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Table 1 The species of ethnobotanical interest in the Ancona district

From: Ethnobotanical uses in the Ancona district (Marche region, Central Italy)

Scientific name Family Local names Parts used Uses References for similar uses
Acer campestre L. Sapindaceae   Wood Craft: handles, tools [37]  
Whole plant Mix: supports for grapevine [37]  
Achillea collina (Becker ex Rchb.f.) Heimerl Asteraceae Millefoje, stagnasangue (g) Flower Food: fried flower in salted batter  
Leaves Med: infusion as cicatrizer [27]  
Aerial part Sup/rel: stems in pocket, against haemorrhoids  
Adonis annua L. ssp. cupaniana (Guss.) C. Steinberg Ranunculaceae   Leaves, flowers Med: infusion as diuretic [37]  
Aesculus hippocastanum L. Sapindaceae Castagna selvatica Fruit Sup/rel: under the pillow against colds [37]  
Agrimonia eupatoria L. Rosaceae Erba de andata (o) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as digestive  
Food: leaves for filling fresh pasta  
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Simaroubaceae   Leaves Med: leaf infusion as anti-diarrhoea Similar use of bark in [27]
Vet: for feeding silkworms  
Wood Craft: handles, tools Dom: firewood  
Alliaria petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara and Grande Brassicaceae Agliaria (o), erba aglina (g) Leaves, flowers Med: infusion to treat cough [27]  
Leaves Food: to flavour salads [30, 34], roasted meat; piadina filling To flavour various dish in [27]
Vet: in dairy cow feed  
Allium cepa L. Amaryllidaceae   Bulb Med: fresh bulb cut in half rubbed on the skin as disinfectant to heal insects bites [23, 26]  
Sup/rel: bulbs cut in half with spoonful of coarse salt on top to predict the weather [23]  
Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Amaryllidaceae Cipollotto del diavolo (o) Bulb Med: raw bulbs eaten as vermifuge Similar use of Allium sativum L. in [4, 21, 37]
Food: raw in salads [34]  
Vet: bulbs macerated in wine to heal rabies in dogs  
Sup/rel: bulbs in necklaces to protect against devil’s eye Similar use of. Allium sativum L. in [21, 37]
Rep: bulbs macerated in water against aphids  
Flowers Food: sautéed flowers to season pasta  
Dom: flowers used in floral decorations  
Allium sativum L. Amaryllidaceae   Bulb Med: one raw bulb or four bulbs boiled in milk and eaten to heal intestinal warms [23, 33]; one bulb under the pillow to heal intestinal warms in children [4, 23]; bulb poultice with olive oil or beeswax to heal calluses [23, 26]; rubbed fresh bulb to heal insects bites [21, 26]  
Prov: ‘se voi l’aio grosso, a Natale lo devi avè posto 
Aloysia citriodora Palau. Verbenaceae Cedrina (g) Leaves Cosm: leaves in bath water to perfume the skin [23]  
Dom: dry flowers in floral decorations  
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Amaranthaceae   Flowers Dom: dry flowers in floral decorations  
Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poir.) T.Durand and Schinz Poaceae Saracco (c) Leaves Mix: leaves used to make string and rope [22]  
Anagallis arvensis L. Primulaceae Centocchio (o) Aerial part Med: decoction of aerial part to heal cough [27]  
Vet: aerial parts with leaves of Urtica dioica L. and dry bread for feeding laying hens [37]  
Apium graveolens L. Apiaceae Acquaiola (o) Aerial part Med: infusion of aerial part as digestive and diuretic [30]; leaf pack as emollient* *Similar use against bruises [37] or to treat chilblains [23]
Cosm: leaf pack to treat dry skin Similar use for healing skin complaints and chilblains [23, 37]
Sup/rel: fresh plant eaten as aphrodisiac; against devil’s eye [30]  
Arbutus unedo L. Ericaceae   Fruits Food: fruit eaten raw or preserved in alcohol to make a liquor [4, 21, 27]  
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Asteraceae   Leaves Med: leaves in pack on feet as diaphoretic to heal bronchial diseases (correlated to fever) [36]  
Cosm: leaf juice rubbed on scalp to heal dandruff; leaf decoction to heal acne Similar use to heal hair loss [25]
Stems Food: boiled stems as side dish [36, 38]  
Artemisia vulgaris L. Asteraceae Erba di S. Giovanni (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion to regularise menstruation [37]  
Food: some raw leaves in salads similar uses in soups [37] and for Artemisia absinthium L. [30])
Sup/rel: on St. John’s night, stems of Artemisia vulgaris L., Ruta graveolens L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Lavandula sp. in the pocket or under the pillow to protect against witches; protect during a travel  
Rep: leaves macerated in water against plant caterpillars  
Arum italicum Mill. Araceae Erba biscia (o) Leaves Med: leaves applied as antirheumatic [37]  
Vet: leaf decoction as diuretic for pigs Roots as feeding for pigs [21]
Dom: boiled leaves for washing clothes, pots [37]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant brings bad luck  
Arundo donax L. Poaceae Canna (o, c, g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as diuretic [37]  
Mix: dry leaves smoked as tobacco substitute [4]  
Twigs Sup/rel: Arundo donax L. and Olea europaea L. twigs to make a cross to protect fields [23]  
Craft: to make a support for knitting pins, to make ‘raganella’ [37]  
Recr: to make whistles [37]  
Mix: to support plants in the orchards, to make baskets [37]  
Asparagus acutifolius L. Asparagaceae Sparaghi (c), asparagina (c, g) Shoots Med: eat boiled shoots as diuretic [4, 30]; shoots decoction together with Elymus repens (L.) Gould. as diuretic  
Food: boiled shoots as side dish [30], seasoning for risotto and omelettes [21, 30], [4, 41, 44, 48]  
