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Table 5 Ethno-veterinary remedies against gastrointestinal diseases and hearth’s disease

From: Traditional knowledge about plant, animal, and mineral-based remedies to treat cattle, pigs, horses, and other domestic animals in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia

Animal Components of remedy** Procedure Areas
Gastrointestinal infection, colics, diarrhoea
 Cattlea Wild carrot (Daucus carota) leaves Decoction given as feed Barbagia di Nuoro
 Cattle a, pigs Wheat bran Bran mixed with water and given as feed Gallura, Sassarese
 Cattle a Wheat bran, coal Coal grinded and mixed with wheat bran Gallura
 Cattle a Mallow (Malva sylvestris), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), olive oil Decoction given as feed Anglona
 Cats Water, salt Given to drink Gallura
 Cats, horses Olive oil Given to drink Gallura
 Cows, oxen Linseed oil Mixed with water and given to drink Monte Acuto
 Horses, cattle a (*) Brewer’s yeast, water Yeast mixed with water, given to drink Monte Acuto, Anglona
 Horses Barley (Hordeum vulgare), water Barley flour boiled with water given as feed Monte Acuto
 Horses Warm clothes Warm clothes on belly Monte Acuto
 Little pigs (Piglets) (*) Dry clay Given as feed Sassarese
 Little pigs (Piglets) Dry clay, barley (Hordeum vulgare) flour Given as feed Sassarese
 Cattle a Blades of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) Cut into pieces and given as feed Sassarese
 Cattle a Vinegar Given to drink Barbagia di Nuoro
 Cattlea Brandy (distilled from grapes) Given to drink Barbagia di Nuoro
 Oxen Pellitory of the wall (Parietaria officinalis), water Decoction of the plants filtered and given to drink Monte Acuto
 Cattle a (*) Hay Given as feed Nurra
 Cattle a, horses, pigs Mallow (Malva sylvestris), water Decoction of the plants filtered and given to drink Gallura
 Cows, oxen Mallow (Malva sylvestris), water Decoction of the plants filtered and given to drink Monte Acuto
 Oxen Tree mallow (Lavatera olbia) Decoction of the plant filtered and given to drink Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Fababeans (Vicia faba), barley (Hordeum vulgare), water Beans and barley flour boiled in water given as feed Anglona
 Horses, oxen, calves Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), water Decoction of the plants filtered and given to drink Meilogu, Goceano, Monte Acuto
 Horses Lemon (Citrus limon) juice, water Decoction of juice given to drink Goceano
 Cattle a Flax-leaved daphne (Daphne gnidium) berries Some berries mixed with forage and given as feed Gallura
Abbentadura (Bloat)
 Cattle a Olive oil One liter of olive oil given to drink after 2 or 3 days of fasting Gallura, Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Rancid olive oil Given to drink Nurra
 Cattle a Warm water Given to drink Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Petroleum Given to drink Nurra
 Cattle a Mallow (Malva sylvestris), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), olive oil Decoction given as feed Anglona
 Cows Milk, salt, olive oil The mixture given to drink Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Lard, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), onion (Allium cepa) Onion bulbs, parsley and lard chopped, mixed, and given as feed to promote burping Monte Acuto
 Cows, cattle a (*) Brewer’s yeast, water Mixed and given to drink Monte Acuto, Sassarese, Meilogu
 Cows Lard, wine, vinegar Mixed and given as feed Monte Acuto
 Cattle a (*)Lard, onion (Allium cepa) Mixed and given as feed to promote burping Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Onion (Allium cepa) Crushed and given as feed Monte acuto
 Cattle a Lard Crushed and given as feed Gallura, Monte Acuto Sassarese, Meilogu, Anglona
 Cows Lard, wet clothes The lard was crushed and given as feed then a wet cloth was put on the animal Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Naphtha (diesel oil) Three quarters of a liter of naphtha given in a bottle Monte Acuto
 Cattle a (*) Rancid lard Crushed and given as feed, to promote burping Monte Acuto, Nurra
 Cattle a (*) Beer Given to drink, to promote burping Nurra, Sassarese
 Horses Mallow (Malva sylvestris), vinegar, water Decoction given to drink Sassarese
 Cattle a Olive oil, boiled wine Mixed and given to drink Monte Acuto, Gallura
 Cattle a (*) Frammentalzu (mother yeast for bakery) Dissolved in water and given to drink Monte Acuto, Sassarese
 Cattle a Frammentalzu (mother yeast for bakery), lard, olive oil Crushed and given as feed Monte Acuto
 Cattle, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens Lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) wood Used to swab after incision of the vein under the belly Campidano di Oristano
 Cows, cattle a Pellitory of the wall (Parietaria officinalis) Decoction of plants filtered and given to drink Sassarese
 Horses Galloping Deflation occurred after the galloping of horses in a field Goceano
 Cows Olive oil, milk, salt Give to drink Monte Acuto
Poisoning
 Cattle a (*) Brewer’s yeast, water As feed supplement Nurra
 Oxen Mallow (Malva sylvestris), water Decoction of plants filtered and given to drink Monte Acuto
Constipation
 Cattle a, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens a, Vinegar and olive oil Mixed and given to drink Anglona
 Cows Mallow (Malva sylvestris), water Decoction of plants filtered and given to drink Barbagia di Orgosolo
 Cattle a Olive oil Given to drink Anglona
 Horses Lentisk fruits and leaves, water Decoction of fruits and some leaves given to drink Monte Acuto
Refreshing
 Horses Smirnium olusatrum The plant was collected in the summer and administered as feed Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Brewer’s yeast, water Mixed and given to drink Nurra
 Oxen Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), water Decoction of leaves given to drink Monte Acuto
 Oxen Pellitory of the wall (Parietaria officinalis), water Decoction of leaves given as beverage Monte Acuto
Post-partum collapse
 Cattle a (*)Wine, sugar Given to drink Anglona
 Cattle a Coffee, wine, sugar Given to drink Monte Acuto
Angina pectoris
 Horses Lard, olive oil Massaged on the chest Meilogu
High blood pressure
 Cattle a Leech (Hirudo medicinalis)   Anglona
Lack of appetite
 Cattle a Barley flour with water or milk Given to drink Monte Acuto
 Cows Fool’s-water-cress (Apium nodiflorum) Fresh plant given as feed Monte Acuto
Indigestion
 Horses Barley (Hordeum vulgare), avena (Avena sativa), corn (Zea mays), flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed, water, salt Decoction of mixture given to drink Sassarese
 Cattle a Olive oil One liter of olive oil after 2 or 3 days of fasting given to drink Gallura
Intestinal worms
 Cattle a Garlic (Allium sativum), vinegar Two cloves of crushed garlic in half a liter of vinegar given as feed Anglona
 Horses Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) root Burnt fern root fumes were breathed by horses covered with a blanket Monte Acuto
 Horses Lavender cotton (Santolina chamaecyparissus), barley (Hordeum vulgare), The dried plants given as feed Barbagia di Nuoro
 Horses Giant cane (Arundo donax) leaves The leaves given as feed and after 4 days the horse was fine Meilogu
  1. aCure for cows, calves, and oxen
  2. (*) Remedies still in use
  3. (**) Typed in bold are components of remedies showing highest indices in the quantitative analysis