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Table 5 General socio-ecological and technological aspects recorded in AFS in different indigenous and Mestizo communities of the Thuacán Valley, México

From: TEK and biodiversity management in agroforestry systems of different socio-ecological contexts of the Tehuacán Valley

   Temperate Arid Arid-alluvial valleys
Aspect Variable Santa María Coyomeapan San Lorenzo Pápalo Santa María Ixcatlán San Luis Atolotitlán Santiago Quiotepec Zapotitlán Salinas San Losé Axusco
Sociocultural Ethnicity Náhuatl Cuicateco Ixcateco Mestizo and Náhuatl Mestizo and Cuicateco Meztizo and Mixteco Náhuatl
Land tenure Private, ejidal and communal Communal and private Communal Ejidal Communal and private Communal Communal and ejidal
Farming practices Crops Corn, beans, squashes, pumpkins, peas Corn, bean, gourd, fava beans, peas Corn, beans and squashes Corn, beans and squashes Corn, beans and squashes Corn, beans and squashes Corn, beans and squashes
Fallow 1 year 1–3 years 6 months 1–5 years 6 months 6 months 6 months
Irrigation No No No No Yes Yes Yes
Machinery Mattock Plough and mattock Tractor and mattock Plough Plough Tractor and mattock Tractor and Plough
Agrochemicals No Yes No No Yes Yes No
Livestock Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Agroforestry systems Agroforestry practice Boundaries, windbreaks and isolated trees Boundaries and vegetation islands Boundaries and patches of vegetation Isolated trees, vegetation islands and fringes against soil erosion, vegetation surrounding the fields. Fringes for water managenment and against soil erosion Fringes for water managenment and against soil erosion Fringes for water managenment and against soil erosion
Principal uses Edible fruit, Other edible product and Firewood Shade, firewood and boundary Shade, firewood and boundary Edible fruit, firewood and shade Edible fruit, shade and fodder Asthetic (beauty), shade and Maintaining water Other edible product, shade and fodder
Ecological Species richness 39 18 29 71 32 58 10
Diversity (Shannon Índex) 3 2.5 2 3.2 N/A N/A N/A