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Table 2 Ethnomedicinal uses of documented species and validated with earlier studies

From: Indigenous uses of ethnomedicinal plants among forest-dependent communities of Northern Bengal, India

Plants name/voucher no. Uses (present study) Therapy/procedure of use Earlier studies
Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees
Diabetes, liver problems, fever, cough and cold, stomach pain, malaria Whole plant is crushed, mixed with water and consumed twice daily—early morning in empty stomach and night post dinner for diabetes and liver problem. Whole plant is soaked over night, and the solution is consumed empty stomach to get relief from fever, cough, cold, stomach pain and malaria. The solution is also a tonic drink for health. Malaria, fever [25]; poison bites, menstrual disorder [42]; for skin boils leucoderma [62]
Justicia adhatoda L. UBKV FOR 328 Cough and cold, paralysis, allergy, stop bleeding, cuts and wounds 5–6 leaves mixed with ginger is boiled half to its original amount and taken with honey for curing cough for 3 times a day. In serious case, it can be taken for 10–15 days approximately. Leaf paste is rubbed on cuts and wound. Leaves are boiled and the solution is used for taking bath for curing itching and stopping bleeding. Leaf extract is added with mustard oil; Ocimum sanctum extract and ginger extract and heated lightly. One teaspoon and half cup of this mixture is administered orally in empty stomach to children and adult, respectively for treating cough and cold. Young leaves of Justicia adhatoda, papaya and Ocimum sanctum are packed under banana leaf and heated on a pan. After heating, its half teaspoon extract is administered empty stomach once a day as an alternate therapy for cough. Cough, cold, piles, leprosy, diabetes, bronchitis, asthma, sinusitis, anti-inflammatory [41, 66, 75, 76, 88]
Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.
Cancer, septic, headache, cuts and wounds Leaf extract is heated with coconut oil and placed on the affected part of the body for curing cancer, sceptics and cuts. The extract is also applied on cut and wound for healing and on forehead for relief from headache. Rheumatism [83]
Acorus calamus L.
Joint pain Stem of Acorus calamus and leaves of Artemisia dubia are mixed and grinded to form a paste which is then applied on paining joints till it is cured. Delayed delivery, eye and skin problem [25]; throat infection [42]; asthma, bronchitis, dysentery [69]; rhizome to remove lice of animals [70] cough, whooping cough, bronchitis [64]
Alternanthera brasiliensis (L.) Kuntze
Cuts and wounds Extract after crushing the twigs/leaves or flowers applied on cut or wounded part of the body and dressed.
Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth
Tongue problem of domestic animals Cloves are pasted and made solution with water and fed to suffering animals once for 2 days.  
Mangifera indica L.
Jaundice, blood dysentery, diarrhoea Tender leaves of Mangifera indica, Syzygium cuminii, and Psidium guajava are crushed sugar candy, mentha, Piper nigrum and Centella asiatica, and the extract is taken twice a day to cure diarrhoea. Bark is used for curing diarrhoea of domestic animals. Bark of Mangifera indica, ambera (sadri lang) and Syzygium cuminii are grinded and boiled with banana leaf and concentrated to one fourth of the initial volume. The concentrate is then administered orally to the patient to cure blood dysentery. One glass water solution of bark extract is consumed once a day in empty stomach early in the morning for 5–6 days to cure jaundice. Indigestion, dysentery, cough and cold, worm, infection, hypertension, heat stroke, digestion [10, 25, 26]
Annona squamosa L.
Stomach disorders Ripe fruit pulp are used for curing stomach problem. Diabetes and wounds [25, 63]; ulcer, tumour [26]
Anethum graveolens L. UBKV FOR 283 Blood pressure Leaves are used in curry to control pressure.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
Jaundice, typhoid, body pain, pneumonia, diabetes, cough, gastroenteritis, dysentery, stomach disorder, appetiser, dog bite, vegetable - Leaves of Centella asiatica, bamboo and Ocimum sanctum with earthworm are boiled with water and sieved, and half a glass solution is taken for 3 times a day for 3 days to treat aundice and typhoid.
- Leaves are eaten as vegetables which also help in removing body pain and fever.
- Leaf extract in water solution and one glass of this solution is taken during early morning in empty stomach to heal wounds.
- Roots are either eaten raw or cooked with potato (fried) for curing the pneumonia, jaundice and diabetes.
- Besides this therapy, Centella asiatica, Piper nigrum and cardamom (2–3 nos.) are grinded and hot water solution is made which is orally administered for 3–4 days.
- Seeds of Piper nigrum, barks of Cinnamomom camphora, roots of halufan, and seeds of cardamom are mixed, grinded with Centella asiatica, made into tablets and sun dried which is consumed with hot water three times for phenomena, joint pain, appetite and cough.
- The plant/leaf extract is consumed empty stomach (2 spoons for 2–3 days) to cure gasteroenteritis, dysentery and other stomach problems. It is also consumed as an appetiser and digestive tonic.
- The plant extract is mixed with sugar candy or palm candy taken 1 glass/day in empty stomach for 2–3 days to treat stomach disorders.
Constipation, indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery, stomach problems, stomach ache, skin disease, blood related problems, diabetes, tonsillitis, cold, health and memory tonics, insomnia, blood pressure, chicken pox, stomach worm, leucorrhoea, poor urination, jaundice [10, 11, 22, 25, 35, 41, 42, 49, 55, 63, 72,73,74, 77, 81, 82, 87, 88, 91]
Centella annua M. Schub. & B.-E. van Wyk
Gastroenteritis, stomach disorder, stomach pain, dysentery, liver problem, The plant is either cooked as vegetable or its extract is consumed to get relief from gasteroenteritis, dysentery and stomach disorders. Its extract solution with water is taken daily as liver tonic.
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.
