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Table 3 Species of mushrooms used as food, with ludic use or toxic recognized by Mixtecs in the studied communities

From: Traditional knowledge and use of wild mushrooms by Mixtecs or Ñuu savi, the people of the rain, from Southeastern Mexico

Taxa Mixtec name Use Substrate Habitat TG Mixtec community
Ascomycetes
Hypomyces lactifluorum (Schw. Fr.) xi´i lo´o EL M Q, P, P-Q MY 1, 2
Basidiomycetes
Agaricus campestris L. ex Fr. xi´i nu ite EL H G S 1, 2
Agaricus pampeanus Speg. xi´i nde´i EL H G S 4
Albatrellus aff. ovinus Schaeff. xi´i yaa idu EL H P S 1
Amanita aff. basii Guzmán & Ram. Guill. xi´i naa EL S Q, P-Q EM 1, 2
Amanita bisporigera G.F. Atk xi´i la´ava DT S Q, P-Q EM 1, 2
Amanita chlorinosma (Peck) Lloyd xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ kuixi T S Q, P, P-Q EM 1
Amanita citrina Pers. xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita crocea (Quél.) Singer ex Singer. xi´i la´ava T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita echinocephala (Vittad.) Quel. xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita flavoconia G.F. Atk. xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita flavorubens (Berk. & Mont.) Sacc. xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita fulva Fr. xi´i la´ava T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita gemmata (Fr.) Bertill. xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T S Q, P, P-Q EM 1
Amanita aff. jacksonii Pomerl. xi´i naa EL S Q, P-Q EM 1, 2
Amanita aff. laurae Guzmán & Ram. Guill. xi´i naa EL S Q, P-Q EM 1, 2
Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Lam. xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T S Q, P, P-Q EM 1, 2
Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Link. xi´i la´ava DT S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita polypyramis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc. xi´i la´ava kuixi T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita rubescens (Pers.: Fr.) S.F. Gray.  xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita sect. caesarea (Scop.:Fr.) Pers. xi´i naa EL S Q, P-Q EM 1, 2
Amanita vaginata (Bull.) Lam. xi´i la´ava T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita verna (Bull.: Fr.) Lamarck. xi´i la´ava T S Q, P-Q EM 1
Amanita virosa (Fr.) Bertill. xi´i la´ava DT S Q, P, P-Q EM 1
Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers.: Pers.) Morgan. xi’i chɨndɨɨ L S Q, G EM 1
Boletus edulis s.l. Bull. ex Fr. xi´i taka ya´a EL S Q, P-Q EM 1
Calvatia aff. cyathiformis (Bosc) Morgan xi´i ndɨvɨ kuni EL, L H G S 1,3
Cantharellus “cibarius” sp. 1 xi´i veya EL S Q, P, P-Q EM 1, 2
Cantharellus “cibarius” sp. 2 xi´i veya EL S Q, P, P-Q EM 1, 2
Hohenbuehelia petaloides (Bull.) Schulzer. xi´i tnu tɨ´ma EL W TDC S 1
Hydnum repandum L.: Fr. xi´i tɨntaku EL S Q, P-Q EM 1
Lactarius volemus Fr. xi´i dɨkuɨ EL S Q, P-Q EM 1, 2
Lepiota sp. xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T H Q, P-Q S 1
Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff. xi’i kue´e L H G S 1, 2
Lycoperdon aff. spadiceum Pers. xi’i kue´e L H G S 1
Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. xi’i kue´e L H G S 1, 2
Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer xi´i la´ava ndɨ´yɨ T H P S 1, 2
Marasmius oreades Bolt. ex Fr. xi´i daa, xi´i ndeyu EL H G S 1, 2
Neolentinus lepideus (Buxb.) Fr. xi´i ntaka’a ñu´u; xi´i kolo EL W P, P-Q S 1, 2
Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.: Pers.) Rausch. xi’i ndɨvɨ burru L S P, P-Q EM 1
Pleurotus aff. dryinus (Pers. ex Fr.) Kum. xi´i tnu tɨ´ma EL W TDF S 1, 2
Pleurotus aff. eryngii (Fr.) xi´i tnu tɨ´ma EL W TDF S 1, 2
Pseudofistulina radicata (Schw.) Burds. xi´i tuchi EL W Q, P-Q S 1, 2
Ramaria aff. fennica (P. Karst.) Ricken xi´i ndɨkɨ idu EL S Q EM 1, 2
Ramaria botrytis (Pers.) Ricken. xi´i ndɨkɨ idu EL S Q EM 1, 2
Ramaria flava Quel. xi´i ndɨkɨ idu EL S Q EM 1, 2
Russula mexicana Burl. xi´i satu, xi´i ya’a EL S Q, P-Q EM 1
Schizophyllum commune (Fr.) Fr. xi´i tnu kutu EL W TDF S 1, 2
Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda. tikaa maa EL O C P 1, 2, 3, 4
  1. The nomenclature is based on the Index fungorum [36] and the ectomycorrhizal status in Rinaldi et al. [96] and Comandini et al. [97]. EL edible locally, L ludic, T toxic, DT deadly toxic, M mushroom, H humus, S soil, W wood debris, O other, G grassland, P Pinus forest (Mixed forests of Pinus oaxacana, P. lawsonii, P. michoacana, P. devoniana and P. pringlei), Q Quercus forest (Mixed forests of Quercus magnoliifolia, Q. castanea, Q. urbanii, Q. rugosa, Q. laurina and Q. acutifolia), P-Q forest of Pinus spp.-Quercus spp., TDF tropical deciduous forest, C crop, TG trophic group, EM ectomycorrhizal, MY mycoparasite, S saprobic. Mixtec community: 1: Santa Catarina Estetla; 2: San Juan Yuta; 3: San Miguel Tulancingo; 4: San Andrés Yutatio (numbers correspond to map in Fig. 1)