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Table 2 Medicinal plants quoted by traditional healers in the study area

From: Ethnopharmacobotanical study on the medicinal plants used by herbalists in Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdistan, Iraq

Scientific plant name and voucher number Botanical family name English name Kurdish name Parts used Mode of administration Preparation Local medicinal uses UV
Adiantum capillus-veneris L. KUR001 Pteridaceae Maidenhair fern Gya qeiteran Leaves, stalks, In Decoction Asthma, cough, carminative, diarrhea, kidney stones, warts, bladder diseases. 0.31
Apium graveolens L. KUR002 Apiaceae Celery Kerewz Seeds, leaves In Vegetable Anemia, colon problems. 0.04
Anethum graveolens L. KUR003 Apiaceae Dill Shwit Leaves In Flavoring, Vegetable Stomachic, kidney and liver problems, back and arthritis pain, blood cholesterol. 0.15
Althaea officinalis L. KUR004 Malvaceae Marsh mallow Gwle hêro Leaves Ex/in Poultice, decoction Burns, cough, chest inflammation. 0.13
Artemisia absinthium L.
KUR005
Asteraceae Sea wormwood Toleke marane Leaves, flowers In Decoction Anemia, obesity, abdominal pain. 0.06
Allium sativum L.
KUR006
Amaryllidaceae Garlic Sir Bulb Ex /in Decoction Anti-dandruff, intestinal worms, stimulant, blood circulation, rheumatism, cancer, cholera, alopecia areata, tuberculosis, plague. 0.24
Allium roseum L.
KUR007
Amaryllidaceae Rosy garlic Gêlaxe Leaves In Decoction, squash Abdominal and duodenal pain, headache. 0.06
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.
KUR008
Xanthorrhoeaceae Aloe vera Aloi vira Leaves Ex Decoction Headache, toothache, indigestion. 0.06
Arum maculatum L.
KUR009
Araceae Lords-and-ladies Kardû Leaves In Decoction Intestinal worms. 0.02
Borago officinalis L. KUR010 Boraginaceae Borage Gozrwan Leaves, flowers, stems In Decoction Cough, hoarseness, asthma, bronchitis, abdominal pain. 0.11
Curcuma longa L. KUR011 Zingiberaceae Turmeric Zerdeçêwe Leaves, rhizomes Ex/in Decoction Facial massage, arthritis pain, fat-burning, spice, antiviral and anticancer agent. 0.13
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. KUR012 Cucurbitaceae Colocynth Kaleke Marane Leaves, fruits, seeds In Powder, vegetable Constipation, arthritis pain. 0.04
Cichorium intybus L. KUR013 Asteraceae Chicory Çeqçeqe Roots, leaves, In Decoction Constipation, blood cholesterol, anemia, colon problems, urinary system problems, prostate problems, skin sensitivity. 0.20
Cinnamomum cassia (Nees & T.Nees) J.Presl
KUR014
Lauraceae Cinnamon Darçin Bark In Powder Stimulant, cough, stress, tuberculosis, clear arteries, improve kidney function, diabetes. 0.15
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
KUR015
Asteraceae Spear thistle Kingr Stems In Decoction Inflammation, urinary and digestion problems. 0.06
Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (L.) Naudin.
KUR016
Cucurbitaceae Snake cucumber Trozi Stems In Powder Stomach pain, colon problems, diabetes, diarrhea, intestinal inflammation. 0.08
Crocus sativus L.
KUR017
Iridaceae Saffron Za'feran Stigmas In Spice Headache, depression, boost brainpower and sexual function. 0.13
Ceratonia siliqua L.
KUR018
Fabaceae Carob tree Xrnûk Fruits In Vegetable Abdominal pain, diarrhea. 0.04
Crataegus azarolus L. KUR019 Rosaceae Hawthorn Goizh Leaves In Decoction Kidney and bladder inflammation. 0.04
Carum carvi L.
KUR020
Apiaceae Caraway Zire Seeds In Decoction, squash Immunity, antioxidant, anemia, sleeplessness, indigestion, increasing breast milk. 0.13
Carlina acaulis L.
