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Table 2 Medicinal Flora of Cholistan Desert (Southern Punjab)

From: A comparative ethno-botanical study of Cholistan (an arid area) and Pothwar (a semi-arid area) of Pakistan for traditional medicines

Sr. No. Plant Name [voucher specimen #] Vernacular name Family Plant part used Disease cured References
1. Abutilon muticum (Del.ex DC.) Sweet [2510/CIDS/IUB] Kanghi-buti Malvaceae Leaves and roots Renal stones and heartburn. Traditional Health Healers [THH]; [60]
Infectious diseases.
2. Acacia jacquemontii Benth. [2512/CIDS/IUB] Banwli Mimosaceae Bark and leaves Chickenpox, pain, fever and small pox [THH]
3. Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile [2513/CIDS/IUB] Babul or Kikar Mimosaceae Leaves, bark, flowers, fruit and gum Men sex problems, diarrhea, sexual debility, hemorrhages and high blood sugar. [THH]; [61]
Used as tonic and cure fever.
4. Aerva javanica var. javanica [2201/CIDS/IUB] Bui Amaranthaceae Root, bark and leaves Renal stones and upper-respiratory infection. [THH]; [62]
Constipation and remove gastrointestinal parasites.
5. Alhagi maurorum Medic [2529/CIDS/IUB] Jawansa Papilionaceae Whole plant Blood purifier, fever, Jaundice and respiratory diseases. [THH]; [63]
Increased perspiration, cough, and constipation.
6. Blepharis scindica T. Anders. [2001/CIDS/IUB] Gandi-boti Acanthaceae Whole plant General weakness and pain [THH]
7. Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb [2518/CIDS/IUB] Biskhipra Nyctaginaceae Whole plant Chest infections, renal failure and painful periods in women. [THH]; [64]; [65]; [66]
Blood purifier. Liver diseases, sexually transmitted infections and sluggishness.
8. Calligonum polygonoides Linn [2663/CIDS/IUB] Phog Polygonaceae Flowers and green twigs Sore eyes, severe thirst. [THH]
Indigestion, sore throat and pain.
9. Calotropis procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali [2005/CIDS/IUB] Ak Asclepiadaceae Latex, leaves, flower buds and root bark Painful menstruation, uterus problems, asthma, stomachache and muscular weakness. Snake bite, piles, leprosy, sexually transmitted diseases, asthma and joint pain. [THH]; [67]; [68]
10. Capparis decidua (Forsskal.) Edgew [2315/CIDS/IUB] Karir Capparidaceae Leaves, fruit and stem Piles, fevers, painful menstruation, high blood sugar, obesity, indigestion and bone fractures. [THH]; [69]
Remove intestinal worms, used as sexual stimulant, relieves flatulence, increased perspiration and constipation.
11. Capparis spinosa Linn. [2316/CIDS/IUB] Kubber Capparidaceae Leaves flowers Joint, muscle pain, asthma, indigestion and liver disorders [THH]
12. Cassia italica subsp. Italica [2314/CIDS/IUB] Ghoray-wall or Sana Caesalpinaceae Whole plant Arthritis, pain, fevers and indigestion [THH]
13. Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. [2531/CIDS/IUB] Mohabat Boti Poaceae Whole plant Kills intestinal worms [THH]
14. Cenchrus ciliaris L. [2530/CIDS/IUB] Daman Poaceae Whole plant Intestinal worms, increase milk production in cattle and wound healing. [THH]; [70]
Relieves pain and used as emollient.
15. Cenchrus setigerus Vahl. [2532/CIDS/IUB Chuti Daman Poaceae Whole plant Allergies, fever, common cold and intestinal worms. [THH]
16. Chrozophora sabulosa Kar. & Kir. [2509/CIDS/IUB] Nilakari Euphorbiaceae Whole plant Leprosy, contagious infections with symptoms like cough, wheezing, cold, fever, chills, and a sore throat [THH]
17. Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad [2350/CIDS/IUB] Tummaor Korr- tumma Cucurbitaceae Roots, fruits and seeds High blood sugar, painful menstruation, numbness or tingling in the legs and digestive disorders [THH];[67]
18. Cleome brachycarpa Vahl. ex. DC. [2317/CIDS/IUB] Noli or Capparidaceae Whole plant Intestinal worms, pain, high blood sugar, and liver disorders. [THH]
   Kastoori     
19. Cleome scaposa DC [2318/CIDS/IUB] Khastoori boti Capparidaceae Whole plant Itchiness, high blood sugar, used as diuretic and in liver disorders. [THH]; [68]; [69]; [70]
Reduces fever and pain.
20. Convolvulus prostratus Forssk [2348/CIDS/IUB] Hiran-booti Convolvulaceae Leaves and soft twigs Excessive thirst, heartburning, as diuretic, anti-high blood sugar and fever. [THH]; [61]
Treats constipation.
