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Table 1 Invertebrates used in contemporary Spanish EVM with indications of the body parts and/or products used, ailments treated, target domestic animal groups, modes of preparation and application, and geographical location of the remedies

From: Therapeutic and prophylactic uses of invertebrates in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine

Animals used
(vernacular names)
Part (s) or products used Diseases or troubles treated ( = current use) Animal (s) treated Preparation (administration route)a Remedy typeb Geographical location Ref. No.
MOLLUSCA
BIVALVIA        
Mytiloida, Mytilidae        
Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (mejillón) Shell Corneal ulcers All livestock Pulverised (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz) [43]
Ostreoida, Ostreidae        
Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) (ostión) Shell As dietary supplement () Poultry Pulverised (IN) EMP-PRE Doñana (Andalusia) [101]
GASTROPODA        
Stylommatophora
[several families]
       
Snails (caracoles, cargols, caragols, cascoxos) Whole animal Scald, hoof rot Cows Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Asturias, Basque Country [48, 55]
   Splenic fever (anthrax) Cattle Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Zumaia (Guipúzcoa) [48]
  Shell ——— (prophylaxis) All livestock Without prepraration (EX) MAG-PRE Western part of Asturias [99]
   Corneal ulcers All livestock Burned and pulverised (EX) EMP- CUR Comarca de Serrablo (Huesca) [75]
Stylommatophora, Helicidae        
Cornu aspersum (O.F. Müller, 1774) [= Helix aspersa O.F. Müller, 1774] (caracol común, caracol de jardín, cargol bover, caragol bover) Whole animal Scald, hoof rot Cows Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Campoo (Cantabria) [66]
   Keratoconjunctivitis Sheep Toasted and crushed (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca del Pallars (Lérida) [69]
   Viper bites Sheep Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca del Pallars (Lérida) [69]
Stylommatophora, Arionidae        
Arion ater (Linnaeus, 1758) (babosa negra, limaco, lumaco, llimiagu) Whole animal Scald, hoof rot Cows Crushed (EX) EMP-CUR Bandujo –Proaza– and La Matosa –Piloña– (Asturias) [55]
  Slime Choked on food Cows Fresh (IN) EMP-CUR Ibias (Asturias) [85, 8890]
  Entrails Eye disorders Cows, sheep, goats, horses Dried (EX) EMP-CUR Ibias (Asturias) [80]
Arion hortensis Férussac, 1819 (babosa, lumiago) Whole animal Scald, hoof rot Cows Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Campoo (Cantabria) [66]
CEPHALOPODA        
Myopsida, Loliginidae        
Loligo vulgaris Lamarck, 1798
(calamar)
Internal shell Corneal ulcers Sheep, goats Dried and pulverised (EX) EMP-CUR Las Cruces de Gáldar and Cueva Corcho (Gran Canaria) [76]
   Wounds All livestock Dried and pulverised (EX) EMP-CUR Santa Olalla de Cala (Sierra de Aracena, Huelva) [57]
Sepiida, Sepiidae        
Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 (sepia, sípia, jibia, xiba, choco) Cuttlebone Corneal ulcers Cattle, equines, sheep, goats Dried and pulverised (EX) EMP-CUR A Pastoriza (Lugo), Laza (Orense), Gozón and El Franco (Asturias), Comarca de Campoo (Cantabria), Valle de Carranza (Vizcaya), Viniegra de Abajo (La Rioja), Valls d’Aguilar (Lérida), Arànser (Lérida), Puigcerdà (Gerona), Camp de Tarragona [38, 49, 55, 56, 66, 67, 73, 7779]
   Pinkeye (infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis) Cattle Dried and pulverised (EX) EMP-CUR Valle de Carranza (Vizcaya), Comarca del Pallars (Lérida) [67, 69]
   Aphthous fever, hoof-and-mouth disease Cattle Dried and pulverised (IN) EMP-CUR Comarca del Pallars (Lérida) [69]
   Udder injuries Goats Dried and pulverised (EX) EMP-CUR Canary Islands [72]
Octopoda, Octopodidae        
Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797
(pulpo, polbo)
Whole animal Cough Pigs Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Cee (La Coruña) [73]
ANNELIDA
CLITELLATA        
Arhynchobdellida, Hirudinidae        
Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 (sanguijuela, sangrijuela) Whole animal Inflammation of the tongue (glossitis) Equines Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Villarino de los Aires (Salamanca) [52]
   Indigestion All livestock Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Malpartida de Plasencia and Toril (Cáceres) [64]
   Clostridium infections Cows Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de la Sierra de Cádiz (Cádiz) [71]
   Bruises All livestock Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Apodaca (Álava) [39]
   Osteoarticular inflammations Cows Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Guijuelo (Salamanca) [52]
   Cerebral congestion All livestock (mainly cows and pigs) Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Basque Country, Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz) [42, 100]