KUR021
Asteraceae Stemless carline thistle Çawbazele Roots In Decoction Diuretic. 0.02
Daucus carota L.
KUR022
Apiaceae Carrot Gêzer Roots In Vegetable, squash Gastric ulcer, bacterial gastroenteritis, diabetes, intestinal worms, eye problems. 0.11
Eremurus spectabilis M.Bieb.
KUR023
Liliaceae Foxtail lily Xwzhe Leaves In Decoction Arthritis, intestinal worms, sedation. 0.06
Fumaria officinalis L. KUR024 Papaveraceae Common fumitory Shatere Whole Ex Powder Mange. 0.02
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. KUR025 Fabaceae Licorice Belek Roots In Decoction, powder Gastric ulcer, cough, rheumatism, oral herpes, liver cyrrhosis, abdominal injury. 0.26
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. KUR026 Malvaceae Roselle Çai trsh Flowers In Decoction Hypertension. 0.02
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. KUR027 Lamiaceae Lavender Sharê'ne romi Leaves, flowers In Decoction Intestinal worms, antispasmodic. 0.04
Linum usitatissimum L. KUR028 Linaceae Flax Ketani swr Leaves In Powder Blood cholesterol, rheumatism, colon problems, antispasmodic, skin burns, gallstones, thyroid problems. 0.15
Lactuca sativa L.
KUR029
Asteraceae Lettuce Kahû Leaves In Vegetable Kidney stones. 0.02
Mentha spicata L.
KUR030
Lamiaceae Mint Ping Leaves, flowers Ex/in Hydrodistilled, powder, decoction Headache, hair tonic, spice, antispasmodic, hiccups, diarrhea, cough, skin diseases, leg pain. 0.22
Mentha piperita L.
KUR031
Lamiaceae Peppermint Pingi Kêwi Stems, leaves, flowers Ex/in Decoction Carminative, thoracic pain, indigestion, skin sensitivity, appetizing, colon problems, stomach pain, carminative. 0.26
Malva parviflora L.
KUR032
Malvaceae Cheeseweed Toleke Leaves Ex Decoction Hair loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea. 0.06
Matricaria chamomilla L.
KUR033
Compositae Wild chamomile Beibûn Leaves, flowers In Decoction Hypertension, stomach inflammation, blood circulation, kidney stones, intestinal worms, cough, anxiety, diuretic, headache, abdominal pain, hair loss, sore throat. 0.37
Medicago sativa L.
KUR034
Fabaceae Alfalfa Wênge Stems, leaves, flowers In Decoction Osteomalacia. 0.02
Nasturtium officinale R.Br.
KUR035
Brassicaceae Watercress Kûzele Root, stems Ex Decoction Rheumatism and bone diseases. 0.04
Nonea versicolor (Stev.) Sweet
KUR036
Boraginaceae Rose monkswort Çawe pishile Flowers Ex Decoction Hair loss, skin disease. 0.04
Nigella sativa L.
KUR037
Ranunculaceae Black cumin Reshke Seeds Ex/in Hydrodistilled, powder Eye problems, joint pain and inflammation, chest pain, diabetes, headache. 0.22
Ocimum basilicum L. KUR038 Lamiaceae Basil Rêh'n Leaves In Vegetable Headache, cold, bad breath, skin, cancer, quit smoking. 0.13
Olea europaea L.
KUR039
Oleaceae Olives Zeitûn Leaves In Decoction Diabetes. 0.02
Pimpinella anisum L. KUR040 Apiaceae Anise Razyane Seeds, leaves In Decoction, powder Menopause (menstruation), diarrhea (particularly in children), increasing breast milk, ascaris worms, stomachic, appetizing sleepless, colon. 0.31
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss
KUR041
Apiaceae Parsley Me'denûs Leaves Ex/in Decoction, vegetable Sexual problems, facial massage, diuretic, appetizing 0.08
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb
KUR042
Rosaceae Almond Badam Seeds Ex /in Hydrodistilled Hair loss, thoracic inflammation, cough, kidney stones, cold. 0.11
Pelargonium roseum Willd.