Dye: boiling water used to dye fishing nets green  
Aerial part Dom: dry plants used in floral decorations [36]  
Avena sativa L. Poaceae Venella (g) Seeds Med: infusion and wraps to heal rheumatic pain [37]  
Aerial part Vet: dry plants to feed rabbits, horses, cattle [36]  
Ears Recr: ears pulled by girls and boys, and counted to forecast number of children or husbands [37]  
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Brassicaceae Crescione (g) Leaves Food: raw leaves in salads In soups [30, 44]
Bellis perennis L. Asteraceae Pasquetta (o), margherita (g) Leaves Med: raw leaves eaten as depurative [4]; wrap of raw leaves to treat sores [37]  
Food: raw leaves in salads [4, 39, 42]; in soups [39, 41]  
Flowers Sup/rel: infiorata [4]  
     Recr: flowers used to make necklaces and for ‘m’ama non m’ama’ game [37]  
Borago officinalis L. Boraginaceae Boraggine, borragine (c, o, g), borragia (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion to heal cough [25, 31] as depurative [25]; leaf wraps to heal sores and reddened skin* *Emollient in [30]
Food: leaves raw in salads [27], boiled as side dish [41, 44], seasoning for pasta and risotto [4, 44], filling for fresh pasta or pies [4, 21, 42], soups [4, 21, 27, 41, 45], omelettes [27, 41, 42], fried [4, 21, 44], fried with mozzarella and anchovy rolls  
Cosm: leaves in bath water to clean skin Emollient properties in [30, 43]
Flowers Food: flower used to flavour vinegars*; in fresh salads *Leaves used to flavour wine [25]
Dye: flowers used to dye clothes blue; colour is strongest if flowers are just harvested [37]  
Brassica oleracea L. Brassicaceae Cavolo, verza (g) Leaves Med: fresh leaves used to make wraps to heal rheumatic pain [4, 26, 31]  
Vet: fresh leaves used to make wraps to heal bruises [37]  
Calendula officinalis L. Asteraceae Calenda (o, g) Flowers Med: macerated flowers in the wine used to heal chilblains; ointment with olive oil and flowers used as emollient [26]; ointment with flowers used as cicatrizer The use is similar to the lenitive one and to heal rheumatic pains in [26, 33, 43]
     Food: flowers for seasoning risotto  
Sup/rel: flowers used in ‘infiorata’ [37]  
Calepina irregularis (Asso) Thell. Brassicaceae Erba del tacchì (o) Leaves Food: leaves boiled to make omelettes In soups [39]
Whole plant Sup/rel: brings good luck  
Flowers Mix: flowers used to decorate churches for marriages  
Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br. Convolvulaceae Campanella (o) Leaves Med: leaf decoction used as laxative [25, 27]  
    Flowers Mix: flowers used in wedding bouquets  
Campanula rapunculus L. Campanulaceae Lattughella (g) Leaves Food: raw leaves in salads [4, 21, 24, 39]  
Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae Canapa (c) Aerial part, stems Mix: to make string, cord [23]  
Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik. Brassicaceae Cimino (o) Leaves Med: leaf decoction to heal menstrual pain [25]  
Food: raw leaves in salads or boiled in vegetable mixtures as side dish [4, 39]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: brings good luck  
Carex pendula Huds. Cyperaceae Cannucciaia Stems Mix: stems used to make seats for straw chairs [36]  
Castanea sativa Mill. Fagaceae Castagna (g) Fruits Food: fruit frequently eaten, roasted, cooked under ashes, boiled with laurel leaves; flour used to make bread and cakes (‘castagnaccio’) [21]  
Celtis australis L. Cannabaceae Olmo bianco (o), spaccasassi (g) Leaves Med: leaf decoction as anti-inflammatory of oral cavity [31]  
Vet: leaves for feeding the cattle  
Fruits Food: fruit used for flavouring grappa  
Sup/rel: fruit used for making rosaries  
Recr: fruit used to make necklaces; fruit used with blowpipes [36]  
Ceratonia siliqua L. Fabaceae Carruba, carrobie (c) Seeds Food: seeds eaten as sweets or used to make sweets with onion [35, 48]  
Twigs Mix: young twigs to make ties  
Cercis siliquastrum L. Fabaceae   Flowers Food: flowers fried in sweet batter [37]  
Chelidonium majus L. Papaveraceae   Latex Med: latex used as cicatrizer [31]; latex dissolved in water for internal use to heal heartburn [25]  
Aerial part Dye: plant used to dye clothes yellow [37]  
Chenopodium album L. Amaranthaceae Spinacio selvatico (g) Leaves Food: leaves boiled and served as side dish, like spinach [39, 41]  
Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Amaranthaceae Buon enrico, spinacio selvatico (g) Leaves Med: boiled leaves put on burns as emollient Similar use in [37]
Food: boiled leaves in vegetable mixtures, for seasoning risotto, filling fresh pasta; raw leaves with pine nuts, walnuts, oil; boiled as seasoning [39, 48]  
Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Grugni (c, g), grugni selvatici, grugni campagnoli (g) Leaves Med: leaves decoction as depurative and diuretic [21, 43]; as anti-anaemic [23];  
Food: raw young leaves in salads [4, 39, 41, 42, 45], boiled in vegetable mixture as a side dish [4, 21, 39, 41, 44, 45], boiled to fill fresh pasta [21], boiled and preserved in oil [48]  
Vet: leaves for feeding rabbits to heal intestinal worms  
Roots Food: roasted roots as surrogate for coffee [37]  
Sup/rel: roots have protective value  
Whole plant Dye: to dye clothes in yellow  
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Asteraceae   Roots Med: chew raw roots against toothache [37]  
Leaves Food: leaves boiled and sautéed as side dish [39]  
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck Rutaceae   Flowers Med: flowers decoction to heal cough [37]  
