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Table 1 Fungal species found and their usages

From: An ethnobotanical survey of edible fungi in Chuxiong City, Yunnan, China

Scientific name Vernacular name (pinyin/Chinese/Yi) Habitat characteristics Main chemical components Nutritional and medicinal value Accession number of specimens
Agaricus silvicola (Vittad) Peck. (Agaricaceae) san juer
伞菌
Forest, grow alone or in a small group   Edible, tasty, but there are some cases of poisoning. Harvest time: summer, autumn s.n.
Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray (Agaricaceae) mao cao jun
茅草菌
Grow in pine forest Rich in proteins, crude fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, nucleic acid derivatives, vitamins B1, B2, vitamin C [45] Strengthen body, condition the stomach, relieve pain, nourish lungs, and regulate breath; anti-cancer. Harvest time: summer Y-M-070
Vascellum pratense (Pers.) Kreisel (Agaricaceae) ma pi pao
马皮泡
Grow alone, in grassy areas, forest edges   Edible when they are young. Harvest time: spring, autumn s.n.
Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P. Karst. (Bankeraceae) hu zhang jun
虎掌菌
Grow in forest with humic soil   Condition the stomach, nourish lungs, and regulate breath; anti-cancer. Harvest time: summer Y-M-069
Boletus luridus Schaeff. (Boletaceae) jian shou qing
见手青
Forest edges, grow alone or in a small group Rich in proteins, amino acids, minerals, and polysaccharides [46] Harvest time: summer Y-M-068
Boletus edulis Rostk. (Boletaceae) [47] mei wei niu gan jun
美味牛肝菌
Yi: ba hmu
Broad-leaved forest, grow alone or in a small group Rich in polysaccharides, alkaloids (mainly of choline), putrescine, sterols [48] Alleviate cold symptoms [49]. Harvest time: summer Y-M-058
Cantharellus cibarius Fr. (Cantharellaceae) huang si jun
黄丝菌
Yi: va cy hmu
Grow in forest of north temperate zone [50] Rich in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, carotene, crude fiber, phosphorus, and a variety of mineral nutrients [51] Clean liver, improve vision, diuresis, nourish lungs, and regulate breath. Harvest time: summer Y-M-062
Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung et al. (Clavicipitaceae) chong cao
虫草
Yi: se ge bbup ddi
  Rich in mannitol, SOD, and polysaccharides Anti-cancer, anti-tumor, nourish lungs, and regulate breath. Harvest time: spring Y-M-064
Ramaria botrytis (Pers.) Ricken (Gomphaceae) shua ba jun
刷把菌
Forest, grow alone   Edible, delicious taste, nourish the stomach, anti-cancer. Harvest time: summer, autumn s.n.
Ramaria madagascariensis (Henn.) Corner (Gomphaceae) sao ba jun
扫把菌
Coniferous forest, grow alone or in a small group   Edible, delicious taste. Harvest time: summer, autumn s.n.
Helvella atra Oeder (Helvellaceae) pi tiao jun
皮条菌
Grow clustered or scattered in forests   Prevent pernicious anemia, improve neurasthenia, cholesterol-lowering. Harvest time: summer, autumn s.n.
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. (Helvellaceae) yang mao jun
羊毛菌
Yi: nyut o hmu
Grow on the top of trees Rich in unsaturated fatty acids Anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, protect liver, strengthen immunity, anti-aging, and enhance blood circulation. Harvest time: spring, summer, autumn Y-M-061
Termitomyces albuminosus (Berk.) Heim (Lyophyllaceae) ji zong jun
鸡枞菌
Have symbiotic relationship with termite nests, grow in broad-leaved and coniferous forest Rich in proteins, crude fat, crude fiber, and a variety of mineral nutrients [52] Improve immune system, improve sleep. Harvest time: summer, autumn Y-M-060
Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk et Brome) R. Heim (Lyophyllaceae) huo ba ji zong
火把鸡枞
Have symbiotic relationship with termite nests, grow in groups Rich in proteins [53] Protect stomach. Harvest time: summer, autumn s.n.
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. (Morocellaceae) [54] yang du jun
羊肚菌
Yi: yo qy tie hmu
Grow in coniferous forests and broad-leaved forests Rich in vitamin B1, B2, B12 [55] Protect stomach, nourish the lungs, and strengthen immunity. Harvest time: spring, summer, autumn Y-M-067
Phallus indusiatus Vent. (Phallaceae) zhu gu niang
竹姑娘
Grow in hot and humid areas Rich in proteins, crude fat, and crude fiber [56] Nourish lungs and regulate breath, improve sleep, strengthen immunity. Harvest time: autumn Y-M-066
Lactarius volemus (Fr.) Fr. (Russulaceae) nai jiang jun
奶浆菌
Grow in conifer mixed forest Rich in a variety of essential amino acids, protein, fat, vitamins, and a variety of mineral nutrients [57] Anti-cancer, lower blood pressure, protect liver, detoxifying, diuresis. Harvest time: spring, summer, autumn s.n.
Russula virescens (Schaeff.) Fr. (Russulaceae) [58] qing tou jun
青头菌
Grow in mixed forest   Protect liver, protect eyesight. Harvest time: summer, autumn s.n.
Russula nitida (Pers.) Fr. (Russulaceae) [59] xiao hong jun
小红菌
Yi: zzit hmu
Grow in broad-leaved forest, solitary or in groups   Harvest time: summer, autumn s.n.
Sparassia crispa (Wulfen) Fr. (Sparassidaceae) hua er xiu qiu jun
花饵绣球菌
Grow in mountains, pine forest, central and western of Yunnan   Anti-aging, cholesterol-lowering, anti-cancer, strengthen immunity. Harvest time: summer Y-M-059
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farl. ex Murrill (Sparassidaceae) zhou huan qiu gai gu
皱环球盖菇
Grow in forest edges, grassy areas, gardens, garbage dumps, sawdust pile, cattle dunghill Rich in vitamins and a variety of mineral nutrients [60] Nourish brain. Harvest time: spring, summer, autumn s.n.
Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et S. Imai) Singer (Tricholomataceae) song rong
松茸
Yi: te hmu
Grow in natural forests without any pollution and human intervention Rich in proteins, vitamins, and a variety of mineral nutrients [61] Strengthen immunity, anti-cancer, anti-aging, prevent cardiovascular disease, improve gastrointestinal function, protect liver. Harvest time: summer Y-M-063