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Table 4 New folk medicinal reports for Kurdistan found in the current study

From: Ethnopharmacobotanical study on the medicinal plants used by herbalists in Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdistan, Iraq

Plant scientific name New folk medicinal plant reports Folk medicinal reports previously recorded in the Kurdish ethnobotany
Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Asthma, carminative, diarrhea, warts Kidney and bladder stones, diuretic, cough [28, 29], abdominal pain [34].
Apium graveolens L. Anemia, colon problems Diuretic, dysmenorrhea and rheumatism, arthritis, stimulant, carminative, tonic.
Anethum graveolens L. Kidney and liver problems, back and arthritis pain Carminative for flatulence in children, cough, children’s stomach pain [5], hypercholesterolemia [23, 30].
Althaea officinalis L. Burns, cough, chest inflammation Irritation and inflammation of the mucous membranes [25].
Artemisia absinthium L. Anemia, obesity, abdominal pain Diabetes, shortness of breath [30], eczema, coughing, headache, stomach-ache, wound healing [32].
Allium sativum L. Anti-dandruff, intestinal worms, stimulant, rheumatism, cholera, alopecia areata, tuberculosis, plague Hypertension [23, 26, 29, 35] ringworm [29], common cold, anticancer and antibacterial agents, enhancing immunity, hypercholesterolemia [23].
Allium roseum L. Abdominal and duodenal pain, headache None.
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Headache, toothache, indigestion None.
Arum maculatum L. Intestinal worms Rheumatism [36].
Borago officinalis L. Cough, hoarseness, asthma, bronchitis, abdominal pain None.
Curcuma longa L. Facial massage, arthritis pain, fat-burning, spice, antiviral and anticancer agents None.
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Laxative, arthritis pain Diabetes [12, 28], wounds [12].
Cichorium intybus L. Constipation, blood cholesterol, anemia, colon problems and skin sensitivity Antihypertensive, prostate problems, stomach ache [30], burns, stomach-ache [32], hemorrhoids, urinary disorders [36].
Cinnamomum cassia (Nees & T.Nees) J.Presl Stimulant, stress, tuberculosis, clear arteries, improves kidney function Antibacterial, general tonic, diuretic, renal failure, anemia, sexual tonic for men [5] antidiabetic [24, 28], hyperglycemia, cough, flatulence, common cold, and pinworm [28].
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Inflammation, urinary and digestive problems None.
Cucumis melo L. Stomach pain, colon problems, diabetes, diarrhea, intestinal inflammation None.
Crocus sativus L. Headache, boosting brainpower and sexual function Sedation [28], metabolism stimulant [5, 28], carminative, fever and depression [5], breezy, tonic for heart and culinary use [12], Infertility [34].
Ceratonia siliqua L. Abdominal pain, diarrhea None.
Crataegus azarolus L. Bladder inflammation Antihypertensive, headache [12], anti-diabetic, rheumatism [24, 35], insomnia, joint pain, stress [24, 35], ulcer [35], cardiac disorder [12, 24, 26, 27, 29, 35, 37], vasodilators [19, 27, 29], circulation problems, spasm, sedative, to take out heel spur, nail, bullet [37], renal caculi [34], embolism [35], stomach-ache [35], asthma, hemorrhoids [35].
Carum carvi L. Immunity, antioxidants, anemia, sleeplessness, indigestion, increasing breast milk Digestive system, stomach pain, flavoring agent and mild laxative [5], appetizing, digestive [27], carminative, abdominal pain [28].
Carlina acaulis L. Diuretic None.
Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schübl. & G.Martens Gastric ulcer, bacterial gastroenteritis, diabetes, intestinal worms Eye sight [28].
Eremurus spectabilis M.Bieb. Arthritis, intestinal worms Rheumatism [27], diabetes, digestive [35], sedative [37].
Fumaria officinalis L. Mange Tonic, diaphoretic, sporadic stomach and antispasmodic [5], stomach-ache [27], fomentation in painful swellings, stomach pain, febrifuge, blood purifier and antispasmodic [5], dermal discords, wound, eczema [12], hemorrhoids [26, 27], sore [33].
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Cough, rheumatism, oral herpes, liver cirrhosis Pneumonia, sour eructations, duodenal inflammation, kidney pain, abdominal pain [28], digestive [29, 36], high cholesterol [29], cardiac disorders, diabetes [30], vaginitis, quit smoking, anti-ulcer, anti-aphthous [34], stomach-ache [36].