KUR043
Geraniaceae Rose geranium Gwl 'enber Leaves Ex Powder, inhalation Headache, hemorrhoids, burns. 0.60
Plantago lanceolata L. KUR044 Plantaginaceae Ribwort Plantain Gwê berxe Leaves Ex Powder Injury treatment, mange. 0.06
Quercus infectoria G.Olivier. KUR045 Fagaceae Oak apple Mazû Fruits Ex powder Burns. 0.02
Ranunculus ficaria L. KUR046 Ranunculaceae Lesser celandine Gya hengiroke Leaves, flowers In Decoction Hemorrhoids, arthritis. 0.02
Ricinus communis L. KUR047 Euphorbiaceae Castor oil plant Gerçek Leaves, fruits Ex/in Poultice, hydrodistilled, Skin diseases, colon problems, hair loss, thoracic pain, constipation, warts. 0.15
Rosa spp. KUR048 Rosaceae Rose Gûle bax Leaves In Decoction Constipation, abdominal pain. 0.06
Rosa canina L. KUR049 Rosaceae Dog rose Shilan Flowers, fruits In Decoction Diuretic, blood cell disorders, sedation. 0.06
Rosmarinus officinalis L.
KUR050
Lamiaceae Rosemary Rozmêri Leaves In Decoction Headache, blood circulation, improves memory. 0.06
Raphanus sativus L.
KUR051
Brassicaceae Radish Tûr Leaves, bulbs, seeds In Vegetable, hydrodistilled Kidney stones, gallstones, increasing breast milk, diuretic. 0.08
Rheum ribes L.
KUR052
Polygonaceae Rhubarb Rêwas Roots In Decoction, squash Diabetes. 0.02
Syzygium aromaticum L.
KUR053
Myrtaceae Clove Mêxek Flowers In Decoction, powder, hydrodistilled Indigestion, stress, insomnia, carminative, toothache. 0.28
Spinacia oleracea L. KUR054 Amaranthaceae Spinach Spênax Leaves In Decoction Weight loss, phlegm, rickets, bad breath, tuberculosis. 0.11
Salvia officinalis L.
KUR055
Lamiaceae Sage Gûle meryem Leaves, flowers In Decoction Infertility, menopause. 0.04
Senna alexandrina Mill. KUR056 Fabaceae Egyptian senna Sinemeki Leaves In Decoction Constipation. 0.02
Salix alba L.
KUR057
Salicaceae White willow Dar bi spi Leaves, barks In Decoction Diabetes, cold, blood circulation, headache. 0.11
Trifolium alexandrinum L.
KUR058
Fabaceae Clover Sêpere Leaves In Decoction Colic. 0.02
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg
KUR059
Asteraceae Dandelion Gwl xeberhên Leaves In Decoction Tuberculosis. 0.02
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. KUR060 Fabaceae Fenugreek Shmli Seeds In Powder, decoction Anemia, diabetes, injures, sore throat, rheumatism, cough. 0.20
Tribulus terrestris L. KUR061 Zygophyllaceae Puncture vine Peikwl Whole In Decoction Kidney and urinary problems, enhance sexual performance. 0.11
Thymus vulgaris L.
KUR062
Lamiaceae Thyme Jatre Seeds, leaves Ex/in Decoction Anti-dandruff, spice, chest pain, colon problems, asthma, diarrhea, blood cholesterol, urinary system problems, menopause. 0.31
Urtica dioica L.
KUR063
Urticaceae Stinging nettle Gezne zerdê Leaves In Decoction Anemia. 0.02
Viola odorata L.
KUR064
Violaceae Sweet violet Gwle wenewshe Leaves, flowers In Decoction Diarrhea, digestive problems, skin disorders, typhoid disease, gum disease. 0.11
Ziziphus jujube Mill. KUR065 Rhamnaceae Jujube 'enab Fruits In Decoction Sore throat and asthma. 0.04
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
KUR066
Zingiberaceae Ginger Zenjefil Roots In Hydrodistilled, powder, decoction Asthma, cough, cold, weight loss, chest pain, spice, back pain, hypertension, facial massage, bronchitis, stomach inflammation, nausea, colon problems, diabetes, stimulant. 0.48