Cough and cold, stomach worms of human and domestic animals, cough of domestic animals (pig), alcoholic beverage Smelling of flowers cure cough and cold. Increase lactation [42];
Calotropis procera R. Br. UBKV FOR 297 Swelling body, hydrocoel Leaves are burnt lightly on fire and dressed on swelling area to get relief from pain. Leaves are smeared with vegetable oil and heated, then applied on scrotum to cure hydrosol. The process is continued for a week. Nocturnal eneuresis, tumour, leprosy, dropsy, cut and wound, [25, 66]
Rauvolfia serpentine (L.) Benth ex Kurz.
Paralysis, diabetes, fever, cuts and wounds, pneumonia, jaundice, stomach worm, dysentery, snake bite, gastroenteritis, stomach pain, snake repellent Roots are eaten in empty stomach or its powder/extracts can also be taken for at least 3 months to cure diabetes. Leaves are rubbed on the body for curing paralysis. Bark is grinded adding water and kept for half an hour. This solution is taken as medicine for 3 times for curing fever and wounds. Leaf or root paste is applied on snale bite. It can simply be chewed to cure stomach pain, snake bites and dysentery. Entire plant or any other part is dried and powdered and taken in minute amount with water to cure jaundice. It should be taken in empty stomach early in the morning for 2–3 days. Root extract solution (1–2 drops for 2 days) is administered orally to cure fever or stomach worms. Hypertension, insanity, blood pressure, fever, malaria, snake bite [10, 25, 35, 41, 62]
Tabernaemontana divaricata R. Br. ex Roem. &Schult
Conjunctivitis Flowers are simply rubbed on hands and its extract in the liquid form (only 1 drop for 2–3 days) is used to cure eye infection.  
Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corrêa
Toothache, healing, cuts andwound
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
Malaria, blood purifier Fruits are cooked as vegetable and eaten with meal to cure malaria. This also cleanses blood. Constipation, weakness, alopecia, blood circulation, cuts and injuries, liver problems, hair lengthening [22, 25, 48, 78, 85]
Areca catechu L.
Periodic problems of women Betel leaf and nuts are masticated to get relief from gastric problems. Young roots of Areca catechu and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis are crushed together to extract juice. The juice is sieved, added with salt and lightly boiled which is then consumed twice daily by woman for 3–4 days.
Cocos nucifera L.
Weight loss, hair vitalizer Coconut milk is consumed to cure stomach problem, loose body fat and control hair loss. Itching, sore in nose [89]
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.
Asthma, cough, dehydration, diarrhoea, fever, heart-related problems, pain, dental pain, tuberculosis Inflammation and wounds, nervous debility [86]
Hemidesmus indicus (L.)
Skin infection
Asparagus racemosus Willd.
Cuts and wound, urine disorder, kidney and body swelling Root extract is added with water, sieved and solution is consumed in empty stomach daily for 4–5 days for curing urine disorder. Roots are also pasted with rice, mixed with half a glass of water and consumed in empty stomach for a week or two to get relief from body and kudney swelling. Leaf extract is applied on wounds of domestic animals and dressed. Health tonic, brain tonic, cough and cold, cut and wound, fever, diabetes, dysentery, abortion, stomach disorder, piles, tuberculosis, bronchitis, back pain [10, 25, 41, 55, 73, 74, 80, 82,83,84,85]
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Massaging body, cuts and wounds Barks and roots are washed and cooked in oil then sieved to remove the solid particles. The oil solution used to massage any body part during winter once a day for 2 days.
Leaves are crushed in between the palms and then applied on cuts and bandaged.
Cuts and wounds, dysentery and jaundice, antifungal [11,12,13, 55, 71, 73, 74]
Ageratum conyzoides L. UBKV FOR 29 Cuts and wounds Leaves are washed and crushed for extracting its juice and applied on cuts including leaves. It is tied with a piece of cloth, which results in healing cuts as well as stops bleeding. Stomach ache, cuts and wounds, stop bleeding, antihelmenthic [64, 72, 75, 78]
Eupatorium odoratum L. UBKV FOR 30 Cuts and wound, bleeding Leaf extract is applied on cuts to stop bleeding and healing as well. Stop bleeding [35, 41]
Tagetes erecta L.
Dental problem, mouth ulcer, cuts and wounds Leaf extract is applied on cuts and dressed for healing. Flower extract is applied on mouth for healing ulcers. Leaves are chewed early in the morning to stop bleeding during brushing of teeth. Blood coagulator, cuts and wounds, [41, 67, 82, 87]
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.
Stomach problem Leaves are cooked as vegetable and eaten with rice for curing stomach problem. Constipation [55, 73, 74]
Bombax ceiba L.
Stomach pain, diarrhoea Root extract administered orally twice a day to treat diarrhoea. Tender leaves are chewed raw in empty stomach twice a day for 2–3 days to get relief from stomach pain. Headache, fracture, blood dysentery, pimples, skin eruptions, tooth ache, leprosy, gonorrhoea, diabetes, pimples, anaemia, and scorpion sting, virility [10, 25, 35, 41, 55, 63, 64, 72,73,74, 81, 88]
Basella alba L.
Skin burns, blood pressure The entire plant is pasted and applied on infected part once to get relief from burn. Cooked as vegetable to reduce blood pressure but is not taken by people having cut and wounds. Tuberculosis, dysentery, constipation, intestinal disorder, vomiting [41, 55, 73, 74, 81]
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.
Jaundice, cuts and wounds, body pain, liver problem Flowers and leaves are cooked and taken with meal for curing jaundice and regulate blood pressure. Bark soaked in water used for taking bath also cures jaundice. Bark powered and mixed in water for taking bath is used for curing pneumonia. Dried bark powder is applied on cuts and wounds to heal. Bark extract consumed early in the morning for 5–6 days cure jaundice and liver problem. Jaundice, regulate blood pressure, cough, fever, pneumonia, stomach/chest/body pain, bronchial asthma, diarrhoea, dysentery, joint pain, appetiser, [10,11,12, 35, 41, 64]
Brassica rugosa (Roxb.) L.H. Bailey
Skin eruptions, ulcers, headache
Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
Stomach worms Two teaspoons of leaf extract are consumed in empty stomach daily for 2–3 weeks against stomach worms. Leaf extract to kill worms; fruit juice against scurvy [41]
Opuntia ficus-indica Haw.
