baratinhad (12)
Bonito (12)
Manjuba (12)
Dust (12)
Plankton, small invertebrates, crustaceans and algae [45,47,81] High
Euthynnus alleteratus (Bonito) Manjuba (77)
Comidio (23)
Fish, crustaceans, heteropods and cephalopods [46,77,78] Medium
Trichiurus lepturus (Espada) Sardinha (54)
Manjuba (46)
Squid (23)
Comidio (15)
Fish, cephalpods and crustaceans [77,82,83] High
Mugil liza (Tainha) Water’s foam (62)
Mud (31)
Sand (12)
Manjuba (12)
Plankton and organic detritus [45,63] High
Menticirrhus americanus (Betara) Shrimp (77)
Manjuba (23)
Squid (12)
Crab (12)
Benthic organisms, mainly polichaeta and crustaceans [46,59,61] Medium
Lutjanus synagris (Vermelho) Shrimp (38)
Squid (35)
Sardinha (31)
Manjuba (23)
Bonito (15)
Prefers to eat crustaceans and fish, but eats also equinoderms, polichaeta, gastropods and cephalopods [52,59,68,84] High
  1. *n = 26 interviewed fishers
  2. **showing the degree of likelihood or agreement between these two kinds of knowledge according to Silvano and Valbo-Jorgensen [15] and the values in parenthesis are the percent of interviewed fishers who mentioned each food item, showing only those items mentioned by more than 10% of the interviewed fishers.
  3. aGuaiá = small crab that lives among rocks, see Silvano and Begossi [42] for more details.
  4. bComidio = large schools formed by several species of small fish.
  5. cPindá = black sea urchin (Echinometra lucunter).
  6. dBaratinha = crustacean (Ligia exotica).
  7. The values in parenthesis are the percent of interviewed fishers who mentioned each food item, showing only those items mentioned by more than 10% of the interviewed fishers. Fish species are shown in the same order that they were shown to the interviewed fishers.