Cosm: flowers decoction to treat oily skin Fruits used to heal skin disease [26]
Dom: flowers used to perfume rooms and surroundings [37]  
Fruits Dom: fruit juice used with salt and vinegar to clean pots [37]  
Clematis vitalba L. Ranunculaceae Vitalbe, vitalbene, vitarvene (c), barba dei frati, barba dei vecchi, vitalla (g) Leaves Med: leaf decoction as diuretic [37]  
Mix: dry leaves smoked as tobacco substitute [37]  
Shoots Food: boiled young shoots as side dish [39], to season risotto, to make omelettes [4, 39, 41, 44, 45], to preserve in oil  
Stems Mix: young stems used to make string [4, 37]  
Flowers Dom: flowers used in flora decorations [36]  
Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze. Lamiaceae Mentuccia (c, o, g), menta (o, g), menta selvatica (g) Leaves, flowers Med: poultice of leaves as emollient [27, 37]  
Food: leaves used to flavour meat, vegetables, omelettes, soups [4, 34, 39, 41, 44]  
Cosm: leaves chewed to heal bad breathe  
Whole plant Prov: ‘Chi vede la mentuccia e non ne sente l’odore non vede la Madonna quando muore 
Convolvulus arvensis L. Convolvulaceae Campanelle (g) Leaves Med: crushed fresh leaves applied to skin to heal pimples [37]  
Flower Food: flowers sucked as snack  
Cornus mas L. Cornaceae Grugnale (o, g) Shoots Med: shoot infusion as febrifuge [37]  
Fruits Food: fruit used to flavour grappa [23, 42]; fruit eaten raw [37, 42, 45]  
Flowers Cosm: flowers decoction to heal oily skin  
Wood Craft: wood used to build boats  
Prov: ‘Sei un grugnale 
Cornus sanguinea L. Cornaceae Sanguinella (g) Wood Craft: handles, tools [37]  
Corylus avellana L. Betulaceae   Fruits Food: fruit eaten fresh or to make cakes [37, 41, 42]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant protects against lightning  
Cota tinctoria (L.) J.Gay. Asteraceae Falsa camomilla, camomilla tinta (g) Flowers Sup/rel: flowers used in ‘infiorata  
Dye: flowers in boiled water to dye wool yellow [37]  
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Rosaceae Biancospino, porcospino, albero delle Perelle (g) Leaves, flowers Med: flowers and leaf infusion to heal heart problems, as anti-hypertensive [21, 23, 42]  
Fruits Med: dry fruit heated in little bag and used to heal rheumatic pains  
Food: fruit eaten raw, to make jams, liqueurs [37, 41, 42]  
Vet: fruit poultice used to heal ‘spallone’ in cattle (bruising caused by ‘giogo’-yoke)  
Wood Dom: wood used to light fires and heat the oven, with Olea europaea L. branches. It was said to give bread a good aroma [36]  
     Sup/rel: plant had religious value, because it flowered from the stick of Giuseppe d’Arimatea Other magic uses in [37]
Crepis vesicaria L. Asteraceae Grugno porcino (g) Basal rosette Food: leaves boiled in vegetable mixture as side dish [4, 34, 39, 41, 44]  
Crithmum maritimum L. Apiaceae Paccasassi, spaccasassi (c) Leaves, shoots Food: leaves boiled in water and vinegar and preserved in olive oil [24, 39, 48]  
Cruciata laevipes Opiz Rubiaceae Erba croce (o) Leaves Med: leaf juice drank as vermifuge* [37], leaf decoction to heal intestinal obstructions  
Roots Dye: roots used to dye wool red  
Cydonia oblonga Mill. Rosaceae   Fruits Food: fruit used to make jams [37, 41], sometimes with grape berries  
Dom: some fruits put in fruit basket to perfume the kitchen [4, 37]  
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Poaceae Gramaccia (c, g) Roots Food: raw roots eaten in salads [5]  
Aerial part Vet: plant really liked by pigs Veterinary food use for ruminants and horses [4]
Plant Prov: ‘Essere cattivo come la gramigna 
Daucus carota L. Apiaceae   Roots Med: roots crushed and poultice, used to heal burns [26, 27]  
Food: roots eaten and boiled as side dish in famine period [23, 39]  
Stems Mix: stems used to tie sheaves [36]  
Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick and Wilkin Dioscoreaceae Viticella (g) Shoots Food: shoots boiled and used to make omelettes [24, 39, 44]  
Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. Brassicaceae Rughetta (o), fiore bianco (c), carrugola selvatica, carrugola, carrucola (g) Leaves Med: raw leaves eaten as digestive  
Food: raw leaves in salads; boiled as side dish [34, 39, 41, 44]  
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. Brassicaceae   Leaves Med: raw leaves eaten as digestive  
Food: raw leaves for seasoning pizza, salads; boiled for seasoning pasta [4, 34, 39, 41, 42, 45]  
Echium vulgare L. Boraginaceae Erba viperina (g) Leaves Food: leaves of basal rosette boiled in vegetable mixtures as side dish [39, 44]  
Elymus repens (L.) Gould. Poaceae Gramaccia (c, g); gramigna, grano delle formiche (o) Roots Med: root decoction as depurative [4, 31, 43, 44]  
Seeds Food: seeds used for flavouring bread  
Ears Recr: children play with ears, detaching them one by one to see if desire comes true  
Aerial part Med: decoction to heal abdominal pain; crushed plant put on forehead to heal nose bleed  
Whole plant Prov: ‘Le donne molto feconde sono come la gramaccia’, ‘Esse taccati come la gramigna 
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetaceae Coda cavallina (c) Aerial part Med: stem decoction used as footbath to heal excessive perspiration [4]  
Shoots Food: young shoots fried or boiled to make omelettes [37, 44, 45]  
Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. Equisetaceae Coda cavallina (g) Aerial part Med: stem decoction used as footbath to heal excessive perspiration [4]; stem decoction instilled in nose to heal nosebleed [26] or inhaled against nosebleed  
Cosm: to reinforce nails, fingers were put in stem decoction [26]. Stem decoction used to purify skin [36]  