Tuberculosis Jelly-type branch after peeling is cooked with wild onion and ghee till it is completely dried which is then consumed after meal three times a day to cure tuberculosis.
Carica papaya L.
Gastroenteritis, appetiser, digestive Unripe fruits cooked and eaten to improve digestion or eaten raw to get relief from oral infection. Flowers are cooked as vegetable to maintain appetite. Both ripe or unripe fruits are eaten to cure gasteroenteritis. Digestion, jaundice, dysentery, tooth ache, cough, indigestion, liver tonic, piles, heart problem, skin infection, fracture [11, 25, 55, 73, 74, 76, 78, 81, 82]
Chenopodium album L.
Clearing stool, piles, gastroenteritis Plant is cooked as vegetable and consumed for clearing stool, curing piles and gasteroenteritis. Fever and influenza, constipation, intestinal worms [75, 76, 81]
Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.ex DC.) Wight & Arn.
Asthma, heart problem, diabetes, stomach disorder, gastroenteritis, appetiser Bark extract solution is administered orally to cure heart problem. Bark of Terminalia arjuna, Alstonia scholaris and fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Emblica officinalis are powdered and its solution in a glass of water is consumed once a day early in the morning for 5–6 days as appetiser and cure gastroenteritis. Small pieces of bark is boiled in water and concentrated, cooled and taken in doses of two teaspoon of this cooled solution is consumed twice a day before meal or the bark pieces are powdered adding sweet candy and two teaspoon of this powder is consumed mixed in a glass of water to cure diabetes. Bark is soaked in water overnight and the solution is taken early in the morning for curing gastroenteritis and also as liver tonic. Half glass bark extract in water solution is administered orally twice a day for 5–7 days for curing breathing and heart problem. Skin disease, leucoderma, liver disorder, fractured bones, tuberculosis, cardiac problem, hypertension, pimples and other minor skin eruption, cardio tonic [25, 41, 63, 86, 88]
Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.
Cough and cold, stomach disorder, indigestion, gastroenteritis Terminalia bellirica, Piper nigrum, Terminalia chebula, cloves and Cinnamomom camphora are crushed together and made into tablets which are administered in empty stomach for curing cough. A glass of root extract is administered once a day for a week in empty stomach to cure stomach disorder. Besides the root xtract is also used to massage on stomach where pain is felt. Fruits are crushed into tablets and administered in empty stomach once a day to cure cough and cold. Fruit pulp extract is boiled (1 kg fruit in 2 l) and the hot solution is consumed for curing gasteroenteritis. Fruit pulp is crushed to tablets and taken empty stomach twice a day for a month for curing severe cough and cold. Dry fruit is crushed to powder and swallowed to cure stomach problem. Skin disease, cold, constipation, leucoderma, grey hair, rheumatism, diarrhoea, dysentery, indigestion, dyspepsia, cooling agent, health tonic, cuts and wounds, tonsillitis, bronchitis, piles, dropsy, leprosy, headache, asthma [10, 11, 41, 48, 55, 62, 63, 73, 74, 78, 86]
Terminalia chebula Retz. UBKV FOR 46 Almost for all sickness, appetiser, cough and cold, gastroenteritis, jaundice, liver, pneumonia Fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis are dried and one fruit of each is soaked in water for 24 h and taken in empty stomach for making the liver strong and also as appetiser. Parts of plants are beaten to powder or is boiled and consumed twice a day for curing any kind of sickness. Fruits are crushed and mixed with water consumed for treatment of cold and cough. Two teaspoons dried fruit pulp powder is consumed twice a day in empty stomach for indigestion, cough and cold. Fruit pulp is boiled, cooled and the solution is consumed emptyty stomach (one glass a day for 4–5 days) for curing cough. Flowers are cooked and consumed to cure cough. Fruit pulp is boiled with black salt, crushed into tablets, sundried for few days and then consumed early in the morning to cure gastroenteritis. Fruits are soaked over night in water overnight and then the solution is taken in empty stomach as appetiser, cure jaundice and making liver strong. Fruits are also chewed to get relief from cough and cold as well as pneumonia. Carminative, laxative, digestive, appetiser, constipation, piles, stomach disorder/pain, tonsillitis, diabetes, intestinal ulcer, rheumatism, urinary problem, skin problem, cold and cough, respiratory troubles, fever [10, 11, 25, 41, 42, 55, 62, 63, 73, 74, 78, 80, 86]
Cuscuta europaea L. UBKV FOR 311 Jaundice The whole plant is boiled and either taken bath with light warm water once a day for 2–3 times or a glass of this solution mixed with salt is consumed as a therapy for jaundice.
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.
Tumours of the mouth and throat, asthma, burns, fever, diabetes Rhizomes are cooked and consumed by diabetic patients Diabetes, scorpion sting [12, 72, 76]
Ipomoea carnea Jacq.
Fungal infection between toes and fingers Fungal infection between toes [76]
Bryophyllum pinnatum Kurz.
Burn injuries, cuts and wound Leaves are grinded, applied on affected part and dressed. Gall bladder stone, piles, stomach problems, antiseptic, kidney stone, skin disease [25, 88]
Coccinia coridifolia Cogn.
Lowers blood pressure Fruits are cooked as vegetables and taken with meal to lower blood pressure.
Coccinia indica L.
Lowers blood pressure, gastroenteritis Fruits are chewed or cooked as vegetables to lower blood pressure. Leaves are pasted and added with water. It is consumed for curing gasteroenteritis. Hypertension, healing wound, ulcer, jaundice [26]
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.
Boils Tender leaf extract are used to treat boils. Jaundice, diarrhoea and dysentery [72, 75]
Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.
Anaemia, liver disorder, menstrual problems
Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.
