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Table 2 Comparison between fishers’ LEK* and the scientific literature about the predators of fish species in Ilhabela (Brazil)**

From: Fishers’ knowledge about fish trophic interactions in the southeastern Brazilian coast

Fish species (Local name) Predators from fishers’ LEK Predators from the scientific literature Likelihood
Bodianus rufus (Godião) Shark (12) Lutjanidae - Teleostei [85] Low
Epinephelus marginatus (Garoupa) Caranhaa (27)
Merob (23)
Shark (15)
Otter (15)
No data Medium
Epinephelus morio (Garoupa) Caranha (23)
Mero (23)
Shark (15)
Otter (15)
No data Medium
Caranx latus Xaréu Dolphin (42)
Caranha (23)
Espada (23)
Mero (23)
Shark (12)
Porpoise (12)
Coryphaenidae – Teleostei [86]; Laridae – sea birds [87] Low
Umbrina coroides (Betara) Shark (27)
Caranha (19)
Mero (19)
Espada (15)
Dolphin (12)
Garoupa (12)
No data Medium
Mycteroperca bonaci (Badejo) Caranha (23)
Mero (23)
Garoupa (12)
Otter (12)
No data Medium
Mugil curema (Parati) Dolphin (58)
Espada (23)
Mero (23)
Caranha (19)
Shark (12)
Otter (12)
Centropomidae - Teleostei [46]; Sulidae – sea bird [88]; Delphinidae – dolphin [89] High
Seriola lalandi (Olhete) Dolphin (38)
Mero (19)
Caranha (15)
Shark (12)
Otter (12)
Coryphaenidae - Teleostei [88] Low
Bodianus pulchellus (Godião) Caranha (23)
Mero (23)
Garoupa (19)
Shark (12)
No data Medium
Oligoplites saliens (Guaivira) Dolphin (19)
Shark (15)
Caranha (15)
Mero (15)
No data Medium
Pomatomus saltatrix (Anchova) Dolphin (62)
Shark (23)
Caranha (23)
Mero (19)
Garoupa (12)
Otter (12)
Alopiidae, Carcharhinidae, Lamnidae, Squatinidae – Elasmobranchii [90-93]; Scombridae, Xiphiidae, Pomatomidae - Teleostei [94-96] Low
Caranx crysos (Xarelete) Dolphin (46)
Shark (38)
Caranha (19)
Espada (15)
Mero (15)
Garoupa (12)
Scombridae, Coryphaenidae, Istiophoridae, Sphyraenidae – Teleostei [85,86,97,98]; Laridae – sea bird [87] Low
Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) Dolphin (15)
Caranha (15)
Mero (15)
Shark (12)
Triakidae - Elasmobranchii [99]; Sciaenidae – Teleostei [100,101]; Sulidae – sea bird [90]; Delphinidae – dolphin [102,103] High
Cynoscion jamaicensis (Goete) Caranha (23)
Shark (19)
Espada (19)
Mero (19)
Dolphin (12)
Delphinidae – dolphin [102,104] Medium
Stegastes fuscus (Café torrado) Garoupa (31)
Mero (27)
Caranha (23)
Serranidae – Teleostei [85] High
Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Sororoca) Dolphin (46)
Caranha (19)
Espada (19)
Mero (19)
Shark (15)
No data Medium
Centropomus parallelus (Robalo) Mero (38)
Caranha (19)
Shark (12)
No data Medium
Mycteroperca acutirostris (Miracelo) Mero (35)
Caranha (27)
Otter (19)
Garoupa (15)
Shark (12)
No data Medium
Abudefduf saxatilis (Tiniuna) Garoupa (35)
Mero (31)
Caranha (19)
Serranidae, Labridae, Rachycentridae – Teleostei [85,105,106] High
Euthynnus alleteratus (Bonito) Dolphin (54)
Mero (27)
Garoupa (23)
Caranha (15)
Shark (12)
Scombridae, Coryphaenidae, Istiophoridae, Xiphiidae – Teleostei [86,89,97,98,107-112]; Laridae – sea bird [87] Low
Trichiurus lepturus (Espada) Dolphin (50)
Mero (23)
Espada (19)
Shark (12)
Caranha (12)
Carcharhinidae, Lamnidae, Sphyrnidae - Elasmobranchii, [93,113-118]; Scombridae, Coryphaenidae, Istiophoridae, Sciaenidae, Trichiuridae, Rachycentridae, Pomatomidae – Teleostei [69,89,97,98,106,111,119]; Delphinidae, Pontoporiidae – dolphin [102-104,118,120,121] High
Mugil liza (Tainha) Dolphin (54)
Shark (15)
Caranha (15)
Garoupa (15)
Mero (15)
Pomatomidae – Teleostei [46]; Sulidae – sea bird [89] Low
Menticirrhus americanus (Betara) Shark (23)
Dolphin (15)
Caranha (15)
Garoupa (12)
Mero (12)
Carcharhinidae – Elasmobranchii [114,122]; Delphinidae – dolphin [118] High
Lutjanus synagris (Vermelho) Mero (31)
Caranha (23)
Garoupa (19)
Dolphin (12)
Espada (12)
Serranidae – Teleostei [85]; Delphinidae – dolphin [89] High
  1. *n = 26 interviewed fishers.
  2. **showing the degree of likelihood or agreement between these two kinds of knowledge according to Silvano and Valbo-Jorgensen [15] and the values in parenthesis are the percent of interviewed fishers who mentioned each predator, showing only those predators mentioned by more than 10% of the interviewed fishers.
  3. aCaranha is a large fish of the Lutjanidae (Lutjanus sp.).
  4. bMero is the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara).
  5. The values in parenthesis are the percent of interviewed fishers who mentioned each predator, showing only those predators mentioned by more than 10% of the interviewed fishers. Fish species are shown in the same order that they were shown to the interviewed fishers.