21. Corchorus depressus (Linn.) Stocks [2672/CIDS/IUB] Bhaon- phali Tiliaceae Whole plant Male sexual disorders and as sexual stimulant. [THH]
22. Cressa cretica Linn. [2347/CIDS/IUB] Ooini Convolvulaceae Whole plant Chest tightness and coughing, skin diseases and fever. [THH]; [71],
      Loss of appetite, as tonic and sexual stimulant. [72]
Sores in mouth and ease cough.
23. Crotalaria burhia Buch.-Ham. ex Benth [2527/CIDS/IUB] Chag Papilionaceae Whole plant Reduces fever, joint pain, skin diseases, general weakness and stomachache. [THH]; [73]
      Relieves pain in the body.  
24. Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin [2351/CIDS/IUB] Chibbarr Cucurbitaceae Fruit Inappropriate eating habits and constipation. [THH]
25. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. [2352/CIDS/IUB] Akashbail Cuscutaceae Whole plant Lice and dandruff, unhealthy skin and itching. [THH]
26. Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult.[2533/CIDS/IUB] Katrin or Khavi Poaceae Whole plant Diarrhea and vomiting, thirst, fever, joint and muscle pain. As diuretic. [THH]
27. Cyperus rotundus Linn. [2359/CIDS/IUB] Moothaor Cyperaceae Roots and Deela Indigestion, burning, excessive urination, high blood sugar, jaundice and fever. Loss of appetite. [THH]; [74]
28. Dipterygium glaucum Decne. [2319/CIDS/IUB] Phel Capparidaceae Whole plant Skin redness and irritation, wounds, unhealthy patchy skin, chronic fever. [THH]; [75]
29. Echinops echinatus Roxb. [2402/CIDS/IUB] Unt-katara Asteraceae Whole plant Jaundice, inappropriate eating habits, indigestion, Chronic liver diseases and sexual weakness. [THH]
and roots
30. Euphorbia granulata Forssk. [2506/CIDS/IUB] Dudheli Euphorbiaceae Whole plant Skin diseases, pain, and high blood sugar. Intestinal worms and constipation. [THH]; [76]
31. Euphorbia prostrata Ait. [2503/CIDS/IUB] Hazar-dani Euphorbiaceae Whole plant Piles, sexual weakness, skin redness and irritation and pain. [THH]; [76]
32. Fagonia cretica Linn [2675/CIDS/IUB] Dhmasa Zygophyllaceae Whole plant Liver diseases, lack of blood, fever, pain and as blood purifier and increase stamina. (THH)
33. Farsetia hamiltonii Royle [2313/CIDS/IUB] Lathi or Brassicaceae Whole plant As tonic and against stomachache and joint, muscle pain and diabetes [THH]; [77]
   Farid- booti     
34. Gisekia pharnaceoides Linn.[2101/CIDS/IUB] Buloka-sag Aizoaceae Whole plant Jaundice, inappropriate eating habits, fever and pain. [THH]; [78]
      Constipation, remove intestinal worms and skin infections.  
35. Glinus lotoides Linn [2514/CIDS/IUB] Gandi-booti Molluginaceae Whole plant Diarrhea, poor functioning of liver, externally to cure boils and wounds. [THH]
36. Grewia villosa Willd. [2673/CIDS/IUB] Jalidar Tiliaceae Whole plant Urinary tract infections, liver diseases, eye-ache, sexually transmitting diseases. [THH]
37. Haloxylon recurvum Bunge. ex. Boiss. [2335/CIDS/IUB] Khar or Chenopodiaceae Whole plant Gastric problems and kidney Stones. [THH]
   Sajji     
38. Haloxylon salicornicum (Moq.) Bunge [2336/CIDS/IUB] Lana Chenopodiaceae Whole plant Bleeding gums, Indigestion and insect stings. Prevent damage to the liver. [THH];
       [79]
39. Heliotropium crispum Desf. [2321/CIDS/IUB] Kali-lani Boraginaceae Whole plant Weakness, indigestion and laziness. [THH]; [62]
40. Heliotropium strigosum subsp. Strigosum [2311/CIDS/IUB] Gorakh-Pan Boraginaceae Whole plant Sore eyes, open wounds, sore throat, sore nipples of breasts, jaundice, used as blood purifier and to cure severe cough. [THH]
41. Indigofera argentea Burm. f. [2528/CIDS/IUB] Neel Papilionaceae Whole plant Intestinal parasites and patchy skin. [THH]
42. Launaea nudicaulis Less [2403/CIDS/IUB] Dudhkal Asteraceae Whole plant Chronic constipation and Indigestion. [THH]
43. Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forsskal.) Decne [2002/CIDS/IUB] Khip Asclepiadaceae Leaves and shoots Abdominal cramps, constipation, painful menstruation, obesity and high blood sugar. [THH]
44. Mollugo cerviana (L.) Seringe [2515/CIDS/IUB] Padi or Molluginaceae Roots Fever, burning urination and sexually transmitted diseases. [THH]; [80];
   Sarr    Skin itching and as blood purifier. [64]
45. Mollugo nudicaulis Lamk. [2516/CIDS/IUB] Gandi-buti Molluginaceae Whole plant Chest infection, whooping cough; leaves are applied as poultice on wounds and boils. [THH]
46. Mukia maderaspatana (Linn.) M.J. Roem [2349/CIDS/IUB] Gawala-kakri Cucurbitaceae Shoots, roots and seeds Jaundice, fever, muscular weakness and lower back pain. [THH]
47. Neurada procumbens Linn [2517/CIDS/IUB] Chhapri Neuradaceae Whole plant As sexual tonic and cure general weakness. [THH]; [62]
As nerve tonic.
