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Table 5 Matrix cognition compared between the fishers´ LEK and the scientific literature on the biology and ecology of European pilchard in Peniche, Portugal

From: Sharing fishers´ ethnoecological knowledge of the European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) in the westernmost fishing community in Europe

Topics Fisherman’s citation Scientific literature
Habitat “Coastal species and prefers sites near river mouths in the sea”.
“Depths between 0 to 100 m”.
Coastal shelf waters [39,40,41,42,43];
Areas of great productivity near the mouths of rivers and estuaries [42]; Area of local upwelling or river runoff [44].
Depths of up to 100 m, reaching a lower depth limit of 180 m [40]; Preference for waters with depths of up to 100 m [43].
Behaviour “Migration carried out in shoals”.
“Ability to school as a way to ward off
predators”.
Migratory behaviour, a high dispersal capacity and schooling
behaviour similar to other pelagic fish [45].
Competitors or predators may change the direction or influence the
intensity of these migrations in schooling [46].
Migration “Mainly Figueira da Foz and Algarve”.
“Póvoa de Varzim, Lisbon...”.
Póvoa de Varzim, Figueira da Foz and Lisbon [49];
Algarve (Southern Portion of Portugal), this pelagic fish is found in greater quantities [49].
Development “Rapid growth”.
“Sardine reach sexual maturity at 1 year”; “from 3 to 7 months of age”.
Very fast growth rate [42, 45, 50].
Matures early [52, 53].
Spawning “The main months of spawning are also December, January and February”.
“Spawn time can range from one to 8 months”.
“In the winter, the sardine spawns more”;
“The spawning occurs 2 to 4 times a year”.
October to April [56]; mainly between December and February along the Portuguese coast [57].
Ranging from 3 months per year up to 8 months [43].
Sardines exhibit a prolonged spawning period during the year, with more pronounced spawning mainly in the colder months of the year [43].
Fat accumulation season “June through October”. Late summer and autumn [58].
Late spring to autumn [42].
Predator “Mainly dolphins (atuninha or toninha), “sharks, whales, conger eel (safio) and yellowfin tuna (albacora)”; “yellow-legged gull (gaivota)”, albatross and other birds”. Common dolphin (D. delphis) [59,60,61,62]; species of demersal fish, seabirds and marine mammals [41, 42, 59, 63, 64].
Prey “Plankton, algae called “limo”, small shrimp, krill, the spawn of other fish species and their own spawn”. Zooplankton as their energy source [58, 68]; Phytoplankton [58, 69]; fish eggs and crustaceans [58].
Sardines may predate on their own eggs in winter [69].