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Table 2 Comprehensive inventory of the plants listed by women in Mecca including the scientific name and family, whether the plant is found in the Flora of Saudi Arabia and whether it is used as a food or spice, vernacular name(s), part(s) used, therapeutic use categories, preparation, administration, toxicity and side effects, frequency of citation and Smith’s S. For presence or absence in the Flora of Saudi Arabia, Y = yes, N = no, and for food and/or spice use, F = food and S = spice. Plants not documented in the selected literature are marked with ‘*’

From: Medicinal plants used by women in Mecca: urban, Muslim and gendered knowledge

Scientific name (family, voucher) Flora of Saudi Arabia Food (F) or spice (S) Vernacular name(s) (Arabic) Part(s) used Therapeutic use categories Preparation Administration Toxicological remarks and reported side effects Frequency of citation Smith’s S
Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile. (Fabaceae, EWM_62) N Qard (ضرق) Fruit, root Neurological, digestive Infusion, decoction Wash, bath N 2 0.041
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.
(Fabaceae, EWM_77)
N Samg arabi (يبرع غمص) Resin Urological, endocrine and nutritional Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 2 0.042
Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. (Amaranthaceae, EWM_90) Y Tarf (فرط) All plant Neurological, digestive Infusion, ground Oral ingestion (drink), put directly on the teeth N 1 0.009
* Alchemilla sp. (Rosaceae, EWM_68) Y Rajel alasad (دسلآا لجر) Root Digestive Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 1 0.01
*Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. (Rosaceae, EWM_01) N Abat alseda (ةأبع ةديسلا) Leaf Gynaecological Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.021
Allium cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae, EWM_14) N F Bsal (لصب) Bulb, tunic General and unspecified, gynaecological Juice with lemon, added to food Oral ingestion (drink or eat), fumigation, placing onions on the bottom of the feet and wear socks N 4 0.034
Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, NA) N F Thoom (موث) Bulb General and unspecified, cardiovascular, digestive, ear Put with food, in water, mash, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat or drink), put directly on the teeth N 7 0.069
Aloe sp. (Xanthorrhoeaceae, EWM_74) Y Sabr (ربص) Leaf flesh Digestive, gynaecological, skin Put in water Oral ingestion (drink), topic on wounds Causes diarrhoea 1 0.007
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae, EWM_73) N Sabbar (رابص) Leaf flesh Skin No preparation Topic on wounds or hair Overdose may cause colon cancer 2 0.041
*Alpinia officinarum Hance (Zingiberaceae, EWM_43) N S Kholanjan (ناجنلوخ) Rhizome Digestive, cardiovascular, skin Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.013
*Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. (Apiaceae, EWM_44) Y S Khull (ةلخ) Seed, leaf, fruit Cardiovascular, urological Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may cause dryness and hypotension, not to be used by pregnant women 4 0.053
Anastatica hierochuntica L. (Brassicaceae, EWM_34) Y Kaff maryam (فك ميرم) Fruit Family planning, gynaecological Infusion Oral ingestion (drink), topic Can cause stomach disorders and nausea 4 0.04
Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae, EWM_81) Y S Shabath (ثبش) Leaf Digestive Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by those who suffer from kidney disease 1 0.004
*Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae, EWM_46) Y F Korfos (سفرك) Leaf Gynaecological, digestive, neurological Infusion, juice, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 2 0.02
*Artemisia judaica L. (Asteraceae, EWM_87) Y Shayh (حيش) All plant Digestive Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 1 0.007
*Avena sativa L. (Poaceae, EWM_88) Y F Shuran (نافوش) Seed Endocrine and nutritional Ground Oral ingestion (eat) N 1 0.002
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, EWM_60) N Nim (مين) Leaf Digestive, general and unspecified Decoction Oral ingestion (drink), bath N 2 0.035
*Beta vulgaris L. (Amaranthaceae, EWM_09) Y F Banjr (رجنب) Fruit Blood and immune mechanisms Decoction, juice, no preparation Oral ingestion (drink ore at) N 7 0.054
Boswellia sacra Flueck. (Burseraceae, EWM_50) N Laban aldakar, laban shahari (نابل ،ركذلا يرحش نابل) Resin General and unspecified, respiratory, neurological Infusion, chewing, fumigation Oral ingestion (drink) N 8 0.113
*Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae, NA) N F Kronb (بنرك) Leaf Digestive Juice (with apples and milk), in food, decoction Oral ingestion (drink or eat) N 7 0.018
Brassica rapa L. (Brassicaceae, EWM_40) N F Khardal (لدرخ) Seed Musculoskeletal, cardiovascular Ground, infusion In hot water (to put feet in) N 2 0.028
Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. fil., (Apocynaceae, NA) Y Eshr (راشع) Flower Respiratory In water, ground Oral ingestion (drink or eat) Can cause diarrhoea 1 0.005
*Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae, EWM_85) N F Shay, shay akhdar (ياش, رضخأ ياش) Leaf Digestive, metabolic and nutritional, gynaecological, general and unspecified, family planning Decoction, infusion Topic, oral ingestion (drink), fumigation When ingested, overdose may cause diarrhoea 7 0.09
Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asteraceae, EWM_61) Y Osforr (رفصع) Flower Endocrine and nutritional, cardiovascular Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may cause diarrhoea 1 0.03
*Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae, EWM_37) N S Karawia (ةيوارك) Seed Digestive, gynaecological, general and unspecified, respiratory, family planning Decoction Oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may affect the kidneys 6 0.111
Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae, EWM_41) N F Kharnub (بونرخ) Fruit Digestive Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.025
*Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (Lauraceae, EWM_67) N S Qurfa (هفرق) Bark Gynaecological, digestive, blood and immune system, endocrine and nutritional, respiratory, family planning Decoction, ground Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Overdose may cause fainting, hypotension, dizziness and sweating, bleeding if used for more than 3 days, not to be used with ginger, not to be used by pregnant women (may cause abortion) 20 0.349
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae, EWM_28) Y Hanzal (لظنح) Leaf, fruit Digestive, skin Infusion, no preparation Oral ingestion (drink), topic N 2 0.041
*Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae, EWM_51) N F Portokal (لاقترب) Fruit Digestive, general and unspecified Juice, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat or drink) N 2 0.04
Citrus sp. (Rutaceae, EWM_51) N F Limon (نوميل) Fruit General and unspecified, digestive, endocrine and nutritional, respiratory Juice, dry until black and ground in water, decoction Oral ingestion (drink), topic N 10 0.201
Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae, EWM_64) N F Qashr album (رشق نبللا) Pericarp Blood and immune system, gynaecological, endocrine and nutritional Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 6 0.117
Commiphora gileadensis (L.) C. Christ. (Burseraceae, EWM_12 Y Basham (ماشب) Root Gynaecological, general and unspecified, respiratory, neurological Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink), topic N 3 0.051
Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. (Burseraceae, EWM_53) Y Marr (رم) Resin Skin, digestive, respiratory, gynaecological, general and unspecified In water, infusion Poultice, mouthwash, oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may upset the stomach and cause general discomfort 17 0.323
Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae, EWM_47) Y F Kozbra (ةربزك) Leaf Digestive, cardiovascular, neurological Ground, infusion, with food Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Overdose may cause infertility 5 0.079
*Costus sp. (Costaceae, EWM_63) N Qasd hindi (يدنه دصق) Root Endocrine and nutritional, general and unspecified, gynaecological, blood and immune system, urological, family planning Ground, decoction Oral ingestion (eat or drink) N 4 0.05
*Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae, EWM_99) N S Zafran (نارفعز) Stigma General and unspecified, digestive, respiratory With food, in water Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 3 0.025
Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae, NA) N F Khiar (رايخ) Fruit Urological, digestive, neurological No preparation Oral ingestion (eat) N 2 0.033
Cuminum cyminum L. (Apiaceae, EWM_36) Y S Kamun (نومك) Seed Digestive, gynaecological, endocrine and nutritional, general and unspecified, respiratory Infusion, decoction, ground Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Overdose may upset the stomach and produce constipation) 22 0.486
Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, EWM_38) N S Karrakum (مكرك) Rhizome Musculoskeletal, skin, blood and immune system, general and unspecified, digestive, respiratory, endocrine and nutritional Ground, infusion, with honey Oral ingestion (eat or drink), poultice Overdose may upset the stomach 8 0.09
*Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae, NA) N F Safarjil (لجرفس) Fruit Digestive No preparation Oral ingestion (eat) N 1 0.02
*Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. (Poaceae, EWM_02) Y Adhkhur (رخذا) Leaf Neurological, digestive, urological, general and unspecified Decoction Oral ingestion (drink), decoction (steam inhalation) N 3 0.069
*Dialium sp. (Fabaceae, EWM_26) N Hamayd (ضيمح) Fruit Digestive, urological Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.008
