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Table 1 List of invertebrate taxa for medicinal use, food, angling, toy and other purposes. The last column indicates which species are traditionally protected by locals

From: Folk knowledge of invertebrates in Central Europe - folk taxonomy, nomenclature, medicinal and other uses, folklore, and nature conservation

  See taxonomy in Fig. no. Latin and proper name of folk taxa (serial number in the appendix) Saliences Medicinal Consumption Bait Toy Other usage Protection
1. 15 Andricus hungaricus
Hungarian gall wasp (132)
Used for tanning, but collected here mainly for sale.     x x  
2. 13 Arion, Limax spp. e.g. Limax maximus
slug species (14)
They are very good for baits (i.e.: for angling).    x    
3. 4 Xylocopa violacea, Xylocopa valga
black coloured carpenter bees (112)
Eats nectar, it doesn’t do you any harm. / Drills the wood like a machine. / We frequently caught it, took apart and ate the honey from it.   x     
4. 9 Microtrombidium pusillum
dwarf velvet mite (46)
Sometime it is protected like a taboo. God’s Lamb. It has a cross on its back.       x
5. 6 Lytta vesicatoria
Spanish fly (86)
If the rabid dog bit someone, you had to feed nine piece of it to the man. / If you pour (the tincture prepared from the beetle) onto the head of the man, he did not shiver any more. x     x  
6. 6 Pyrrhidium sanguineum
Welsh oak longhorn beetle (92)
We would use them for fishing long time ago.    x    
7. 13 Helix spp. mainly Helix pomatia
edible snails (20)
The poor cooked it. / They were collected in springtime. / They were washed at least ten times. It was scalded and the foot cut off. It was soaked in lukewarm water, in cold water, lukewarm again, a lot of work. / Snails are best before the weeds grow too high.   x     
8. 15 Astacus astacus, Astacus leptodactylus
European crayfish, Danubian crayfish (48)
The old of long time ago caught it, it became red when cooked. / My father caught many on the Rét (a marsh), we cooked them in a big pot. In salty water. / The tail and the nippers are good to eat.   x     
9. 8 Araneae e.g. Tegenaria domestica spiders (34) If you cut your feet, you would pick spider net in the stable and covered the cut to heal. x     x x
10. 4 Apis mellifera European honey bee (113) When the bees are gone we will be gone as well because there will be nothing to eat. / Honey is good for a lot of things. x x    x  
11. 13 Bivalvia e.g. Anodonta cygnea
clams (24)
There were many, fed to the pigs. / You would make buttons of it. It is good for bait to catch carp and predatory fish.    x   x  
12. 12 Hirudo medicinalis
European medicinal leech (8)
My aunt had them in a jar, when she had a headache or neck ache you would put them on. / Only March leech would be good. / If your tooth aches, put to your gums, it would suck the bad blood from it. x   x    
13. 12 Haemopis sanguisuga
horse-leech (10)
It’s like the leech but only more gentle. / We would pick them to catch catfish.    x    
14. 12 Lumbricus spp. e.g. Lumbricus terrestris
earthworms (11)
My husband would know them because he was a fisherman and would collect them.    x    
15. 12 Eisenia fetida
redworm (12)
Not all earthworms would do for angling. This is the best one.    x    
16. 12 Aporrectodea dubiosa
earthworm species (13)
This is harder and it (the fish) can not pull it down (from the hook).    x    
17. 6 Daphnia spp. e.g. Daphnia magna
water fleas (50)
There was a doctor here when we were kids who had an aquarium and he gave them to the fish. We would go to collect them with a little dipping net.      x  
18. 6 Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa
European mole cricket (63)
This is a good bait (to angle). / They were gathered to put on bottom hooks, there were some 200 bottom hooks attached on a single string.    x    
19. 6 Cerambyx cerdo
great capricorn beetle (90)
I would pick them out for bait (from firewood). In winter, when I can’t get earthworms.    x    
20. - different beetles and other bigger insects cruel playing with living individuals     x   
21. 6,
Melolontha melolontha
cockchafer (88)
You can angle with it nicely. When it has time (swarming), fishes like it.    x    
22. 6 Coccinella septempunctata
seven-spot ladybird (97)
We are scared that they (Harmonia axyridis) will kill off all of our nice little ladybugs. Oh, those littles. Which is a pity, because they are good.       x
23. 4 Osmia adunca
mason bee species (115)
We picked out the reed (from the roof), when we saw that there was reed honey in it. My grandmother was very angry and scored at us because we destroyed the reed roof beehive and we then ate the reed honey.   x     
24. 15 Cynips quercusfolii
gall wasp species (130)
We were kids and made pipe of it. It was a toy. / Oak galls would be used for tanning leather in the past.     x x  
25. 14 Lepidoptera e.g. Melitaea athalia
butterflies (135)
This is indeed not a pest. We were glad to see it before. They are aware of the harm many species do, yet adult individuals are not destroyed.       x