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. None Obesity, restorative, anti-hypertensive, sedative, dyspnea [28].
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Intestinal worms, antispasmodic None.
Linum usitatissimum L. Rheumatism, colon problems, antispasmodic, skin burns, gallstones, thyroid problems Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, perfume, apply on body or clothes, witchcraft, expel lochia [28].
Lactuca sativa L. Kidney stones Typhoid fever, emollient for skin, hypnotic and narcotic [5].
Mentha spicata L. Headache, strengthen hair, hiccups, diarrhea, cough, skin diseases, leg pain Colds [19, 26, 27, 29, 33, 35, 36], flu [19, 27, 29, 35, 36], stomach ache [19, 33], antispasmodic [27], vomit [29], food poisoning [2], appetite [35], respiratory problem [35, 36].
Mentha piperita L. Flatulence, thoracic pain, indigestion, skin sensitivity, appetizing, colon problems, stomach pain, carminative None.
Malva parviflora L. Diarrhea Pectoral, expectorant, laxative [5, 32], interstitial infection, laxative, sore throat, asthma [12], diuretic, urinary inflammations [19, 27, 34], stomach ache [26], hemorrhoids [27], abscess, hematomas, anti-inflammatory [29, 34], joint pain [29], gastric pain [30, 32], wound healing [30, 32, 34, 36, 37], rheumatism [32], abdominal pain, infertility [34], mastitis, psoriasis, vaginal candidiasis [36], respiratory problems, digestion problems, abortifacient [37], hair loss and constipation [33], anti-inflammatory, infertility, urinary inflammations [35], headache [32].
Matricaria chamomilla L. Hypertension, stomach inflammation, blood circulation, kidney stones, intestinal worms, anxiety, diuretic, headache, throat pain Wounds, diarrhea [35], cough, tonsillitis, dyspnea [shortness of breath], common cold, asthma, polyps, flatulence, abdominal pain, pharyngitis, black pigments on face, facial rash, acne, skin burns, skin tonic, hair loss, jaundice [28].
Medicago sativa L. Osteomalacia Tonic and fattening [12], skin bleeding [30], stomach-ache, coagulation, infection [33].
Nasturtium officinale R.Br. Rheumatism and bone diseases Stomachic [12, 35], anti-parasite [12], antidiabetic [24], vaginitis [34], antihypertensive [35].
Nonea versicolor (Stev.) Sweet Hair loss, skin diseases Snake bite [30].
Nigella sativa L. Eye problems, joint pain and inflammation, chest pain, headache Repelling gases, antibacterial, antiviral, sexual tonic, enhance memory, tonic and allergy, enhance immune system [23, 28], bronchitis and asthma [23], diabetes, antihypertensive, cancer, pneumonia, tonsillitis, hyperlipidemia, blood circulation, restorative [28], galactogogue, anti-hyperpigmentation, anti-scar [34].
Ocimum basilicum L. Bad breath, skin, cancer, quit smoking Stomach-ache [29], headache [34], colds and flu [35], abdominal pain [36].
Olea europaea L. None Diabetes [28].
Pimpinella anisum L. Menopause (menstruation), diarrhea (particularly in children), increasing breast milk, ascaris worms, stomachic, appetizing, sleeplessness. Carminative, culinary remedy [12, 37], flu, cough, diuretic, analgesic, indigestion, anxiety [23], flatulence [23, 28], asthma, female fertility [ovulatory stimulant], hypochondria, agony, colonitis, antihypertensive, abdominal pain, urolithiasis [28].
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Sexual problems, facial massage, diuretic, appetizing, problem Kidney stones, mouth sores [29].
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb Thoracic inflammation, cough, kidney stones, cold Rheumatoid arthritis, strengthens hair, eye pain, hypercholesterolemia, facial treatment [28].
Pelargonium roseum Willd. Headache, hemorrhoids, burns None.
Plantago lanceolata L. Mange Antipyretic [29], wound healing [29, 30, 3237], diabetes [30], gastric pain [30, 32], hemorrhoids [30, 32, 33], coughs, infections, pains [33], overcoming infertility in women [34], embolism, abscess [35], urinary inflammations [35, 36], expectorant, tonsillitis [36].
Quercus infectoria G.Olivier. None Oral sores, wounds [28], diabetes [29], burns [34], toothache [36].
Ricinus communis L. Skin diseases, colon problems, thoracic pain, warts Purgative, strengthens hair [28].