Rhynchobdellida, Glossiphoniidae        
Helobdella stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (sanguijuela colorada, sanguijuela roja) Whole animal Osteoarticular inflammations All livestock Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Doñinos de Salamanca (Salamanca) [52]
ARTHROPODA
ARACHNIDA        
Araneae [several families]        
Spiders (arañas) Cobwebs Haemorrhage (wounds) () All livestock Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Tierra de Cameros (La Rioja), Province of Guipúzcoa, Basque Country, Valls d’Aguilar (Lérida), Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz), Extremadura, Estepona (Málaga), Almendra, Cabeza de Framontanos, La Calzada de Béjar and Garcihernández (Salamanca), Valle de Tena and Tierra de Biescas (Huesca) [38, 43, 4754, 94]
   Healing scrotal wounds (after castration) All livestock Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Basque Country [51]
   Caudectomy Sheep Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Taja –Teverga– (Asturias), Valle de Carranza (Vizcaya) [55, 56]
   Dehorning (by amputation) Calves Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Basque Country [47, 48]
   Broken horn Cattle Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Many localities of the province of Salamanca [52]
   Broken leg Sheep Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Santa María de Sando (Salamanca) [52]
   Scald, hoof rot Sheep Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Almendra (Salamanca) [52]
   Corneal ulcers Cows Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Saelices el Chico (Salamanca) [52]
Scorpiones, Buthidae        
Buthus occitanus (Amoreux, 1789) (escorpión, alacrán) Whole animal Colds Equines Bolied (EX) EMP-CUR Bárcabo (Huesca) [95]
   Urinary retention All livestock Maceration in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR La Aparecida –Orihuela– (Alicante) [96]
   Anti-cystitic or against
ureteral obstruction
Mules Fried in olive oil (IN) EMP-CUR Castile-La Mancha [98]
   Scorpion stings All livestock Maceration in alcohol (EX) EMP-CUR Monzón (Huesca) [95]
    All livestock Crushed (EX) EMP-CUR Monzón (Huesca) [95]
Buthus ibericus Lourenço & Vachon, 2004 (escorpión, alacrán, arraclán, araclán, aracrán) Whole animal Aphthous fever, hoof-and-mouth disease Cattle, goats Without prepraration (EX) MAG-PRE Comarca de El Monfragüe (Cáceres), El Bodón, El Cabaco, Cabeza de Framontanos, Membribe de la Sierraand Sepulcro-Hilario (Salmanca) [52, 64]
   Disorders of lacrimal system (dacryocystitis, canaliculitis, stenosis) All livestock Without prepraration (EX) MAG-CUR Alburquerque (Badajoz) [62]
    Sheep Without prepraration (EX) MAG-CUR Los Ibores and the Valle del Alagón (Cáceres) [50]
   Equine colic Equines Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Gallegos de Argañán (Salamanca) [52]
   Urinary retention Foals Maceration in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz) [43]
    All livestock Fried in olive oil (IN) EMP-CUR Montes de Toledo (Toledo) [97]
   Wounds All livestock Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Almendra (Salamanca) [58]
    All livestock Maceration in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Aldeatejada (Salamanca) [52]
    Cows Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Morasverdes (Salamanca) [52]
   Antiseptic after castration Pigs Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Almendra and Berrocal de Huebra (Salamanca) [52, 59, 60]
   Scorpion stings Oxen Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Las Veguillas and Peña de Cabra (Salamanca) [99]
    Sheep Crushed and fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Extremadura [50]
    Cattle Without prepraration (EX) MAG-PRE Encinas de Arriba (Salamanca) [52]
INSECTA        
Coleoptera, Lucanidae        
Lucanus cervus (Linnaeus, 1758) (vacaloura, vacallorina) Mandibles of the male (and head) Viper bites All livestock Dried (EX) MAG-PRE Asturias [85]
Coleoptera, Meloidae        
Meloe proscarabaeus Linnaeus, 1758 (carraleja) Haemolymph Inflammation (by trauma) Cows Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Cantabria [91]
Berberomeloe majalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (aceitero/a, papaceite, curica, curita, curato, curacurato, curacurate, curacuracho, curapacho, fraile, médico, tabernero/a, vaquita, avaón, quilisón, vinatero, vinagrera) Haemolymph Warts All livestock Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz) [43]
   Genital warts (in males) Equines Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz), Malpartida de Plasencia (Cáceres) [43, 64]
   Lumps in articulations Equines Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Madroñera (Cáceres) [92]
    All livestock Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Malpartida de Plasencia, Serrejón, Jaraicejo, Torrejón el Rubio and Serradilla (Cáceres) [64]