Dom: stems used to polish kitchenware [23]  
Shoots Food: young shoots fried or boiled to make omelettes [37, 44, 45]  
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Myrtaceae Ocalitto (o) Leaves Med: leaf decoction as antipyretic [37]  
Food: leaves used to flavour grappa Similar use for E. globolus Labill. [36]
Vet: leaves rubbed on animals to heal parasites Similar use for E. globolus Labill. [36]
Dom: flowers, fruit, and twigs used in floral decorations [36]  
Rep: leaves used in the house against anopheles [37]  
Euonymus europaeus L. Celastraceae   Wood Craft: wood used to make spindles [37]  
Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbiaceae Latte del diavolo (o) Latex Sup/rel: latex has protective value  
Euphorbia lathyris L. Euphorbiaceae   Whole plant Rep: species planted in orchards to kept them clear from rats [24]  
Euphorbia peplus L. Euphorbiaceae Tortumaio (c) Latex Med: fresh latex on wounds as cicatrizer To heal warts in [26]
Ficaria verna Huds. Ranunculaceae Botton d’oro (g) Leaves Med: crushed leaves to heal arthritis pain  
Ficus carica L. Moraceae Figo (o, c) Latex Med: latex used to heal warts and calluses [4, 21, 26, 37]  
Cosm: latex appears to be used to be more tanned  
Fruits Fruits are eaten raw or used to make jams [21, 41, 42, 45]  
Shoots, twigs Sup/rel: shoots put in St. John’s water [37]  
Twigs Sup/rel: twigs used to make crosses to put out of the doors during St. John’s night  
Mix: twigs used to stir milk to curdle it [37]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant has protective value  
Prov: ‘Anno ficaio, poco granaio’, ‘Non vale un fico secco 
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae Finocchio selvatico (c, o, g), finocchio cavallì (c), finocchietto (g) Roots Med: root infusion as diuretic [37]  
Seeds Med: seed infusion as galactagogue [23], digestive [25], as anti-anaemic [23], to heal colics  
Food: to flavour bread [37]  
Leaves, seeds Food: to flavour pork, suckling pig (‘porchetta’), rabbit, sea and land snails, olives, for boiling chestnut [4, 21, 23, 30, 37, 39, 42, 44, 45]  
Vet: leaves put in cattle feed to heal abdominal bloating Similar use of leaves for food use [37]
Flowers Food: to flavour baked mushrooms, olives [37]  
Fragaria vesca L. Rosaceae Fragola selvatica, fragolina di bosco (g) Fruits Food: fruit eaten as fresh fruit or in jams [37, 44]  
Fraxinus ornus L. Oleaceae Ornello Leaves Food: leaves used as substitute for tea Similar use for the fruit [37]
Fumaria officinalis L. Papaveraceae Erba de purghe (o) Leaves Med: leaves and aerial parts crushed and used as emollient [25]  
Food: some leaves in soups Similar use of the ‘fruit’ [36]
Sup/rel: burning leaves has protective value  
Galium aparine L. Rubiaceae Attaccamà (o) Leaves, stems Med: leaf and stem infusions as depurative and anti-inflammatory  
Mix: leaves and stems used as rennet for milk Similar use for Galium sp. [37]
Gentiana lutea L. Gentianaceae   Roots Food: roots notoriously used in liqueurs in the Apennine area [27, 37]  
Geranium dissectum L. Geraniaceae Sbrandello (o) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as anti-haemorrhoidal The same use for Geranium robertianum L. [37]
Dye: dye in brown  
Hedera helix L. Araliaceae   Leaves Med: leaf infusions as decongestant and to heal menstrual pain [37]  
Cosm: leaf decoctions used to stain hair [21]  
Dye: leaf decoction used to revitalise dark colour and to dye green [4, 37]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant has protective value  
Hedysarum coronarium L. Leguminosae Lupinella (o, c, g), lupina (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as galactagogue  
Vet: leaves in feeding of livestock [37]  
Flowers Sup/rel: ‘infiorata’ [23]  
Leaves, shoots, flowers Food: leaves and flowers raw in salad [37], boiled in vegetable mixtures [41], peeled stems eaten as snack [24]  
Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae Topinambur, girasole selvatico (g) Tuber Food: boiled tubers to season risotto [39, 44]  
Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub Asteraceae Speraina (c), speragne, sporagne, crispigne, grugni (g) Leaves Food: basal rosette boiled alone or in vegetable mixtures as side dish, used for filling ‘crescia’ and ‘piadina’ [21, 30, 34, 39, 44]  
Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae Luppero (g) Shoots Food: young shoots boiled and used to make omelettes [27, 39]  
Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae Scacciadiavoli, erba di S. Giovanni (g) Flowers Med: flowers in olive oil, then put in the sun, as cicatrizer, against burns [4, 21, 23, 26]  
Food: flowers for flavouring grappa [37]  
Dye: flowers used as yellow dye [37]  
Aerial part Sup/rel: in St. John’s water [37] for various ritual uses during St. John’s night (see Artemisia vulgaris)  
Hypochaeris achyrophorus L. Asteraceae Cosce di vecchia (o) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as diuretic The same use for Hypochaeris radicata L. [37]
Food: leaves boiled and used to make omelettes (‘they are sweet’) Similar use for Hypochaeris radicata [21, 34, 37]
Whole plant Vet: pigs eat the roots, leaves given to cattle as galactagogue  
Inula conyza (Griess.) DC. Asteraceae   Stems Rep: plants hung up in the granaries to keep rats away [27]  
Jasminum officinale L. Oleaceae Gelsumì (o) Flowers Med: flowers decoctions to heal cough  
Cosm: flowers in bath water to relax [36]  
Dom: flowers used to decorate house  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant has protective value  
Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae   Leaves Sup/rel: some leaves put in St. John’s water [23, 36]  
Fruits Food: fruit eaten as dry fruit, for seasoning pasta, for flavouring bread. Fruit harvested in St. John’s night to make ‘nocino’ [4, 37, 42]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant has some negative effects [4, 37]  
Prov: ‘Noce, croce’; ‘Beati chi ha ‘rcacciato noce e ulive perchè non se vanga e non se zappa 
Juniperus communis L. Cupressaceae   Fruits Food: fruit for flavouring grappa [23]  
Cosm: fruit chewed against halitosis Similar to the Juniperus oxycedrus L. use [27]
Juniperus oxycedrus L. Cupressaceae Ginepro (c) Fruits Med: fruit chewing to heal inappetence [23]; fruit juice eaten to heal stomach acid, fruit poultice on skin to heal sores  
Food: for flavouring roast meat, liqueurs [21, 37]  
Vet: crushed fruit added to water as galactagogue for cattle Used cited for Juniperus communis L. [37]
Sup/rel: fruit in the St. John’s water  
Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae Laru (o), alloro, baccarolo (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as digestive [21, 37]  
Food: leaves used to flavouring meat (‘spiedini’, ‘fegatelli’, meat sauces) and fish, in boiling water of chestnuts [21, 30, 41, 42, 44, 45]  
Cosm: leaves in bath water to relax [37]  
Sup/rel: leaves in St. John’s water [36]  
Rep: some leaves in pots where figs were kept to keep worms away; leaves on doors to keep cockroaches away Similar uses [4, 21, 37]
Twigs Recr: twig crackling in fire  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant on the house entrance protects against lightning [37]  
Lavandula sp. Lamiaceae Spigonardo (o), lavanda (c, g) spighette (c), spighetto (g) Flowers Med: flowers in water to clean wounds [23], flowers macerated in alcohol to heal louse; to encourage sleep in children, dried spikelets placed near beds  
Vet: some spikelets in feed of dairy cows to flavouring the milk  
Cosm: flowering tops macerated in water to perfume skin [26]  
Sup/rel: spikelet in St. John’s water; ‘infiorata’ [4, 37]  
Dom: dry spikelets into drawers to perfume clothes; in floral decorations [37]  
Leaves Med: fresh leaves chewed to heal gingivitis [4, 37]  
Whole plant Prov: ‘Una buona raccolta vale più di un campo di grano 
Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. Asparagaceae Cipollaccio (g) Bulbs Food: bulbs eaten raw in salads or boiled, to make omelettes [39, 41]  
Ligustrum vulgare L. Oleaceae   Twigs Mix: twigs used to make string in the grapevines [37]  
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae Lino coltivato Seeds Med: seed poultice applied to chest as decongestant, to heal cough [23]  
Food: seeds for flavouring bread  
Lunaria annua L. Brassicaceae Erba della luna, monete del papa (o), soldi, pianta dei soldi, dollari (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as diuretic  
Food: boiled leaves in vegetable mixtures  
Fruits Dom: dried plant with siliquae used to decorate house  
Mix: flowers used to make wedding bouquets  
Whole plant Sup/rel: where plant grows, there it brings richness  
Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Rosaceae Melette selvatiche (g) Fruits Food: fruits eaten raw, cooked, in jams [37, 42]  
Vet: wasted fruit were given to pigs  
Prov: ‘Dare le mele ai porci 
Malva sylvestris L. Malvaceae Malva, malbe (c), malbe (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as laxative [21, 30], relaxing, depurative [4], for intimate washing; chewing leaves to heal toothache [4, 22, 26]; wrap of boiled leaves to heal skin diseases [4, 26], sores; wrap of boiled leaves put on chest (with ‘pancotto’) to heal bronchitis [23]  
Food: raw [30, 39] or boiled [30, 39, 41, 44] leaves in salads and vegetable mixtures; boiled leaves for seasoning risotto  
Vet: leaf infusion to heal cattle diarrhoea and as digestive; raw leaves as feed to increase milk production in dairy cows [37]  
Flowers Med: flowers decoctions to heal sores [21, 26, 37]  
Food: flowers used to make refreshing drink  
Sup/rel: flowers in St. John’s water [4]  
Stems Med: stem used as laxative suppositories for children  
Food: stem raw in salads  
Whole plant Prov: ‘Bocca malva, scappa ortiga’, ‘La malva da tutti i mali salva 
Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae Capumilla (c) Flowers Infusion: flowers infusion as sedative [4, 23], digestive, depurative [4], to heal haemorrhoids [37]; flower poultice for eye inflammation [4, 21, 23], flowers poultice put on forehead against headaches [36]  
Food: flowers used for flavouring liqueurs [37]  
Cosm: flowers infusion to lightening hair [4]  
Sup/rel: flowers used in ‘infiorata  
Dye: flowers to dye wool yellow [37]  
Recr: necklaces and bracelets with flowers Similar use for Bellis perennis L. [37]
Dom: flowers to perfume drawers  
Prov: ‘Il tappeto di camomilla più è calpestato e più scintilla 
Medicago lupulina L. Fabaceae Erba nera (o) Flowers, leaves Med: leaf and flowers infusion as lenitive and emollient  
Vet: leaves and flowers as feed for livestock  
Medicago sativa L. Fabaceae Erba melica (c) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as tonic  
Vet: leaves and flowers as feed for livestock [37]  
Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae   Leaves and flowers Med: leaf infusion as sedative, depurative [37]  
Food: leaves and flowers raw in salads, for flavouring meat [30, 42]  
Cosm: leaves and flowers in water to tone skin [37]  
Rep: dry leaves in drawers to kept moths away  
