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Table 2 Enumeration of medicinal plants species in Koh-e-Safaid Range, Kurram, Pakistan

From: Quantitative study of medicinal plants used by the communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range, northern Pakistani-Afghan borders

Botanical name/local name/voucher number Family Availability Habit Part(s) used Formulation of remedies ROA Medicinal use RFC Use reports
Abies pindrow Royle ex D. Don/Bejoor/B. Huss.55.UOP Pinaceae W Tr Seeds Dec O Antidiabetic 0.05 5
Adiantum capillus-veneris L./Lailazalfi/ B.Huss.56.UOP Adiantaceae W H Leaves J T Skin problems 0.18 19
Allium cepa L./Pyaz/ B. Huss.57.UOP Amaryllidaceae C H Bulb Ro T Anti-inflammatory 0.84 37
Antiseptic 2
Spine removal 52
Allium sativum L./Woga/B.Huss.58.UOP Amaryllidaceae C H Bulbils Ro/Dir or Veg O, T Antiseptic 0.26 5
Blood pressure 23
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f./Zargoya/B.Huss.59.UOP Asphodelaceae C H Leaves Dir T Wound healing 0.22 24
Amaranthus viridis L./Ranzaka/B.Huss.60.UOP Amaranthaceae W H Leaves Veg O Laxative 0.34 31
Blood purifier   6
Artemisia absinthium L./Mastyara/ B.Huss.61.UOP Asteraceae W H Leaves Dec O Antidiabetic 1.34 13
Antimalarial 93
Antipyretic 32
Blood pressure 5
Urologic problems 2
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit/Doorang/B.Huss.62.UOP Asteraceae W H Root Dec O Anticancer 0.69 22
Antidiabetic 41
Hepatitis 11
Asparagus adscendens Roxb./Asparages/B.Huss.63.UOP Asparagaceae W H Aerial parts Dec O Tonic 0.06 7
Berberis lycium Royle/Sur Azghey/B.Huss.64.UOP Berberidaceae W S Bark Dec O Antiseptic 0.70 14
Antiulcer genic 8
Chest problems 37
Cough 17
Bergenia ciliata (Haw)/Qamar Gul/B.Huss.65.UOP Saxifragaceae W H Aerial parts Pow O Stomach pain 0.18 13
Joint pain 6
Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. f., Hort./Sahrashodeky/B.Huss.66.UOP Asclepiadaceae W S Leaves, latex Dir T Antiseptic 0.76 17
Wound healing 65
Cannabis sativa L./Bangooboti/B.Huss.67.UOP Asclepiadaceae C H Flowers, leaves Inf O Sedative 0.78 32
Refrigerant 52
Caralluma tuberculata N. E. Brown/Pamenny B.Huss.68.UOP Asclepiadaceae W H Aerial parts Dir, Veg O Antidiabetic 1.20 97
Anticancer 3
Blood purifier 5
Stomachic 25
Cassia fistula L/Toorlargy/B.Huss.69.UOP Caesalpiniaceae C Tr Fruit Inf O Stomach pain 1.10 34
Carminative 58
Colic pain 27
Chenopodium album L/Sarmy/B.Huss.70.UOP Chenopodiaceae W H Leaves Veg O Laxative 0.10 11
Chenopodium ambrosioides L/Boi Sarmy/B.Huss.71.UOP Chenopodiaceae W H Leaves Dec O Anthelmintic 0.08 9
Cichorium intybus L/Shin gulay/B.Huss.72.UOP Asteraceae W H Whole plant Dec, Veg O Antipyretic 0.85 11
Antidiabetic 17
Antimalarial 26
Hepatitis 38
Citrullus colocynthis L/Perpendu/B.Huss.73.UOP Cucurbitaceae W H Fruit Dec O, T Antidiabetic 0.23 23
Carminative 11
Refrigerant 14
Coriander sativum L/Danya/B.Huss.74.UOP Apiaceae C H Aerial parts Dir, Veg O Carminative 0.34 35