48. Oligochaeta ramosa (Roxb.) Magenitz [2401/CIDS/IUB] Birham dandi Asteraceae Whole plant Irritation, liver diseases, joint pain and as brain tonic [THH]
49. Oxystelma esculentum (Linn. f.) R. Brown [2003/CIDS/IUB] Dudhani Asclepiadaceae Whole plant Painful urination, sexually transmitted diseases, acne and pain. [THH]
50. Panicum antidotale Retz [2534/CIDS/IUB] Murrot or Bansi ghaa Poaceae Whole plant Severe sore throat, small pox and respiratory tract infection [THH]
51. Peganum harmala Linn. [2678/CIDS/IUB] Harmal Zygophyllaceae Leaves, roots and seeds Emotional disturbances, painful menstruation, seizures, insanity and itchy skin. Abdominal pain and smoke has insecticidal properties. [THH]; [67]
52. Pergularia daemia (Jacq.) N. E. Brown. [2004/CIDS/IUB] Karial Asclepiadaceae Whole plant Intestinal worms, reduces fever, flatulence, chest tightness, stomachache and gynecological problems [THH]
53. Polygonum plebejum R. Br [2538/CIDS/IUB] Chiri- Polygonaceae Roots and whole plant Respiratory tract infections, indigestion, vomiting and diarrhea [THH]
   Hatta     
54. Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce [2511/CIDS/IUB] Jandi or Jand or kunda Mimosaceae Leaves, bark, flowers and pods Heal wounds, for birth control, blood deficiency, protein deficiency, painful menstruation and joint, muscle pain. [THH]
55. Pulicaria crispa (Cass.) Benth. & Hook. f. [2339/CIDS/IUB] Bui Compositae Whole plant Fever, headache, severe cold, cough and jaundice. [THH]
56. Salsola baryosma (Roem. ex. Scult.) Dany. [2337/CIDS/IUB] Lani Chenopodiaceae Whole plant Remove intestinal worms, itching, indigestion, and sores. [THH]
57. Salvadora oleoides Decne. [2667/CIDS/IUB] Pilu Salvadoraceae Fruit, bark and leaves Nutritive deficiency, inappropriate eating habits, skin boils, high blood sugar, gum bleeding and stomachache. [THH]
58. Solanum surattense Burm. F. [2668/CIDS/IUB] Kanderi Solanaceae Whole plant Joint pain, Fever, used as blood purifier, in breathing problems, severe headache, leprosy, as diuretic, hair tonic and cure abdomen pain, gas trouble, chronic cough and pain. [THH]; [36]; [67]
59. Sporobolus ioclados (Nees ex Trin.) Nees [2535/CIDS/IUB]   Poaceae Whole plant Severe fever, headache and vomiting. [THH]
60. Suaeda fruticosa Forssk. ex J. F. Gmelin [2338/CIDS/IUB] Kali lani Chenopodiaceae Whole plant Constipation, painful menstruation, red eyes, indigestion and wound healing. [THH];
       [81]
61. Tamarix aphylla (Linn.) Karst [2671/CIDS/IUB] Jhao and Ukan or Frash Tamaracaceae Leaves, bark and nuts Liver diseases, indigestion, stomachache, leucorrhoea, sexual weakness and skin problems. [THH]
62. Tribulus longipetalus subsp. Longipetalus [2676/CIDS/IUB] Tirkandi or Zygophyllaceae Fruits and seeds Renal stones, male sexual problems, anemia and general weakness. [THH]
   Bakharra     
63. Tribulus longipetalus subsp. Macropterus [2677/CIDS/IUB] Tirkindi or Zygophyllaceae Whole plant Male sexual problems, itchy skin, chest/heart pain, piles, bleeding from nose and pain. [THH]
Bakharra
64. Withania coagulens (Stocks) Dunal [2669/CIDS/IUB] Paneer Solanaceae Whole plant and fruit Jaundice, inappropriate eating habits and skin problems. [THH]
65. Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal [2670/CIDS/IUB] Asgandh Solanaceae Leaves and root bark Boils, nerve weakness, joint pain and as sexual stimulant. [THH]; [36]; [67]
66. Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn [2664/CIDS/IUB] Beri Rhamnaceae Fruit, bark, leaves and seeds Skin diseases, cold, cough, stomachache, diarrhea, hair roughness, high blood sugar and help wound healing. [THH]; [36]; [67]; [82]
67. Zygophyllum simplex Linn [2674/CIDS/IUB] Lunak Zygophyllaceae Whole plant Patchy skin, wounds, acne and Bleeding [THH]