Mentha x piperita L. Lamiaceae   Leaves, flowers Med: leaf infusion as depurative; leaf juice in vinegar to heal vomiting [37]; fresh leaves to heal insect bites [26, 30]  
Food: leaves raw in salads, to make sauce for meat, risotto, syrup [4, 30, 41, 42, 44, 45]  
Sup/rel: some protective uses attributed to the plant  
Misopates orontium (L.) Raf. Scrophulariaceae Borsa del pastore, sacca del pastore (c) Aerial part Food: leaves raw in salads or boiled in vegetable mixtures  
Morus alba L. Moraceae Moro (g) Leaves Vet: leaves to feed livestock in winter, to feed silkworms [37]  
Flowers Dom: flowers use in floral decorations  
Morus nigra L. Moraceae Moro (o) Roots Med: root juice against scorpion poison  
Fruits Food: raw, in jams, for flavouring grappa [4, 37, 41, 42, 45]  
Sup/rel: unripe fruit as amulet  
Leaves Med: leaves in packs to heal skin inflammations [37]  
Dye: plant used to dye wool yellow [37]  
Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill Boraginaceae Non ti scordar di me (o) Aerial part Med: leaf packs on tired eyes Similar to the use cited for M. ramosissima [37]
Vet: leaves to feed livestock  
Nigella damascena L. Ranunculaceae   Seeds Food: seeds use to flavour bread Similar use for pastries [36]
Flowers Dom: dry flowers in floral decorations  
Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae   Leaves, flowers Med: leaf and flowers infusion as sedative, galactagogue, bactericide, anti-inflammatory [27]  
Cosm: leaves in water bath as skin tonic and purifier [26]  
Sup/rel: dry leaves to make incense Funeral use [37]
Rep: plants near the windows to keep mosquitoes away [4]  
Olea europaea L. Oleaceae Ulìo (o) Leaves Med: leaf decoction as hypotensive [4, 21, 33]; packs of leaves boiled in water on chest as decongestant  
Sup/rel: some leaves on windows to protect against hailstorms Similar use in [32]
Oil Med: oil to heal burns [21, 26, 33], rheumatic pain; hot oil (heated in half eggshell on embers) to heal earache [24], hot oil for rubbing on chest against bronchitis [21, 33], hot oil to heal calluses  
Vet: oil rubbed on animals that had lost hair [37]  
Cosm: oil pack on hair  
Dom: oil used in lamps and to make detergents and soaps [37]  
Twigs Sup/rel: use of oil to heal devil’s eye [37], for protective use in the field see Arundo donax; twigs used in predictive ritual  
Wood Dom: wood use as fire starter in oven (see Crategus monogyna) [37]  
Whole plant Prov: ‘Il nonno la pianta, il babbo la raccoglie, il nipote ci si scalda 
Origanum majorana L. Lamiaceae   Leaves and flowers Med: leaf infusion to heal cough [25]; infusion in wine to heal intermittent fever  
Food: flavouring [21, 41]  
Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae Menta bastarda (o) Leaves and flowers Med: leaf decoction with internal use as digestive and antispasmodic [27, 44], external use to heal lice  
Food: flavour vegetables, pizzas [4, 23, 39, 45]  
Sup/rel: dry leaves in pocket as necklace to protect against devil’s eye  
Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Asparagaceae Lacrime della madonna (g) Whole plant Sup/rel: where plants grown there is protection of the Madonna  
Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. Betulaceae Carpino (g) Leaves Med: leaves macerated as anti-catarrhal  
Vet: leaves as feed for livestock [37]  
Wood Craft: handles, tools [4, 37]  
Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. Asteraceae   Whole plant Mix: in the garden, as decorative  
Papaver rhoeas L. Papaveraceae Rosoletta, rosolaccio (o), papola (c), papatelle, papaverella (g) Leaves Med: cooking water as depurative  
Food: basal rosette boiled in vegetable mixtures, as seasoning for polenta [4, 21, 34, 39, 41, 42]  
Vet: leaves as feed for hens to increase egg laying [31]  
Seeds Food: for flavouring bread  
Flower Med: flower infusion to enhance sleep [4, 21], in enema to heal haemorrhoids  
Cosm: petals used for make-up [26]  
Sup/rel: flowers used in ‘infiorata’ [4]  
Recr: children played guess the colour of the still closed flower: white, pink or red, saying ‘frate, monaca o cappuccino?’ (monk, nun, or Capuchin?) [4]; flowers used to make ‘ballerine’ (dancers) by folding down petals and tieing them with blade of grass; calyx used to make stamps for the skin  
Whole plant Prov: ‘Il rosso del campo è la vergogna del contadino 
Parietaria officinalis L. Urticaceae Erba murale, erba vetriola (c), erba vitriola (g) Leaves, aerial part Med: crushed leaves to heal bruises [23, 26], leaf infusion as diuretic [4], fresh leaves to heal bites, burns, furuncles [4, 21, 26, 36]  
Food: leaves boiled in vegetable mixtures, as seasoning for pasta, in soups (also with Urtica dioica L. leaves) [34, 37, 44]  
Dom: plant used to clean flasks/bottles [4]  
Passiflora caerulea L. Passifloraceae   Fruits Food: food eaten as fresh fruit  
Flowers Dom: flowers used in floral decorations  
Pastinaca sativa L. subsp. urens (Req. ex Godr.) Celak. Apiaceae Erba sellerina (g) Whole plant Rep: plants left to grow near orchards to keep thieves away  
Pelargonium sp. Geraniaceae   Whole plant Rep: used to put some plants on the window sill to keep mosquitoes away  
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Apiaceae Erbetta (o, g) Leaves Med: crushed leaves to heal insect bites [4, 31]; leaf infusion or eat large amount of leaves to abort [37, 43]; leaf infusion on the skin to heal sunburn  
Cosm: leaf infusions for lightening skin spots  
Seeds Med: seed infusions as diuretic [37]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant has negative effects and predictive uses  