Stomach disorder, fever Fruits are consumed to cure stomach disorder. One glass leaf extract twice a day is consumed for 2 days to cure fever. Urinary trouble, piles, diabetes, jaundice, ulcer, dysentery, ear pain, breast swelling, hair vitalizer [55, 72,73,74, 83, 85]
Dillenia indica L.
Stomach disorder Bark is boiled and taken for curing stomach disorder. Bark to get relief from indigestion, gasteroenteritis, diarrhoea [10, 55, 65, 73, 74]
Dioscorea belophylla Voigt
Appetiser, jaundice, body pain, stomach disorder, pneumonia Fruits are cut into pieces and soaked in water overnight, boiled and eaten as appetiser. Tuber is crushed and messaged on the whole body once a day to get relief from pain. Tuber is cut into pieces and partially boiled and is dip in water for a night. In morning it is fried as curry with little oil and eaten with meal for 3–4 days for curing pneumonia.
Dioscorea bulbifera L. UBKV FOR 312 Jaundice Tubers are crushed and soaked in water for 5–10 min. One glass of this solution is consumed to treat jaundice.  
Shorea robusta Gaerth f.
Cuts and wounds, burns, stomach pain, blood coagulant, dysentery Bark powder/extract is and mixed with water to form solution and taken 3 times a day in empty stomach for curing stomach problems. Bark powder is applied on burns once a day for 3–4 days for relief. Gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, burning sensation, chest pain, pox, ear pain [25, 41, 55, 73, 74, 78, 82]
Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. ex G. Don
Piles, good sleep, asthma, cough
Baccaurea remiflora Lour. UBKV FOR 289 Skin disease  
Baccaurea sapinda
(Roxb.) Müll.-Arg
Tooth ache Twigs are used to brush teeth to get relieve from tooth pain.
Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss.
Gastroenteritis, ulcers, fencing, decorative, religious, fuel wood The whole plant is simply used for fencing purpose, decorative purpose, after the plant is dried it is used as fuel wood, and the leaves is used as religious purpose (puja).  
Emblica officinalis Gaerth.
Hair loss, liver problem, stomach pain Raw fruits are eaten to get relief from stomach pain. Fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica are dried, crushed and made into powder. One teaspoon of this powdered in water solution is consumed daily early in the morning to restrict hair loss and to cure liver problem. Constipation, fever, itching, digestive, gasteroenteritis, haemorrhage, jaundice [25, 64]
Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll.-Arg.
Ornamental (landscape)  
Jatropha curcas L.
Diarrhoea, headache Sugar candy and few drops of Jatropha curcas latex are mixed and consumed for treatment of diarrhoea. Seeds are pasted with water and applied on forehead for curing headache. Cuts and wounds, skin disease, seeds digestive, twigs used in tooth and gum problem, rheumatic pain, night blindness [10, 25, 35, 61, 75]
Mallotus tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz.
Skin diseases, ring worm
Ricinus communis L. UBKV FOR 84 Cough, headache, dental problem, jaundice Leaf extract is massaged in neck for 3 times a day for 5 days for curing cough; however during the therapy period non-vegeterian food is avoided. Seed oil extract is applied on head to get relief from headache. Leaf extract is mixed with sugar and consumed for 3–4 days to cure jaundice. Alternately, fruits are also boiled with grains of Cajanus cajan and consumed to cure jaundice. Twigs are used for brushing teeth for healthy dentals. Piles, wounds (human and animal), joint pain, jaundice, headache, fever, boils, dysentery, stomach problems, indigestion, skin disease, hair loss, sores, boils, burns, rheumatic swelling, stomach worms [10, 11, 25, 55, 67, 68, 73, 74]
Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd.
Cuts and wounds, burns, sore throat, diarrhoea, digestion Soft wood is cut in small pieces and boiled with water for some time and left for cooling to soilidify. The preparation is smeared with betel leaf for chewing to cure gastric problem. Leaf for indigestion, bark, gum and root to control rheumatism [10]; body ache, fracture [55]; toothache, cough and cold, stomach pain [25]; astringent, boils and skin eruptions, diarrhoea and dysentery, bleeding from nose, chest pain [64,65,66,67]
Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile
Evil spirit Dental problems Jaundice, itching, skin disease, worms, maggot wounds, dental problems, easy delivery, burns, asthma, fever, headache, stomach problems, indigestion, cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery [25, 63, 66, 67]; indigestion and gas problem of cattle [68]
Bauhinia malabarica Roxb.
Stomach pain Leaves are boiled and consumed daily for 2–3 months to get relief from stomach pain after pregnancy.
Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill
Gall bladder stone, diabetes, jaundice and liver problem Leaf extract is taken to cure diabetes. Fruits are eaten to get rid of gall bladder stone. Leaf extract solution is made with 200 ml of water and 100 g of either palm candy or sugar candy and administered orally once in the morning for 3 days in empty stomach. Roots are also used for curing jaundice by grinding them with water, sieved and 200 ml solution administered orally early morning in empty stomach for 3 days. Jaundice, dysentery, ear pain [41, 83, 89]
Cassia alata L.
Bees sting, allergy, appetiser for children, weakness Leaves are crushed and applied on bee sting and infected area of skin infection. Bark extract is consumed for appetiser and health tonic. Skin disease, body pain [35, 41]
Cassia sophera L.
Dysentery, cuts and wounds, cough, blood purifier Leaf, flower and root extract is consumed to cure dysentery, wounds, cough and purify blood. Diabetes [40]
Hippocrepis emerus (L.) Lassen
Skin infection Leaves are crushed and rubbed on infected skin for curing.
Mimosa pudica L.
Reddening of eye Leaf extract not more than a drop is applied for curing red eye. Orchitis and depurative, infertility, dental pain, head ache, kidney/urine trouble, piles, sores, diarrhoea, dysentery, hydrocoel, jaundice, wounds and swelling, placenta prolepses [10, 25, 55, 61, 64, 71, 73, 74, 76]
Pongamia pinnata L.