Hypolipidemic 16
Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. Ex Lindl/Mamany/B.Huss.75.UOP Rosaceae W S Fruit, root Dir, Dec O Carminative 0.32 8
Hepatitis 35
Crataegus oxycantha L/Ghunza/B.Huss.76.UOP Rosaceae W Tr Fruit Dir O Blood pressure 0.14 14
Dyspnea 9
Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex Lam/Kado/B.Huss.77.UOP Cucurbitaceae C H Fruit Veg O Laxative 0.10 10
Colic pain 5
Curcuma longa L/Korkaman, Hildi/B.Huss.78.UOP Zingiberaceae C H Rhizome Dec O Wound healing 0.24 26
Daphne mucronata Royle/Laghoony/B.Huss.79.UOP Thymelaeaceae W S Branches, leaves Dec O,T Anti-inflammatory 0.39 42
Antidiarrheal 7
Diospyros lotus L/Amlook/B.Huss.80.UOP Ebenaceae W Tr Fruit Dir O Cough 0.19 19
Chest problems 6
Elaeagnus angustifolia L/Shangaly/B.Huss.81.UOP Elaeagnaceae W Tr Fruit, leaves Dir, Dec O Antiseptic 0.07 7
Colic pain 5
Ephedra gerardiana Wall. Ex. Stapf/Mawa/B.Huss.82.UOP Ephedraceae W S Whole plant Dec O Antiasthmatic 0.24 25
Stomachic 15
Equisetum arvense L /Bandokay/B.Huss.83.UOP Equisetaceae W H Aerial parts Dir, Pow, Dec O Antiseptic 0.18 17
Antidiarrheal 7
Kidneys problems 3
Eruca sativa Mill/ Sharsham/B.Huss.84.UOP Brassicaceae C H Seed oil, leaves Dir O, T Hair fall 0.14 14
Nutritional 5
Fagonia indica L/Azghay/B.Huss.85.UOP Zygophyllaceae W H Aerial parts Dec, Ash O, T Refrigerant 0.30 17
Anti-inflammatory 7
Blood purifier 31
Ficus carica L/Anzer/B.Huss.86.UOP Moraceae W Tr Fruit Dir O Carminative 0.18 19
Foeniculum vulgare Miller/Khoglany/B.Huss.87.UOP Apiaceae W/C H Fruit, leaves Dir O Colic pain 0.68 72
Carminative 32
Fragaria nubicola (Hook.f.) Lindl. ex L/Manzakhka/B.Huss.88.UOP Rosaceae W H Fruit Dir O Anemia 0.17 18
Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsle/Chamtara/chaptara/B.Huss.89.UOP Fumariaceae W H Aerial parts Dec O, T Antiulcerogenic 0.41 13
Antipyretic 4
Blood purifier 44
Emollient 7
Itching 9
Hordeum vulgare L/Urbashy /B.Huss.90.UOP Poaceae C H Grains J O Antidiabetic 0.10 11
Juglans regia L /Waghaz /B.Huss.91.UOP Juglandaceae C Tr Fruit, leaves Dir O Brain tonic 0.49 53
Dysentery 13
Protect the teeth from decay 27
Lepidium virginicum L/Gharateraba/B.Huss.92.UOP Brassicaceae W H Leaves Dir O Appetizer 0.05 5
Mangifera indica L/Aam/B.Huss.93.UOP Anacardiaceae C Tr Seeds Pow O Antidiarrheal 0.17 13
Dysentery 15
Malva neglecta Wallr /Tekalay/B.Huss.94.UOP Malvaceae W H Leaves, root Dec O Dyspepsia 0.37 5
Antiulcerogenic 37
Carminative 17
Marrubium vulgare L/Dorshol/Butaka/B.Huss.95.UOP Lamiaceae W H Aerial parts Dec O, T Antidiabetic 0.40 43
Pimples treatment 12
Melia azedarach L/Daraka/B.Huss.96.UOP Meliaceae W Tr Leaves Dec O, T Anti-dandruff 0.27 17
Antidiabetic 28
Hairs fall 14
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds/Jangaliwilany/B.Huss.97.UOP Lamiaceae W H Aerial parts Veg, Pow O Carminative 0.43 45
Antidiarrheal 7
Appetizer 12