*Dipterygium glaucum Decne. (Cleomaceae, EWM_06) Y Arfaj (جفرع) Leaf Digestive, respiratory Infusion Oral ingestion (drink), decoction (steam inhalation) N 1 0.003
*Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. (Asparagaceae, EWM_16) N Dam alakhwan (مد نيوخلأا) Resin General and unspecified, digestive Ground Poultice N 1 0.006
*Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae, EWM_24) N S Hal (لاه) Fruit, seed Respiratory Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.004
Eruca sp. (Brassicaceae, EWM_33) Y Jarjir (ريجرج) Leaf Blood and immune system, respiratory With food, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat or drink) N 9 0.133
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtaceae, EWM_35) N Kafor (روفاك) Leaf Neurological, digestive, general and unspecified Infusion, decoction Oral ingestion (drink) N 3 0.035
Ferula assa-foetida L. (Apiaceae, EWM_25) N Halatayta (ةتيتلح) Resin Digestive, respiratory Maceration Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by breastfeeding women, children should not take more than 5 ml 4 0.068
Ficus palmata Forssk. (Moraceae, NA) Y F Hamat (طامح) Fruit Digestive No preparation Oral ingestion (eat) N 1 0.007
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, EWM_83) Y S Shamr (رمش) Seed Digestive, urological, gynaecological, general and unspecified, neurological, blood and immune system Infusion, decoction, ground Oral ingestion (drink or eat) Overdose may cause inflammation of the intestines 14 0.248
*Fucus vesiculosus L. (Fucaceae, EWM_21) N Foqus (سقوف) Leaf Endocrine and nutritional, cardiovascular Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.004
*Glebionis coronaria (L.) N.N. Tzvel. (Asteraceae, EWM_04) N Aqhwan (ناوحقا) Leaf, flower Digestive Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not recommended for babies 1 0.004
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae, EWM_18) Y Eirqsos (سوسقرع) Root Digestive, musculoskeletal Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.023
*Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae, EWM_49) N Kwajara karakadi (،يتارجوك ةيدكرك) Calyx, sepal Cardiovascular, blood and immune system, digestive, urological, neurological Infusion, decoction Oral ingestion (drink) N 15 0.209
*Hordeum vulgare L. (Poaceae, EWM_82) Y F Shaeir (ريعش) Seeds Urological, digestive Decoction Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 5 0.041
*Hyphaene sp. (Arecaceae, EWM_17) Y Dom (مود) Fruit Cardiovascular Ground, infusion with honey Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.026
Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl. (Cupressaceae, EWM_05) Y Arar (رعرع) Fruit Urological Infusion, decoction Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 1 0.006
*Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae, NA) N F Khas (سخ) Leaf Blood and immune system, urological, digestive With food Oral ingestion (eat) N 2 0.02
*Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae, EWM_93) N S Waraq alghar (قرو راغلا) Leaf Urological, general and unspecified Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.007
Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae, EWM_27) Y Hana (انح) Leaf Neurological, musculoskeletal, skin Ground, with honey in water Topic, poultice N 3 0.03
Lepidium sativum L. (Brassicacea, EWM_70) Y S Rashad, thafa (،داشر ءافث) Seed Gynaecological, musculoskeletal, skin, digestive, endocrine and nutritional, neurological, general and unspecified, cardiovascular Ground, infusion, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat or drink), poultice Not to be used for over a month, nor by pregnant women, overdose may cause diarrhoea and upset stomach 13 0.228
Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae, EWM_13) Y Bidharrat alkitan (ةرذب ناتكلا) Seed Digestive, endocrine and nutritional, general and unspecified, gynaecological Ground, infusion Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Can cause stomach and abdominal pain, and gases 4 0.079
*Lupinus albus L. (Fabaceae, EWM_91) N F Tarmas (سمرت) Seed Neurological, endocrine and nutritional, blood and immune system With food, infusion, decoction Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Overdose may cause phlegm and skin yellowing 4 0.035
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Solanaceae, NA) N F Tamatum (مطامط) Fruit Blood and immune system No preparation Oral ingestion (eat) Overdose may cause diarrhoea 1 0.023
Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae, EWM_39) Y Khabiza (ةزيبخ) Leaf, flower Family planning, general and unspecified, respiratory Infusion, no preparation Chewing, oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.002
Matricaria aurea (L.) Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae, EWM_07) Y Babunj (جنوباب) Flower General and unspecified, neurological, cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory Infusion Inhale, oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may cause dizziness or headache 9 0.134
*Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, EWM_52) N Malisaa (اسيلم) Leaf Digestive Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women or children 1 0.019
Mentha sp. (Lamiaceae, EWM_59) Y Nena (عانعن) Leaf Digestive, cardiovascular, general and unspecified, neurological, respiratory, gynaecological Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 16 0.289
Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, EWM_95) N F Waraq tawt (توت قرو) Leaf Family planning Decoction Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.013
*Musa acuminata Colla (Musaceae, NA) N F Moz (زوم) Fruit Digestive No preparation Oral ingestion (eat) N 1 0.029
Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae, EWM_92) Y Waraq alas (سلاا قرو) Leaf General and unspecified, respiratory, blood and immune system, cardiovascular Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 2 0.022
Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae, EWM_22) N S Haba sawda (ةبح ءادوس) Seed Blood and immune system, general and unspecified, respiratory, gynaecological, musculoskeletal, neurological Ground, 7 seeds with honey or dates, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Not to be used by pregnant women, children, or babies, if more than 7 seeds are taken in a day, it can cause abortion, overdose may affect the kidneys 13 0.201
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, EWM_71) N Rihan (ناحير) Leaf, flower General and unspecified, respiratory Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.006
Ocimum sp. (Lamiaceae, EWM_23) Y Habaq (قبح) Leaf General and unspecified, digestive Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women or children 3 0.04
Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae, EWM_101) Y F Zeetoun (نوتيز) Oil, leaf General and unspecified, endocrine and nutritional, respiratory Syrup, liniment, infusion, decoction Oral ingestion (eat or drink), liniment If boiled (leaves) may become toxic, overdose may cause diarrhoea 5 0.086
*Origanum majorana L. (Lamiaceae, EWM_11) N Bardaqush (شوقدرب) Leaf Endocrine and nutritional, urological, digestive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular Infusion, decoction Oral ingestion (drink) N 5 0.078
*Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. (Poaceae, EWM_15) Y F Dakhun (نخد) Seed Digestive Ground Oral ingestion (eat) N 1 0.015
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (Apiaceae, EWM_10) N F Baqdunas (سنودقب) Leaf Cardiovascular, urological, female, gynaecological, blood and immune system, musculoskeletal, skin Infusion, ground, decoction, juice, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat or drink), wash Overuse may cause skin irritation 10 0.163
Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae, NA) Y F Nakhel, tamr (،ليخن رمت) Fruit, seed Family planning, digestive Ground, in hot milk or honey Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.012
Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae, EWM_96) N S Yansun (نوسناي) Seed Digestive, gynaecological, respiratory, general and unspecified, urological, neurological Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may cause abdominal distension 21 0.559
Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae, EWM_20) N S Flfl aswad, flfl abyad (،دوسا لفلف, ضيبا لفلف) Fruit Respiratory, gynaecological, digestive, urological Ground Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Overdose may cause heartburn 6 0.084
Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae, EWM_57) N Mustaka (اكتسم) Resin General and unspecified, musculoskeletal In small pieces on a gauze with lemon Poultice N 1 0.008
*Prunus mahaleb L. (Rosaceae, EWM_55) N F Mhallab (بلحم) Seed Digestive, general and unspecified Ground, infusion Rubbed on gums, topic, oral ingestion (drink), poultice N 4 0.069
*Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, EWM_94) N F Waraq jawwafa (قرو ةفاوج) Leaf General and unspecified, respiratory, neurological Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 7 0.106
Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae, EWM_72) N F Roman (نامر) Peel Digestive, skin, gynaecological Ground, decoction Oral ingestion (eat), poultice, topic N 7 0.103
Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae, EWM_30) Y Harmal (لمرح) Leaf, root General and unspecified, digestive Decoction, ground, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Can cause dizziness and sleeping problems, overdose can be toxic 4 0.08
*Rheum sp. (Polygonaceae, EWM_69) Y Raoud (دنوار) Leaf, root Digestive Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women, or people with kidney problems 1 0.017
Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae, EWM_45) Y Khurue (عورخ) Seeds, oil Digestive, musculoskeletal, skin Liniment, in juice Oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant women 2 0.033
*Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, EWM_03) N Aklel aljabal (ليلكا لبجلا) Leaf Respiratory, general and unspecified, digestive, neurological, cardiovascular Ground, infusion Oral ingestion (eat or drink), decoction (steam inhalation) Not to be used by pregnant women or patients with blood pressure problems 6 0.1
Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae, EWM_84) Y Shathab (باذش) Leaf Neurological, ear, respiratory Decoction Oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may cause sleepiness, cirrhosis, abortion 1 0.024
*Salix mucronata Thunb. (Salicaceae, EWM_76) Y Safsaf (فاصفص) Leaf Musculoskeletal Infusion Oral ingestion (drink) N 1 0.003
*Salvia officinalis L. (lamiaceae, EWM_56) N Miramia (ةيماريم) Leaf General and unspecified, digestive, gynaecological, neurological Decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink), mouthwash Not to be used during menstruation, increases production of milk 5 0.106
Senna alexandrina Mill. (Fabaceae, EWM_78) Y Sana maki (يكم انس) Leaf Digestive, gynaecological Decoction Oral ingestion (drink) Dry, not to be used by pregnant and breastfeeding women 8 0.195
Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae, EWM_89) Y F Smsm (مسمس) Seed Neurological, endocrine and nutritional In food, ground, no preparation Oral ingestion (eat) N 2 0.039
*Solenostemma argel (Delile) Hayne (Apocynaceae, EWM_29) N Hargal (لجرح) Leaf Musculoskeletal, digestive, blood and immune system, endocrine and nutritional Ground, in water Topic, oral ingestion (drink) Not to be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women 2 0.042
*Spinacia oleracea L. (Amaranthaceae, EWM_80) N F Sbanekh (خنابس) Leaf Blood and immune system, digestive, general and unspecified With food Oral ingestion (eat) N 4 0.052
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae, EWM_66) N S Qrnfol (لفنورق) Flower bud Digestive, general and unspecified, endocrine and nutritional, neurological, blood and immune system Ground, infusion Oral ingestion (drink), put directly on teeth Overdose may upset the stomach, not to be used by people with liver problems 14 0.22
Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae, NA) Y F Tamrr hindi, homar (رمت رمح ،يدنه) Fruit General and unspecified, digestive, skin In water, decoction Oral ingestion (drink), poultice N 2 0.034
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae, EWM_98) N Zaetir (رتعز) Leaf General and unspecified, respiratory, digestive, gynaecological, cardiovascular, neurological In water or tea, decoction, infusion, in food Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Overdose may cause digestion 7 0.114
Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Apiaceae, EWM_58) Y S Nankha (ةخنان) Seed Digestive, musculoskeletal, gynaecological Ground Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Overdose may cause constipation 7 0.062
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fabaceae, EWM_31) Y S Helba (ةبلح) Seed Family planning, digestive, gynaecological, musculoskeletal, blood and immune system, endocrine and nutritional, urological, respiratory, general and unspecified Ground in milk, decoction, infusion Oral ingestion (drink) Use is not recommended for children under 2, overdose may cause nausea or overweight 24 0.56
*Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae, EWM_32) N F Janen alqmah (نينج حمقلا) Seed Neurological, cardiovascular Ground Oral ingestion (eat) Overdose may cause overweight 1 0.022
*Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek (Fabaceae, EWM_54) N F Mash (شام) Seed Neurological, general and unspecified, blood and immune system, musculoskeletal, endocrine and nutritional With food, ground, decoction Oral ingestion (eat or drink) Can cause overweight 8 0.1
*Viola sp. (Violaceae, EWM_08) Y Banafsj (جسفنب) Leaf, flower Respiratory No preparation Sublingual, chewing N 1 0.031
Vitis sp. (Vitaceae, EWM_97) N F Zabib (بيبز) Fruit Blood and immune system, neurological, endocrine and nutritional In food, with juice Oral ingestion (eat or drink) N 5 0.086
Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, EWM_100) N S Zanajabil (ليبجنز) Root General and unspecified, musculoskeletal, digestive, endocrine and nutritional, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, blood and immune system Decoction, infusion, ground Oral ingestion (drink) Overdose may cause heartburn or skin reactions 18 0.294
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. (Rhamnaceae, EWM_75) Y Sader (ردس) Leaf Skin Infusion, ground Wash N 2 0.015
Not identified (Cupressaceae, EWM_65) Qatiran (نارطق) Oil Skin Liniment Topic N 1 0.005
Not identified (EWM_79) Saq alhamam, khawa jawa (قاس ،مامحلا اوجاوخ) Root Skin Ground Poultice N 2 0.049
Not identified (EWM_48) Krela (لايرك) Fruit Endocrine and nutritional Ground Oral ingestion (eat) N 1 0.031