Swelling, tooth pain Seed oil extract is massaged to reduce swelling. Tender branches are used as tooth brush to cure dental pain. Fever [67]
Tamarindus indica L.
Neck pain, tonsils and swelling Fruits are soaked in cold water for 2–3 days, mixed intensively and seeds are removed. The solution is taken a glass a day for curing neck pain, tonsil and swelling. Leaves can also be eaten for curing neck pain and swelling for both human beings and animals. Diarrhoea/dysentery (human and animals), indigestion, fever, piles, ulcer, nausea, vomiting, swelling, jaundice, gastropathy, wounds, scorpion bite, scabies, stomach pain, boils, cold, cough, skeletal flurosis [11, 26, 27, 67]
Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Diabetes, joint pain Whole plant is cooked and consumed to cure diabetes and joint pain. Seeds are also taken in empty stomach with water to curb diabetes. Alopecia, diabetes, stomach problems, easier pregnancy, diarrhoea of animals, increase lactation of cattles, joint pain of animals, [22, 61, 68]
Quercus castanopsis H. Lév.
Neck pain Flowers are eaten for removing fish or meat bones stuck in the neck.
Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.
Asthma, lungs problem, lowers cholesterol The fruiting body is cooked as vegetable and consumed to control the diseases/ailments.
Clerodendrum viscosum Vent.
Skin disease, stomach worm, stomach pain, tooth pain Leaves are boiled taken bath to get cure from body itching. Tender leaves and Centella asiatica are crushed, and the extract (1–2 teaspoons for children and adult, respectively) is consumed in empty stomach twice a day for 3 days to get relief from stomach worm and stomach pain. Twigs are used to brush the teeth to get relief from tooth ache. Pain, skin disease [41]
Gmelina arborea Roxb. UBKV FOR 247 Appetiser, piles, abdominal pain, burning sensation, fever, headache, ulcer Flowers are cooked and consumed to control the diseases/ailments. Vomiting, diarrhoea, weakness, snake bite, cut and wound, piles [25, 41, 42]
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Spreng.
Stomach disorder, swelling, headache, stop bleeding, headache, body pain, tooth pain, cuts and wounds Half a cup leaf extract with salt is takenr 2–3 times a day to cure stomach disorder or swelling. Leaf extract or any plant part is inhaled to get relief from headache. Leaf extract is applied on cuts to stop bleeding and heal as well. Tender plant is cooked and consumed to get relief from body pain and gastroenteritis. Leaves are dried, mixed with raw rice and powdered, and half cup of its water solution is consumed in empty stomach daily for 2–3 days to remove swelling. Roots are chewed after dinner for 3–4 days to get relief from dental pain. Cuts and worms of cattle [37]; skin disease, sore in thigh [90]
Ocimum sanctum L.
Cough and cold, neck pain, cancer, gastroenteritis Leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum and Justicia adhatoda are mixed with water, sieved and the solution is mixed with 5 ml honey which is consumed 3–4 times a day for 2 days to cure cough. Leaves mixed with ginger are chewed to get relief from cough and cold. Taking three leaves daily anytime with water in a day helps to keep cancer away. For curing gastroenteritis and cough, leaf extract can be taken any time in a day. Dried young stem are laced and tied around neck to avoid any disease. Asthma, cold and cough, fever, bronchitis, genito-urinary disorders, diaphoteric, antiperiodic, stimulating [10, 11, 41, 64, 69, 82]
Cinnamomom camphora (L.) J. Presl
Stomach disorder, diabetes, reduce weight Dried bark or leaves can be taken as such for curing stomach disorder, diabetes and also helps in reducing weight.
Machilus villosa (Roxb.) Hook. f.
Joint pain Bark extract is placed on joints for an hour to get relief from pain.  
Careya arborea Roxb.
Body pain, dysentery Bark extract is sieved and solution is taken in empty stomach once a day for 3–4 days to cure dysentery. Bark extract is also administered externally to get relief from body pain. Dysentery, cough, mouth and throat infection [41, 84]
Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.
Ulcers and sore, diabetes, piles, to obtain white and strong teeth,  
Punica granatum L.
Nose bleeding Leaves of Punica granatum and black cumin are grinded adding water and 2–3 drops are dropped in nose to stop nose bleeding. Fruits when ripe are consumed to increase blood. Diarrhoea, dysentery, bronchitis, fever, indigestion, heart problem, eye and ear infection, jaundice, nasal congestion [25, 55, 64, 66, 73, 74]
Abroma augusta (L.) L.f.
Night wetting, jaundice and stomach disorders For night wetting—bark of A. augusta and early roots of Bombax ceiba are mixed, washed and grinded into paste with palm candy. The paste is mixed with required amount of water and sieved. The solution is taken in empty stomach twice a day till the problem persists.
For jaundice—bark of roots is peeled and paste is made after grinding with sugar candy. The paste is mixed with water and stored overnight. The solution is taken in empty stomach during early hours of morning for 3 days.
For stomach disorder—roots and barks are washed, grinded lightly and soaked in water for overnight to form a jelly-like solution. The jelly is taken in empty stomach once a day for 5 days.
Menstrual disorder, snake bite [55]; blood dysentery, diarrhoea, night wetting, [61]
Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. UBKV FOR 324 Tonsillitis, dandruff, hair loss Mennorrhagia dysentery, fever, headache, burn, boil, skin disease, cough and cold, fatigue, hair fall, abortion, burning sensation, twitching [25, 41, 62, 72, 82]
Melastoma malabathricum L.
Cuts and wounds, stomach ulcers, dysentery, diarrhoea, dental pain Pneumonia, diarrhoea [55, 73, 74]
Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
Allergy, fever, pneumonia, small pox, appetite problem, brushing teeth, stomach disorder, skin disease, tooth pain Leaf extract in water solution taken twice a day in empty stomach to get relief from fever.
