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Table 1. List of famine food species from published literature, unpublished personal diaries, and letters, pamphlets, and wartime cookbooks archived in the library of the Dutch National Institute of War Documentation (NIOD), personal war collections, and online sources, with scientific name, English and Dutch name, family, and distribution in 1942

From: Famine food of vegetal origin consumed in the Netherlands during World War II

Scientific name English name Dutch name Family Distribution around 1942 [47] Source(s)
Aegopodium podagraria L.a Ground elder Zevenblad Apiaceae Common
Aesculus hippocastanum L.a Horse chestnut Wilde kastanje Sapindaceae Cultivated
Agaricus campestris Field mushroom Gewone weidechampignon Agaricaceae [45]
Atriplex hortensis L. Garden orache Tuinmelde Amaranthaceae Cultivated and wild [40, 48]
Bellis perennis L.a Common daisy Madeliefje Asteraceae Very common
Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris var. altissima a Sugar beet Suikerbiet Brassicaceae Cultivated [17, 52,53,54]
Betula ssp. L.a Birch (leaves) Berk Betulaceae Common [42]
Boletus edulis Porcini Eekhoorntjesbrood Boletaceae [45]
Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis var. botrytis Cauliflower (foliage) Bloemkoolblad Brassicaceae Cultivated [48, 51]
Cantharellus cibarius Chanterelle Cantharellen Cantharellaceae [40, 42, 45]
Castanea sativa Mill.a Sweet chestnut Tamme kastanje Fagaceae [40, 42, 45, 55]
Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum a Chicory Koffiecichorei Asteraceae Fairly common in river areas, elsewhere escaped from cultivation [17, 45]
Coryllus avellana L. Hazelnut Hazelnoot Betulaceae Common, sometimes cultivated [43, 45]
Crataegus sp. Tourn. ex L.a Hawthorn Meidoorn Rosaceae C. monogyna, common, C. oxyacantha, fairly rare [42]
Crocus ssp. L.a Crocus Krokus Iridaceae Cultivated [17]
Dahlia ssp. Cav.a Dahlia Dahlia Asteraceae Cultivated [47]
Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus a Carrot (foliage) Wortel (loof) Apiaceae Cultivated and common [42, 45, 48, 51]
Fagus sylvatica L.a European beech Beuk Fagaceae Common in the southeast [42, 45]
Fragaria vesca L. Woodland strawberry Wilde aardbei Rosaceae Common [45]
Galium aparine L.a Cleavers Kleefkruid Rubiaceae Common
Galium odoratum L.a Sweetcented woodruff Lievevrouwebedstro Rubiaceae Common in the extreme south [41]
Gladiolus ssp. L.a Gladiola Gladiool Iridaceae Cultivated [17, 56, 57]
Glechoma hederacea L.a Ground-ivy Hondsdraf Lamiaceae Very common
Helianthus tuberosus L.b Jerusalem artichoke Aardpeer Asteraceae Cultivated [17]
Hyacinthus orientalis L.a Common hyacinth Hyacint Asparagaceae Cultivated [17]
Iris ssp. L.a Iris Iris Iridaceae Cultivated [17]
Juglans regia L.a English walnut Walnoot Juglandaceae Often cultivated [17, 40, 43, 45]
Lamium sp. L. Dead-nettle Dovenetel Lamiaceae Common [51]
Limonium vulgare Mill. Common sea lavender Lamsoor Plumbaginaceae Fairly common; coastal areas [39]
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.a Wild apple Kersappel Rosaceae Cultivated [40]
Malus domestica Borkh. Apple (kernel/peels) Appel Rosaceae Cultivated [42, 45, 46, 57, 87]
Malus floribunda Siebold ex. Van Houtte Japanese crabapple Japanse sierappel Rosaceae Cultivated [39]
Petasites hybridus ( L.) G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.a Butterbur Groot hoefblad Asteraceae Fairly common
Plantago lanceolata L.a English plantain Smalle weegbree Plantaginaceae Very common
Plantago major L.a Broadleaf plantain Brede weegbree Plantaginaceae Very common
Portulaca oleracea L.a/Claytonia perfoliata Donn ex. Willd Summer purslane/winter purslane Postelein Portulacaceae/montiaceae Cultivated, sometimes abundant [46, 87]
Prunus avium L. Cherry (fruit stems) Kersen Rosaceae Cultivated [42]
Quercus robur L. English oak Eik (eikels) Fagaceae Common; also cultivated [86]
Raphanus sativus L. Radish (foliage) Radijs (loof) Brassicaceae Cultivated [48]
Raphanus sativus L. subsp. niger b Black radish Rammenas Brassicaceae Cultivated
Ribes nigrum L. Blackcurrant Zwarte bes Grossulariaceae Culivated and wild [17, 50]
Ribes rubrum L. Redcurrant Aalbes Grossulariaceae Culivated and wild; mostly in the south [45]
Ribes uva-crispa L. Gooseberry Kruisbes Grossulariaceae Cultivated and wild [43]
Rosa ssp. L. Rose (hips) Rozenbottel Rosaceae Common [42, 45, 50]
Rubus ssp. L. Blackberry Braam Rosaceae Common [40, 42, 43, 45]
Rumex acetosa L./Rumex crispus L. Common sorrel/curly dock Veldzuring/krulzuring Polygonaceae Very common on grasslands/common on fertile grounds [17, 40, 42, 45]
Salicornia europaea L. Common glasswort Zeekraal Amaranthaceae Common; coastal areas [40, 45]
Sambucus nigra L. Black elder Vlier adoxaceae Common; also in dunes [42, 45]
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Common chickweed Vogelmuur Caryophyllaceae Very common in grassland and open grounds [40, 51]
Taraxacum officinale L. Common dandelion Paardenbloem Asteraceae Common [40, 45, 51]
Tilia ssp. L. Linden (blossom) Lindebloesem Malvaceae Cultivated and wild [17, 42, 43, 45, 87]
Trifolium ssp. L. Clover Klaver Fabaceae Very common -
Tulipa ssp. L. Tulip Tulp Liliaceae Cultivated [17, 56, 85]
Typha latifolia L. Broadleaf cattail Lisdodde Typhaceae Common
Urtica dioica L. Common nettle Brandnetel Urticaceae Very common [40, 45, 48, 51]
Vaccinium myrtylis European blueberry Bosbes Ericaceae Common in forests [40, 45]
Vaccinium oxycoccus Hill Cranberry Veenbes Ericaceae Rare [40]
Vaccinium vitis-idea L. Cowberry Vossenbes Ericaceae Fairly common, rare in the west [40, 45]
Valerianella locusta L. DC. Common cornsalad Veldsla Caprifoliaceae Common [87]
  1. aSpecies on list discussed with participants
  2. bExcluded from results as species were not wild harvested but sold commercially during the Second World War