Mentha viridis L/Podina/B.Huss.98.UOP Lamiaceae C H Aerial parts Veg, Pow O Carminative 0.55 59
Antidiarrheal 4
Appetizer 9
Momordica charantia L/Karela/B.Huss.99.UOP Cucurbitaceae W H Fruit Veg O Antidiabetic 0.62 67
Morchella esculenta Fr/Kerkachu/B.Huss.100.UOP-- Morchellaceae W H Aerial parts Ro O Nutritional 0.38 41
Morus alba L/Spin toot/B.Huss.101.UOP Moraceae W Tr Fruit Dir O Laxative 0.26 28
Morus nigra L/Toor toot/B.Huss.102.UOP Moraceae W Tr Fruit Dir O Laxative 0.41 26
Cough 44
Nannorrhops ritchiana (Griff) Aitchison, J.L/Mazaray/B.Huss.103.UOP Arecaceae W Tr Fruit Dir O Laxative 0.32 35
Olea ferruginea (Wall. Ex G. Don) Cif/Hamna/B.Huss.104.UOP Oleaceae W Tr Leaves Dec T Joint pain 0.31 31
Antidiabetic 18
Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don/Bezokhwnaiy/B.Huss.105.UOP Boraginaceae W H Aerial parts J T Wound healing 0.12 13
Antiseptic 5
Oxalis corniculata L/Bibishawtala/B.Huss.106.UOP Oxalidaceae W H Aerial parts Dec O Kidneys problems 0.05 5
Papaver somniferum L/Dooda/B.Huss.107.UOP Papaveraceae C H Fruit Inf O Cough 0.36 21
Sedative 37
Peganum harmala L/Spinaly/B.Huss.108.UOP Zygophyllaceae W H Seeds Dir O Obesity 0.18 19
Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson/Nekhter/B.Huss.109.UOP Pinaceae W Tr Resin, root Res, Dec O, T Antiseptic 0.13 13
Blood purifier 5
Plantago lanceolata L/Ghazaki/Palisepary/B.Huss.110.UOP Plantaginaceae W H Whole plant Dec O Laxative 0.25 27
Plantago major L/Chanchapan/Ghuyezaba/B.Huss.111.UOP Plantaginaceae W H Whole plant Dir, Dec O, T Wound healing 0.31 32
Laxative 7
Platanus orientalis L/Chenoor/B.Huss.112.UOP Platanaceae W Tr Bark Dec T Pimples treatment 0.12 13
Polygonatum verticillatum L/Nooryalam/B.Huss.113.UOP Polygonaceae W H Rhizome Dec O Aphrodisiac 0.26 28
Portulaca oleracea L/Warkhuray/B.Huss.114.UOP Aizoaceae W H Aerial parts Veg O Laxative 0.29 31
Prunus jacquemontii Hook/Arghanja/B.Huss.115.UOP Rosaceae W S Fruit Dir O Hepatitis 0.17 18
Punica granatum L/Wangar/B.Huss.116.UOP Punicaceae W S Fruit Dir, Pow O Cough 0.29 12
Antidiarrheal 29
Antiulcerogenic 9
Dysentery 17
Eye disorders 3
Quercus baloot Griff/Sayreye/B.Huss.117.UOP Fagaceae W S Fruit Dec O Antidiabetic 0.19 18
Antiulcerogenic 8
Raphanus sativus L/Moli/B.Huss.118.UOP Brassicaceae C H Root Dir O Blood pressure 0.22 8
Hepatitis 23
Rheum speciforme Royle/Pakhey/B.Huss.119.UOP Polygonaceae W H Petioles Dir O Cardio tonic 0.12 13
Robinia pseudo-acacia L/Chanbele/B.Huss.120.UOP Fabaceae W Tr Inflorescence Dec O Laxative 0.16 15
Nutritional 10
Rosa moschata J. Herm/JangliGulab/B.Huss.121.UOP Rosaceae W S Petals Dec O Laxative 0.30 28
Expectorant 16
Rosa webbiana Wall ex. Royle/Jangaligulab/B.Huss.122.UOP Rosaceae W S Fruit, seeds Dir O Carminative 0.21 23
Rubus fruitcosus L/GharyManzakhka/B.Huss.123.UOP Rosaceae W S Fruit Dir O Anemia 0.26 28
Rumex dentatus L/Zamda/B.Huss.124.UOP Polygonaceae W H Root J O Antiseptic 0.17 8