Domestic animals is also treated same way for fever. Half a glass juice extract is also administered orally daily for 3–4 days to cure pneumonia. Leaf extract is also consumed as appetiser. Leaves are boiled in water and used for taking bath for curing itching, fever and pox. For curing fever, leaves of neem and rice are grinded to powder and taken 1 spoon twice a day in empty stomach. Leaves are fried and consumed to cure mouth ulcers. Twigs are used to brush the teeth to get relief from tooth pain and dental problems. Leaves are beaten into tablets, sun dried and taken in empty stomach for curing gastric, appetite problems, fever, and other stomach disorder.
Allergy, skin disease, fever, boils, cut and wounds, cough and cold, eye and ear infection, dental problems/tooth brush, leprosy, intestinal worms, ulcer, stomach, ear and tooth ache, acidity, vomiting, blood sugar, diabetes, malaria, blood purifier, heart problems, typhoid, health tonic, cancer [10, 22, 25, 27, 41, 55, 63, 72,73,74,75, 80,81,82, 86, 87]
Melia azedarach L.
Fatigueness, cough, fever, appetiser, deworming, cuts and wound, vomiting, skin disease, dental problem, piles, pox, mosquito repellent, purify blood, Blood purifier, reduce blood pressure, skin disease, head ache, fever, stomatitis, stomach worm, stone in urinary bladder, fever, antiseptic [12, 25, 68, 74, 79, 68]
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thom.
Stomach pain, diabetes Small pieces of roots are soaked in water overnight and the solution is consumed empty stomach early in the morning 1–2 times a day for 3–6 months to cure diabetes and stomach pain. Rheumatism, jaundice, diabetes, burning sensation during urination, piles, eye infection, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, malaria, skin disease, appetiser [10, 25, 55, 62, 72,73,74, 80]
Entada rheedii Spreng.
Diarrhoea of domestic animals The fruit pulp is crushed mixing with water and salt to feed domestic animals on banana leaf for treating diarrhoea. Cuts and wounds, skin disease [55, 73, 74]
Artocarpus hetrophyllus Lam
Skin diseases, asthma, ulcers Mature leaves are chewed mixed with salt. Antiseptic [26]; fever, boil, cut and wound, skin diseases, diarrhoea, toothache, snake bite [35, 55, 61, 64, 73, 74]
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.
Skin ailments, headache Paste of leaf and bark are applied on infected part Leaf and bark to treat skin disease [10]
Ficus benghalensis L.
Chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, piles Latex in water solution is used orally for treatment of piles. Bark extract for diarrhoea/dysentery. Diabetes, gout, dysentery, diarrhoea, asthma, muscular pain, gasteroenteritis, hair vitaliser, joint pain, sexual disorder, stomach pain, dental problem [12, 25, 26, 55, 63, 71, 73, 74, 86]
Ficus carica L.
Swellings, tumours, ulcers Constipation [20]
Ficus elmeri Merr.
Fever Leaves are boiled, and luke warm solution is taken for 1–2 days or leaf can be chewed for curing fever.
Ficus geniculata Kurz
Diarrhoea Tender leaves either after cooking consumed or dried, powdered and consumed in water solution to cure diarrhoea.
Ficus hispida L. f.
Ulcer, jaundice, fever, liver problems Control blood sugar level, mouth ulcer [35, 41]
Ficus racemosa L.
Mouth disease of domestic animals Leaves are fed to the cattle/goat to cure their mouth disease. Leucorrhoea, piles, stomach pain, dysentery, fiver, ulcer [25]
Morus alba L.
Jaundice, fever, appetiser for domestic animal Roots are cut into small pieces, wrapped in cloth and tied on neck for 12 days or leaves are boiled and after cooling the solution is consumed once a day to cure jaundice. Sore throat, cough, brain and heart tonic [55, 73, 74]
Moringa oleifera L.
Blood pressure, gastroenteritis, cold and cough, body pain, clearing stool, cuts and wounds of domestic animals, snake repellent Leaf extract is taken to cure high pressure and gastroenteritis (1 glass for 2–3 months daily). Root extract are helpful to cure cold and cough and heal wounds of domestic animals. Pods are eaten as vegetable which also help to regulate blood pressure and body pain. Tender leaves are also cooked as vegetables to cure gastric, body pain, digestion and clearing stool. Roots are cut into small pieces and spread around the house as snake repellent. Tumours, leucoderma, liver disorder, snake bite, piles, cough, stomach worm, diarrhoea, dysentery [25, 55, 73, 74, 81]
Musa balbisiana Colla
Liver problem, gastroenteritis, dysentery, swelling, body severing, stomach disorder, teeth pain Dark black roots of banana and Clerodendrum viscosum are crushed to paste and placed on chicks facing sunlight for an hour to get relief from dental pain. A full teaspoon of latex is consumed three times a day for 3 days to cure loose motion. Fruits or flowers are cooked and taken with daily meal to curing stomach disorder. Roots of banana are used for a night to reduce swelling and control body shiveringt. Ripe fruits or a cup of pseudostem sap is orally taken once for curing dysentery. One cup tender leaf extract solution is taken empty stomach early in the morning for at least 15 days to cure liver problems and dysentery. Fruit peel is pasted, mixed with glass of water and is consumed once in a day in empty stomach for about 15 days for curing gastroenteritis.  
Myristica longifolia Wall. UBKV FOR 165 Stop bleeding, cough Roots are soaked for few minutes and boiled in water till it turns red in colour. One cup of this solution after cooling is consumed as health tonic in empty stomach once a day for 3 days. The solution is also fed to domestic animals. Roots are crushed; boiled with water, cooled and one cup of this solution is taken daily twice for 3 days to stop menstrual bleeding. Root extract water solution of young plants is taken to cure cough.
Psidium guajava L.