Prov: ‘Stare in mezzo come il prezzemolo 
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Fabaceae   Seed Med: seed decoctions as diuretic, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive [27]  
Sup/rel: dried beans as good-luck amulet  
Picris hieracioides Sibth. and Sm. Asteraceae   Leaves Med: cooking water as diuretic  
Food: leaves boiled in vegetable mixtures as side dish [4, 21, 30, 34, 39]  
Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae   Seeds Med: seed infusion as galactagogue [36]; antispasmodic [37]  
Food: seeds commonly used in Marche region to make liquors [23]  
Pinus pinea L. Pinaceae   Young cones, buds Med: buds infusion to heal respiratory affections [21, 37]  
Seed Food: seeds for seasoning pasta, to make cakes  
Bark Dye: bark used by fishermen to dye their fishing nets red [24, 36]  
Pitch Cosm: pitch used to make sort of hair spray  
Mix: resin used to make turpentine  
Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae Lingua di cane (o, c), orecchie di pecora (o), recchie d’asino, recchiole (c), orecchie di pe’, centonervi (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as anti-diarrhoeal; leaf packs to heal insects bites [4, 21, 33] and sprains [4, 31], as haemostatic  
Food: raw leaves in salads, boiled leaves in vegetable mixtures, in soups [39, 48]  
Vet: leaves as feed for hens and rabbits [4, 21]  
Dye: leaves to dye clothes green  
Ears, stems Recr: kids competed for those who throw the ear farthest away: stems used to make cricket cages [4]  
Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae   Leaves Food: boiled leaves in vegetable mixtures [39, 48]  
Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonaceae Erba dei centonodi (c) Stems Mix: stems used to make ties  
Populus alba L. Salicaceae   Twigs Vet: young dried twigs given to rabbits and sheep in winter  
Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Sportellacchia, porcellana (c), erba grassa, procacchia, procaccia (g) Leaves Med: fresh leaves chewed to heal gingival inflammation; crushed leaves to heal pimples [30, 43]  
Food: raw leaves in salads, soups; boiled leaves pickled in vinegar [4, 34, 36, 39, 42, 44, 48]  
Primula vulgaris Huds. Primulaceae   Leaves, flowers Food: raw leaves and flowers in salads [39]  
Prunus avium (L.) L. Rosaceae Cerase Selvatiche, cerase (g) Fruits, peduncles Med: peduncles infusion as depurative and laxative [37]  
Food: fruit eaten as fresh fruit  
Leaves Cosm: leaf infusion to rehydrate skin  
Rep: some to keep fleas away from hen-house [29]  
Wood Dom: wood used as light starter  
Whole plant Sup/rel: predictive value attributed to plant  
Prunus cerasus L. Rosaceae Visciola (g) Fruits Food: fruit put under sugar and commonly used to make ‘vino di visciola’ (sour cherry wine) [37]  
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb Rosaceae   Leaves Med: leaves and epicarp decoction to heal cough [26, 36, 37]  
Sup/rel: predictive value attributed to plant  
Prunus spinosa L. Rosaceae Prugnolo, brugnolo (c, g), scancio (g) Fruits Med: cooked fruit as anti-diarrhoeal [30]  
Food: raw fruit eaten as snack (only after first frost period); to make jams, liqueurs  
Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae Mentastro (o) Aerial part Med: plant infusion as anti-diarrhoeal [37]  
Rep: plants burned in the hen-house to kill parasites [37]  
Punica granatum L. Lythraceae   Fruits Med: fruit were eaten raw to heal diarrhoea or heated with honey to heal cough [37]  
Food: fruit eaten raw [41, 42]  
Sup/rel: fruit were used in a propitiatory ritual  
Quercus ilex L. Fagaceae Elce (o) Acorns, bark Med: decoction as anti-diarrhoeal and anti-inflammatory [37]  
Acorns Food: roasted acorns as a surrogate for coffee, milled acorns to make bread [5, 37]  
Vet: acorns to feed pigs [37]  
Quercus pubescens Willd. Fagaceae Quercia, cerqua (g) Leaves Med: leaves smoked against malaria  
Mix: dried leaves of Quercus pubescens as tobacco substitutes [37]  
Acorns Vet: acorns to feed pigs: to prepare mash (‘berò’) with barley, corns, and water; rabbits: as medicinal feed for rabbits with diarrhoea [23, 37]  
Galls Recr: galls used as marbles  
Whole plant Prov: ‘La cerqua ha fatto sempre la ghianda’, ‘Se u primu de maggio me gela i pia, poca ghianda magna u porcu mia 
Quercus robur L. Fagaceae Quercia, midullo (g) Acorns Vet: acorns to feed pigs [37]  
Recr: half cut acorns used as dolls ‘eyes  
Galls Recr: galls were used as marbles  
Wood Craft: wood used to make various tools and furniture, to make kneading tables, manger (‘greppia’) for livestock Similar uses referred to Quercus sp., [37]
Ranunculus bulbosus L. Ranunculaceae Bottoncino d’oro (g) Leaves Med: fresh leaves to heal cold sores Similar use for Ranunculus velutinus Ten. [26, 37]
Ranunculus velutinus Ten. Ranunculaceae   Leaves Med: crushed leaved in packs to heal sciatica Similar use for Ranunculus bulbosus L. [37]
Food: leaves boiled in vegetable mixtures Similar use for Ranunculus bulbosus L. [37]
Raphanus raphanistrum L. Brassicaceae Senapi (c) Leaves Food: leaves boiled in vegetable mixtures [4, 21, 39, 41, 44]  
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth Asteraceae Caccialepre (c, g), scaccialepre, caccialè (g) Leaves Med: leaves eaten or in infusion as depurative [21, 37]; refreshing [37], diuretic, analgesic, anti-scorbutic; fresh crushed leaves to heal toothache and headache [43]  
Food: leaves raw in salads, boiled in vegetable mixtures [4, 21, 30, 34, 37, 39, 41, 44]  
Robinia pseudoacacia L. Fabaceae Scarpette della madonna (o), cascia (g) Flowers Med: flowers decoction sedative [30]  