Antiulcerogenic 17
Rununculus muricatus L/Zergulak/B.Huss.125.UOP Ranunculaceae W H Leaves J O Analgesic 0.04 4
Salvia reflexa Hormn/Sugar boti/B.Huss.126.UOP Lamiaceae W H Aerial parts Dec O Antidiabetic 0.25 27
Sambucus nigra L/Lantus/B.Huss.127.UOP Sambucaceae W S Fruit Inf O Flu 0.16 17
Seriphidium kurramensis (Qazilb.) Y. R. Sling/Tarkha/B.Huss.128.UOP Asteraceae Q US Aerial parts Dec O Antipyretic 0.51 15
Anthelmintic 30
Antimalarial 54
Solanum nigrum L/Bartang/Kharsobay/B.Huss.129.UOP Solanaceae W H Fruit, leaves Inf O Antidiarrheal 0.10 3
Antidiuretic 6
Hepatitis 7
Solanum surattense Burm. f/Marghony/B.Huss.130.UOP Solanaceae W H Fruit Dec O Cough 0.13 14
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill/Tareza/B.Huss.131.UOP Asteraceae W H Leaves, root Inf O Hepatitis 0.14 15
Tanacetum artemisioides L/Zawil/B.Huss.132.UOP Asteraceae W H Aerial parts Inf O Antidiabetic 0.20 21
Antiseptic 4
Cough 7
Hepatitis 9
Taraxicum officinale L/Chechopaska/B.Huss.133.UOP Asteraceae W H Aerial parts Dec O Tonic 0.34 15
Hepatitis 36
Teucrium stocksianum B Boiss/Harboty/Gulbahar/B.Huss.134.UOP Lamiaceae W H Aerial parts Inf O Anthelmintic 0.14 13
Antidiabetic 9
Antidiuretic 2
Antipyretic 6
Thymus linearis L/Paney/Mawory/B.Huss.135.UOP Lamiaceae W H Aerial parts Inf O Cough 0.56 47
Appetizer 15
Carminative 53
Tulipa clusiana DC/Spergha/B.Huss.136.UOP Liliaceae W H Rhizome Pow O Anthelmintic 0.19 21
Urtica dioica L/Sezonky/B.Huss.137.UOP Urticaceae W H Aerial parts Dec O Anti-inflammatory 0.19 17
Joint pain 15
Valeriana jatamansi Jones/Mehkek/B.Huss.138.UOP Valerianaceae W H Root Pow O Aphrodisiac 0.22 24
Verbascum thapsus L/Kharghogy/B.Huss.139.UOP Scrophulariaceae W H Leaves J O,T Antiseptic 0.14 15
Ear problems 3
Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum (Rech.f) Rech.f/Kamyaboti/B.Huss.140.UOP Asclepiadaceae W H Whole plant Dec O Chest problems 0.18 19
Viola canescens Wall ex Roxb/Benefsha/balamsha/B.Huss.141.UOP Violaceae W H Leaves, rhizome Dec O Chest problems 0.26 14
Cough 25
Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal in DC/hapyanaga/hafyanga/Shapynga/B.Huss.142.UOP Solanaceae W US Fruit Pow O Stomach pain 0.96 103
Antidiabetic 9
Antiulcerogenic 14
Constipation 50
Xanthium strumarium L/Azghy/B.Huss.143.UOP Asteraceae W H Fruit J T Skin problems 0.09 10
Zea mays L/Jawar/B.Huss.144.UOP Poaceae C H Grains Dir O Obesity 0.07 8
Zingeber officinale L/Adrek/B.Huss.145.UOP Zingiberaceae C H Rhizome Dec O Cough 0.43 46
Ziziphora tenuior L/Sahrawaleny/B.Huss.146.UOP Lamiaceae W H Leaves Pow O Appetizer 0.18 16
Carminative 12
  1. Abbreviations: C cultivated, Dec decoction, Dir direct, FC frequency of citation, H herb, J juice, O orally, Pow powder, Res resin, S shrub, RFC relative frequency citation, Ro roast ROA route of administration, T topically, T tree, US undershrub, UV use value, Veg vegetable, W wild