Dysentery/loose motion, stomach pain Ripe fruits or tender leaves are eaten for curing dysentery. Tender leaves are chewed in empty stomach for 3–4 days or can be crushed and taken with adding water for curing stomach pain. Tender leaves extract (2–3 spoons) is taken for 2–3 times a day till loose motion is cured. Cold and cough, fever (human and animal), indigestion, dysentery, diarrhoea (human and animal), ulcer, vomiting, dental pain, joint pain, dental pain [10, 11, 25, 41, 55, 64, 73, 74]
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Cough and cold, blood dysentery, gastroenteritis Fruits are consumed to cure cough and cold, blood dysentery and gastroenteritis. Indigestion, dysentery, diarrhoea, loose motion, stomach pain, diabetes, anti-inflammatory, sore throat, bronchitis, ulcers, joint pain, piles [10, 11, 25,26,27, 62, 63, 65, 80, 82]
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.
Fever Leaf is either rubbed or its two teaspoon extract is consumed 2–3 days for curing fever. Flowers are also used as medicine following the same procedure. Rheumatism, malaria, fever, cough and cold, fracture, [25, 88]
Averrohoa carambola L.
Jaundice and liver problems A glass of pulp juice is consumed three times a day in empty stomach for week to get a relief from jaundice.
Piper nigrum L.
Cough and cold Dried fruit powder in water solution is consumed for curing cough and cold. Asthma, cold and cough, rheumatism, constipation, eye infection, throat infection, indigestion, piles [10, 41, 42, 55, 61, 64, 73, 74, 83]
Plumbago zeylanica L. UBKV FOR 342 Hydrocoel, fever Roots are tied with arms or thigh for 20–30 min during morning to cure hydrosol. Rhizomes are crushed, boiled and half a glass taken early in the morning daily for 5–6 days to treat fever. Eroenteritis, skin diseases, scabies, ulcer, diarrhoea, dysentery, indigestion, night blindness, abortion, leprosy [55, 62, 64, 73, 74, 84]
Arundo donax L.
Headache   Skin disease [19]
Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. UBKV FOR 291 Night wetting The nodes of bamboo after cutting are left in the open for 2 days. The water in the nodes is collected after 2 days and given to young children for night wetting.  
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Cuts and wounds, bleeding, vomiting, nose bleeding, increase lactation of domestic animals The grass is crushed, and extracts are applied on wounds to stop bleeding and healing as well. Cynodon dactylon and leaves of Ocimum sanctum are crushed together, and two teaspoons of this extract is taken orally to stop vomiting. Water solution of this extract is made mixing palm candy and half a cup of this solution is consumed once a day to stop nose bleeding. Shoot and leaf juice to control vomiting, skin disease, leprosy, piles, asthma, arthritis, burning urination, indigestion, cancer, eye and mouth problem, dysentery, blood purifier, control nose bleeding, anti-septic, snake bite, stop bleeding, wounds, miscarriage [10, 12, 20, 25, 55, 66, 73, 74, 84]
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
Weakness of children Whole plant is crushed with water, and 2–3 teaspoons of this solution is administered orally once a day for 2–3 days as tonic for general weakness.  
Thysanolaena latifolia
(Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda
Tonsillitis, boils, abortion Boils, burns, tonsillitis, abortion [12]
Triticum aestivum L. UBKV FOR 357 Hair loss Half a glass tender leaf extract are consumed daily early in the morning for a month to prevent hair fall. Flatulence in goats [68]
Polygonum dichotomum Blume.
Baby crying Tender leaves of Opuntia ficus-indica and Polygonum dichotomum are mixed with milk and crushed together. Few drops are given for 2 times a day to stop baby crying. Leaves and tender shoots against dental problem [10]
Polygonum hydropiper L.
Dysentery Blood coagulant, dysentery, gasteroenteritis, astringent [92, 93]
Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.
Asthma Leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba along with alum powder are boiled together and then the water after is taken half cup 2 times a day for 2 days and again after 1 month taken for 2 days in the same quantity of dose (i.e. should be continued in interval of every months which helps in curing asthma. Cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, pyorrhoea, tooth brush, tooth pain, pimples, sores [11, 55, 73, 74]
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa
Stomach disorder, appetiser, dysentery One glass of fruit pulp juice is taken three times a day to cure dysentery, diarrhoea and other stomach problems. It is also used as appetiser. Fever, piles, diarrhoea and dysentery, digestion, head ache, stomach ache, gastroenteritis, cough, asthma, tumours, mouth ulcer, [23, 25, 26, 63, 72]
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck UBKV FOR 306 Vomiting, dysentery, blackening of nerve of children after birth Leaf or root extract of C. lemon, bark of papaya and roots of Aegle marmelos are administered externally once a day for 3–4 days for curing blackening of nerve of children. Leaves and fruits are either smelled or consumed as raw to avoid vomiting. Stomach ache, dysentery/diarrhoea, stomach worms, dandruff [64, 72, 76]
Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel
Gastroenteritis Leaaves are consumed raw or as extract once a day in empty stomach to cure gasteroenteritis. Leaf extract for black fever and diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, anaemia, vomiting, cut and wound, inflammation, appetiser [10, 25, 26, 61, 72]
Scoparia dulcis L.
Piles, paralysis, diarrhoea, gastroenteritis Leaf, stem, root or flower extract are consumed (2 teaspoons/day for 3 months) to cure piles. These parts are powdered and applied in the nose (2 times a day for 3 months) for treatment of paralysis. Plant (without root) extract solution is consumed in empty stomach (1 glass daily for 5 days) for curing diarrhoea and gasteroenteritis. Cough, burning sensation in pulmonary artery and veins, painful urination, diabetes, bronchitis, piles, cough, fever, tumour, boils, pneumonia, kidney stones, antiseptic, menstruation disorder [41, 55, 64, 73, 74, 83, 86, 87]
Ailanthus integrifolia Lam.
Fever Resin extract from the plant is lightly burnt for fumigation of patient to get relieve from fever.  
Datura metel L.
Diarrhoea, dental pain, ear pain, cut and wounds, fatigueness/weakness of domestic animals Fruits are roasted and consumed to cure diarrhoea. Root extract is mixed with water to feed domestic animals as general health tonic.
