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Table 1 Stingless bees general purpose classification. The table shows the identity of generic folk taxa (1st column), number (2nd column) and the identity of specific folk taxa (3rd column), and characteristic contrasts used by the Criollos for grouping and differentiating etnotaxa (4th column). See an example of how to interpret the table, in footnotes

From: Multi-dimensionality and variability in folk classification of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini)

Generic ethnotaxa # Specific ethnotaxa Specific ethnotaxa Contrasts
Folk names Specie Synonyms Folk names Specie Grouping Differentiate
carabozá (22) Trigona spinipies [1:1] irapuá (20), carabozá negro (3) irapuá negro (2) 2-3 (4-3) carabozá amarillo (3) Tetragona clavipes Aggressiveness Colour/nesting substrate
carabozá marrón (1)
corta pelo (3)
cabichui amarillo (1)
cabichui (1)
carabozá de madera (1) Scaptotrigona spp.
abeklack b (1)
iratín (17) Lestrimelitta spp. [1:2 o 3] veintecinco puertas (2) 2 (1) iratín amarillo (1) Tetragona clavipes Group generalities Colour
sesenta puertas (1)
abeja limón (1)
mandurí (21) Melipona torrida [1:1] mandurí de madera (6) 2-3 (5-1) manduri de tierra (1) Schwarziana cuadripunctata Group generalities Colour/nesting substrate
mandurí amarillo (1) Tetragona clavipes
1 Var. (1) mandurí de madera grande (1) Melipona torrida Body shape/color/behavior Size
mandurí de madera chico (1)
mirí (38) Plebeia spp. [1: 2 o 3] mirín (1) miní (1) 2 (4) mirí guazú (1) Nannotrigona sp. Group generalities/sizea Size
mirí de tierra (1) Schwarziana cuadripunctata Group generalities Nesting substrate
2-3 Var (9- 3) mirí chico (4) Plebeia spp. Size/body shape/general behavior Size/Nesting substrate
mirí guazú (4)
mirí de piedra (1)
mirí de madera (1)
tobuna (10) Scaptotrigona spp. [1: 2] tapezuá (3) 2 (1) tobuna amarilla Tetragona clavipes Aggressiveness Colour
tobuna negra (1)
culo de burro (1)
pao de boi (1)
yateí (67) Tetragonisca fiebrigi [1:1] goldbiene b (1) 2 (6) yateí guazú (2), yateison (4), Tetragona clavipes Body shape/colour Size
2-3 Var (12-1) yateí chico, yateí grande, yateí negro, yateí amarillo Tetragonisca fiebrigi Size/body shape/general behavior Size/Colour
cagafuego (4) Oxytrigona tataira c [1:1] -     Behavior (sting types) Colour/Size/general morphology
borá (20) Tetragona clavipes [1:1] yateison or yateí guazú (6) - - - - -
ebora (2)
abeja del suelo (15) Schwarziana cuadripunctata [1:1] guira (5), uruzú (4) - - - - -
mandasaia (28) Melipona quadrifasciata [1:1] - - - - - -
mambuca (13) Cephalotrigona capitata [1:1] - - - - - -
guaraipo (20) Melipona bicolor [1:1] - - - - - -
  1. E.g. in the first row carabozá is a folk name with greater consistency to refer to Trigona spinipies (22 citations, # quotes in brackets). So for the majority of respondents it is fitted within generic monotypic folk taxa (1st column) and presents a 1:1 correspondence with the formal academic taxonomy [in brackets]. Furthermore carabozá was considered polytypic with two and three specific folk taxa (2nd and 3rd column) for four and three informants respectively (# of citations in parenthesis). The specific folk taxa were grouped by aggressiveness and were differentiated by color and nesting substrate
  2. a mirí comes from the Guaraní lexeme miní which means small in contrast to guazú (large). Hence mirí guazú makes reference to the largest in the group of small SBs. bNames of German origin assigned by descendants of this nationality. c cagafuego name is also used in the area to name some bees of Halictidae family who “urinate” people causing skin irritation