    All livestock Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz) [43]
   To interrupt breastfeeding (weaning) Calves Fresh (EX) EMP-PRE Benalup de Sidonia (Cádiz) [63]
   To heal infected wounds (particularly in the legs) All livestock Fresh (EX) EMP-CUR Garrovillas, Malpartida de Plasencia, Navas del Madroño, Serrejón, Jaraicejo, Torrejón el Rubio and Serradilla (Cáceres), La Muela (Cádiz), Sanlúcar del Guadiana (Huelva) [63, 64]
  Whole animal Wounds () All livestock Maceration in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Western part of the province of Granada, Berganciano (Salamanca) [52, 61, 65]
   Chafing Equines, cows, oxen Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Aldea del Obispo (Salamanca) [52]
   Viper bites Sheep, goats Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Viniegra de Abajo (La Rioja) [38]
Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae        
Scarab beetles larvae (gallinas ciegas, gallinetas, cocos, roscas, chicharras, gusanos del estiércol, gusanos de las basuras, gusanos del pasmo) Whole animal (larva) Wounds and chafing Equines, cows, oxen Fried in olive oil or roasted (EX) EMP-CUR Aldea del Obispo, Fuenteguinaldo, Membribe de la Sierra and Mieza (Salamanca) [52]
   Antiseptic after castration Pigs Fried or macerated in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Alburquerque and Comarca de Zafra (Badajoz), Western part of the province of Granada, Almendra, El Bodón, Saelices el Chico, Villar de Ciervo and Villarino de los Aires (Salamanca) [43, 52, 61, 62]
Coleoptera [several families]        
Woodworm and powderpost beetles (carcoma) Frass (a mixture of sawdust and excrement) Scald, hoof rot Cows Kneaded together with olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Valle de Carranza (Vizcaya) [67]
   Chafing Equines Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Basque Country [51]
Hymenoptera, Formicidae        
Ants (hormigas) Whole animal Clostridium infections All livestock Without prepraration (IN) EMP-CUR Province of Badajoz
(near Sierra de Aracena)
[77]
   Meteorism Cows Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Bustiellu –Proaza– (Asturias) [55]
   Indigestion All livestock (mainly cows) Bolied (IN) EMP-CUR Asturias, Betanzos (La Coruña) [73, 85]
   To promote pregnancy Cows Bolied (IN) EMP-CUR Curtis (La Coruña) [73]
   Mastitis Cows Without prepraration (EX) MAG-CUR Betanzos and Cesuras (La Coruña) [73]
Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761 (hormiga roja) Whole animal To facilitate rumination Cows Without prepraration (IN) EMP-CUR Comarca de Campoo (Cantabria) [66]
Hymenoptera, Vespidae        
Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758 (avispa, tártago) Whole animal Indigestion All livestock Without prepraration (IN) EMP-CUR Asturias [85]
Hymenoptera, Apidae        
Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (abeja, abeja melífera) Honey Pasteurellosis Cows Raw (IN) EMP-CUR Berrocal de Huebra (Salamanca) [60]
   Aphthous fever, hoof-and-mouth disease () All livestock Raw and mixed with vinegar (EX) EMP-CUR Valle de Tena and Tierra de Biescas (Huesca) [54]
   Scald, hoof rot Sheep, goats Raw (EX) EMP-CUR Tierra de Cameros (La Rioja) [38]
    All livestock Raw and mixed with vinegar (EX) EMP-CUR Nocito (Huesca) [68]
   Intestinal parasites Equines, cattle Raw and mixed with ginger and sodium carbonate (IN) EMP-CUR Sarria (Lugo) [73]
   Pneumonia Cows Raw and mixed with pig fat and water (IN) EMP-CUR Ameixenda and Cee (La Coruña) [73]
    Canaries Raw (IN) EMP-CUR Sarria (Lugo) [73]
   Colds Cows Raw and mixed with water (IN) EMP-CUR A Pastoriza (Lugo) [79]
   Corneal ulcers All livestock Raw (EX) EMP-CUR Asturias [55]
    Cows Raw (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Campoo (Cantabria) [66]
   Ocular contusions All livestock Raw and mixed with water (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Serrablo (Huesca), Fonsagrada (Lugo) [73, 75]
   Digestive disorders Cows Raw and mixed with bran (IN) EMP-CUR Province of La Coruña [73]
   Stomach cramp All livestock Raw (IN) EMP-CUR Province of Salamanca [87]
   Abscess Sheep, goats Raw (EX) EMP-CUR Tierra de Cameros (La Rioja) [38]
   Mastitis Cows, ewes Raw (EX) EMP-CUR Valle de Carranza (Vizcaya), Comarca de La Campiña (Guadalajara), province of La Coruña [67, 73, 93]
   Wounds and cracks in the udders Ewes Raw (EX) EMP-CUR Extremadura [50]
  Beeswax Constipation Lambs, kids Manufactured –candels– (IN) EMP-CUR Enclave de Treviño (Burgos) [86]
   Cracks in the udders Cows Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Comarca de Campoo (Cantabria) [66]
  1. a Administration route: EX = external use; IN = internal use
  2. b Remedy type: EMP = empirical; MAG = magical / PRE = preventive healthcare; CUR = curative care