The fruit pulp is mixed with coconut oil and heated which is then applied on ear after cooling twice a day for 2 days to get relief from pain. Unripe fruits are used to heal wound. Fruits or seeds crushed with mustard oil and heated and applied on teeth during morning for 2–3 days to get relief from pain.
Asthma, boils, leprosy, diarrhoea, piles, cold and cough, joint pain, antirabies, gout, sores, dandruff, hair loss [10, 55, 61, 64, 73, 74, 76]
Solanum indicum L.
Pneumonia, diabetes Root beaten and made in the form of tablets to cure pneumonia. Fruits are cooked and eaten as vegetables for curing diabetes. Ringworm in cattle [70]
Solanum khasianum C.B. Clarke
Dental pain Fruits are burnt and placed on the teeth for getting relief from pain. Dental pain [41]
Solanum melongena L. UBKV FOR 349 Antiseptic Fruits are cut and rubbed for a week to treat infection.
Solanum nigrum L.
Dysentery, vomiting, asthma, bronchitis, fever, urinary discharge, cuts and wound Wound, jaundice, abdominal swellings, stomach pain, head ache, fever, gonorrhoea, piles, dysentery, boils, eye infection [27, 35, 42, 55, 73,74,75,76]
Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & J.C. Wendl.
Stomach disorder, blood purifier, eye problem Bark extract is boiled in water or fruits are eaten after ripening for purifying blood and cure gastroenteritis and dysentery. Fruit juice is applied twice a day to control eye problem.
Sterculia villosa Roxb.
Dysentery Seminal weakness [84]
Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy
Cuts and wound Leaves of Christella dentata, Justicia adhatoda and Clerodendrum viscosum are boiled and the solution is used to wash wounds till healed. The plant is also used as housefly and insects repellent. Cuts and wounds [10]
Typha elephantina Roxb.
Urine problem, purifies breast milk, internal bleeding
Lantana camara L.
Cough and cold Leaf extract is taken orally (1–3 spoon 3 times a day) or the leaves are chewed or consumed with rice to cure cough and cold.  
Tectona grandis L. f.
Dysentery, piles, diabetes, prevent unwanted hair growth, construction, furniture, agricultural implements, fodder Young leaves are used as fodder. Flowers used in bronchitis and urinary discharges; to promote hair growth along with coconut oil; leaf sap used to treat irregular menstrual cycle, burning sensation, kidney and skin disease, headache, tooth ache, swelling, stomach burning, skin irritation [25, 41, 63, 82, 86]
Vitex negundo L.
Fever Half a glass leaf extract solution in water is taken twice a day (before meal in morning and after meal at night) for 3 days to treat fever before meal in the morning and after meal at night. Gout, fever, headache, cough and cold, sinusitis, diarrhoea, cardiac problems, rheumatism, fat burning, bedsore, wound, backbone pain, fracture, body swelling, joint swelling greying hair, memory vitaliser, stomach problem, swelling of joints, liver problem, jaundice [10, 12, 41, 42, 48, 55, 61, 63, 64, 66, 73, 74, 77, 78, 86, 91]
Cissus quadrangularis L.
Fracture, paralysis, leg pain Whole plant is crushed and dressed on the fractured body part for 24 h. The process is repeated for three times or till recovery. The therapy is same for domestic animals also. Stem extract is used to treat broken bone [25, 41, 67, 82]
Cissus repanda Vahl
Bone fractures, cuts and wounds
Aloe vera L. Burm.f.
Fire burnt skin, stomach disorder, body pain Pulp is used for curing burnt skin. The entire plant can be grinded for juice extraction and consumed to get relief from stomach disorder. Half a glass extract is also consumed daily early in the morning adding water and salt for relief from body pain. Diabetes, general health, cough and cold, burns, cut and wound, fracture, arthritis, backbone pain, hepatitis, dermatitis [22, 25, 66]; stomach ache, piles, intestinal worms, eye disease, skin disease, allergy, tumours, liver tonic, purgative [69]
Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f.) Roscoe
Cuts and wounds, sores, digestive Inner part of the leaf is eaten as vegetables to help digestion.
Curcuma caesia Roxb.
Period of woman, chest pain, stomach pain, gastroenteritis, cuts and wounds Fruits are meshed with salt and consumed bu. woman to relief from periodic pain. It is taken in empty stomach (1–1.5) teaspoon for 3 days. Tuber extract is mixed with water and taken to get relief from chest pain, stomach pain and gastric. The extract is applied on wounded part and dressed for 2 days. Dried rhizome powder to treat skin disease, bone fracture, rhizome in rheumatic pains [10, 41, 81]
Curcuma longa L.
Lactation problem of domestic animals, crack on legs, cough and cold, fever, stomach disorder, cuts and wounds Flowers are crushed, mixed with feed and fed to animals for increasing the milk production.
Alum and lime is crushed to powder and mixed with unripe rhizomes and placed on ruptured portion of the skin for 20 min and then washed, dried and messaged with coconut oil is used for massage once a day for 3 days till recovery. Fresfh rhizomes are roasted in mustard oil for few minutes and applied on wounds. The process continues till the wound is healed. Alternately, the rhizomes are boiled and consumed for healing of wound and relief from fever, cough and cold. Fresh rhizome extract is added with water and a cup of the solution is consumed after dinner for to stomach disorders like gastric pain. This solution is also consumes as health tonic.
Dried and fresh rhizome powder to treat cuts and wound, skin disease, inflammation, cough and cold, sores, boils, bone fracture, swelling, muscular or body pains, snake bite, stomach ache, bronco asthma, antidote against poison, blood purifier, jaundice and liver disorder [10, 12, 41, 55, 64, 73, 74, 76]
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm.
Snake bite, septic, cuts and wounds, back pain, pregnancy Rhizome is pasted and placed on any bites or affected parts. Also used as massage to remove body pain or back pain. Rhizomes with leaves of Raulfia serpentina and tubers of bedodgumi are crushed together. This extract is mixed with half cup of water and consumed twice a day after meal for 2 days which helps to boost pregnancy.