Rosa spp. Constipation, abdominal pain Indigestion, diuretic, blood cells, sedatives [12], antiseptic [19, 27], diabetes [19, 24, 26, 27, 29, 34], flu [19, 27, 32, 35], antitussive [29, 30], coughing [32], expectorant, kidney stones [35], colds, [19, 27, 29, 30, 32, 3537], hemorrhoids [35, 36].
Ranunculus ficaria L. Hemorrhoids, arthritis None.
Rosa canina L. Diuretic, blood cell disorders, sedative None.
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Headache, blood circulation Enhances memory and concentration [28].
Raphanus sativus L. Kidney stones, gallstones, increasing breast milk, diuretic None.
Rheum ribes L. None Hypertension [12, 23], triglyceride [12], hypoglycemic [23], urinary inflammations [19], digestive, diuretic, constipation, high cholesterol [27], kidney stones [27, 29, 34, 35], diabetes [29, 30, 32, 35, 36], headache [32], rheumatic pain control, anti-diarrhea [34], asthma, cardiac disorder [35].
Syzygium aromaticum L. Indigestion, stress, insomnia, intestinal gas Toothache, painkiller, headache, asthma, ingredient [28].
Spinacia oleracea L. Weight loss, phlegm, rickets, bad breath, tuberculosis None.
Salvia officinalis L. None Regulate menstrual cycle, hypoglycemic, hypercholesterolemia, flatulence, antibacterial, fever [23], Alzheimer’s, cough, digestive, flu, tonsillitis [27], appetite stimulant, female fertility, female aphrodisiac [28], women fertility and infections, cold, anti-fever [12], antidiabetic [24], diabetes disease, cold and flu [26, 29, 36], digestive, tonsillitis [36], antacid [36], sedative, bleeding, cold, diarrhea, sedative, digestive [37].
Senna alexandrina Mill. Constipation Purgative, obesity, diarrhea, colonitis [28].
Salix alba L. Cold, blood circulation Anti-fever [12, 37], diabetes [29], toothache [30], headache [34], analgesic [35, 36], infertility [35], sinusitis [35, 36], restorative [37].
Trifolium alexandrinum L. Colic None.
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg Tuberculosis Arthralgia, diuretic [27], digestive [29].
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Anemia, sore throat, rheumatism Skin inflammation [28], irritable bowel,appetizimg, hypoglycemic, diuretic, stimulate lactation, sexual tonic in women, UTI, renal stones [23], diabetes, hemostatic for diabetics, vulnerary, antihypertensive, infection in body, appetite stimulant, sedative, catarrh, lactation, enhances sperm production, hypercholesterolemia [28].
Tribulus terrestris L. Urinary problems, enhance sexual function Diarrhea [27, 36], antihypertensive [29], kidney stones [30, 35], dissolves renal caculi, ulcer [34], asthma, cardiac disorder [35], cardiac disorder, hemorrhoids, vasodilators [36].
Thymus vulgaris L. Anti-dandruff, spice, chest pain, colon problems, asthma, diarrhea, blood cholesterol, urinary system problems, menopause Gingivitis, dyspepsia, appetizing, abdominal cramps, antifungal, anthelmintic, expectorant, tonic, enhance immune system, cystitis and nephritis [23].
Urtica dioica L. Anemia Arthralgia, colds, flu [19, 27, 32], diabetes [19, 27, 29, 32], throat diseases, painkiller and to reduce blood sugar level [26], rheumatism [27, 30, 32, 35], losing weight [27], bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, cough, respiratory disease, tonsillitis [29] colds [30], cancers [30, 32, 36], stomach ache [32], analgesic, arthritis, digestive, diuretic, genital disorders, hemorrhoids, hepatitis, leptotrichia [35], digestive, diuretic, genital disorders, hemorrhoids [36], urinary system, ulcer, constipation [36].
Viola odorata L. Diarrhea, digestive problems, skin disorders, typhoid disease and gum disease Gastritis, gastric and kidney pain [30], prostate [36].
Ziziphus jujuba Mill Sore throat and asthma None.
Zingiber officinale Roscoe Asthma, cold, weight loss, chest pain, spice, back pain, facial massage, bronchitis, stomach inflammation, nausea, blood sugar, stimulant Hypercholesterolemia, sexual tonic, regulate blood circulation, hemorrhoid, stomach and respiratory problems [23], obesity, flatulence, abdominal pain, cough, tonsillitis, prostate problems, tonsillitis, female fertility, pneumonia, enhances bile secretion, body pain, Malta fever, restorative, rheumatism, blood circulation, sweating, colonitis, antihypertensive [28].