Food: flowers fried in sweet batters; for flavouring grappa [4, 30, 42, 45]  
Sup/rel: flowers used in St. John’s water; in ‘infiorata’ [4, 37]  
Mix: flowers used in floral decorations in churches  
Leaves Vet: some leaves for feeding rabbits (‘for other animals they are poisonous’) Leaves in fodder [37]
Seeds Sup/rel: dried seeds used to make rosaries  
Roots Mix: roots used to make ties  
Wood Dom: wood used as firewood [37]  
Rosa canina L. Rosaceae Rosa selvatica (c, o, g), rosa di macchia (o) Fruits (pseudo-fruits), without internal hair Med: fruit infusion as febrifuge  
Food: fruit used to make jams (sometimes with apples) [4, 44]  
Vet: fruit for feeding hens  
Cosm: crushed fruit as beauty mask  
Recr: fruit to make necklaces [37]  
Leaves Med: fresh leaf infusion to heal wounds, as cicatrizer  
Flowers Med: petals macerated in vinegar to heal insect bites; petal infusion as laxative, diuretic [37]  
Food: petals used to make liquors [37]  
Sup/rel: flowers used in St. John’s water; ‘infiorata’ [4]  
Cosm: petals in infusion for a month in water to make water rose [26]  
Dom: perfume for the house  
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae   Leaves, flowers Med: leaf infusion with wine and honey as tonic [4, 25, 30]; leaf decoction as digestive [21, 42]; leaf and flowers pack as cicatrizer; plant was smelled as tonic  
Food: leaves and flowers for flavouring, for filling ravioli [30, 41, 42, 44, 45]  
Vet: some leaves for feeding dairy cattle to flavour their milk  
Cosm: leaf decoction to shine hair; in bath water and in ointments as skin tonic [26]  
Sup/rel: plant has predictive value; for protective use on St. John’s night, see Artemisia vulgaris  
Rubus ulmifolius Schott Rosaceae Spino, more (g) Leaves Med: leaves decoction to heal oral cavity inflammations [4, 25]  
Fruits Food: fruit eaten raw, for making jams (sometimes with strawberries), for flavouring grappa [4, 41, 44]  
Whole plants Prov: ‘Il rovo dice < Nella terra meglio io covo>’ [4]  
Rumex obtusifolius L. Polygonaceae Rombice (o, g) Roots Med: root decoction as tonic  
Leaves Med: leaf pack to heal burns [21]  
Food: boiled leaves in vegetable mixtures [39]  
Rumex pulcher L. Polygonaceae   Roots, leaves Med: roots and leaf decoction as anti-diarrhoeal Similar use for Rumex crispus L. [37]
Leaves Vet: for feeding livestock [21]  
Ruscus aculeatus L. Asparagaceae Piccasorci (g) Shoots Food: boiled young shoots to make omelettes [4, 24, 41, 44, 45]  
Ruta graveolens L. Rutaceae   Leaves Med: plant sniffed as vermifuge [4, 23]; a leaf a day eaten to strengthening eyesight [37]; raw leaves eaten to heal stomach ache; pack with leaf decoction to heal tired eyes [4]  
Food: some raw leaves in salads [23], for flavouring meat, fish, liqueurs  
Vet: plant can cause intestinal problems for cattle  
Sup/rel: leaf in the pocket has protective use; for protective use on St. John’s night, see Artemisia vulgaris  
Rep: some plants planted near orchard to keep parasites and rats away [21, 23]  
Prov: ‘La ruta fa venir la vista acuta 
Salix alba L. Salicaceae Moia (g) Twigs Mix: twigs used to make ties and baskets [23]  
Salix viminalis L. Salicaceae Vimini, vengo (c), vimine, vincio (g) Twigs Mix: twigs used to make ties [37]  
Salsola soda L. Amaranthaceae Roscani (o) Leaves Med: raw leaves or in decoction as depurative and refreshing  
Food: boiled leaves as side dish  
Salvia officinalis L. Lamiaceae   Leaves Med: leaf infusion is used as stomachic [27, 36], digestive [21], hypotensive [21], to heal diarrhoea  
Food: raw leaves flavouring meat, fried [4, 21, 37, 41]  
Vet: leaves as feed for dairy cattle for flavouring their milk  
Sup/rel: plant related to some magic rituals  
Cosm: fresh leaf rubbed on teeth as whitening, for refreshing breath [4, 26, 37]  
Dom: dried leaves to perfume linen  
Prov: ‘La salvia salva 
Salvia verbenaca L. Lamiaceae Salvia selvatica (o, g), betonica, bettonica, brettonica, vettonica (c) Leaves Med: crushed fresh leaves to heal wounds [21, 31], as cicatrizer [27], dried leaves smoked to heal headache; leaf infusion with honey and lemon as digestive  
Cosm: fresh leaves rubbed on teeth as whitening Similar use for Salvia officinalis L. [37, 26, 4,]; as toothpaste [37]
Dye: leaves used as yellow dye  
Whole plant Sup/rel: plant used as protective against devils eye [37]  
Prov: ‘Sa più cose della Bettonica 
Sambucus nigra L. Adoxaceae Albero delle streghe (o) Flowers Med: flowers infusion to heal cough [21, 27, 33, 37]  
Food: flowers fried in sweet batter [4, 30]  
Dom: for ripening apples, they were alternated with elder flowers [37]  
Leaves Med: boiled leaves to heal abscesses [4, 21, 31]  
Rep: leaf decoction to keep ants away [36]  
Shoots Cosm: shoots put in olive oil and exposed to sun to make cream for chapped hands Similar use with medulla [25]
Fruits Vet: crushed fruit infusion used to improve colour of cow tails  
Dye: fruit used to dye clothes blue and violet, in boiling water [37]  
Mix: crushed fruit boiled in vinegar to make ink [37]  
Wood Craft: to make handles, tools [37]  
Recr: empty wood used to make blowguns [4]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: thought that plant had seven virtues, so it had to be respected by bowing seven times in front of it [37]  
Prov: ‘Spogliati quando il sambuco si veste’ [4]  
Sanguisorba minor Scop. Rosaceae   Leaves Med: leaf infusion as anti-diarrhoeal* [25, 37], to heal wounds and burns  
Food: raw leaves in salads [4, 30, 34, 39, 42]  
Vet: leaves as galactagogue feed for livestock [37]  
Prov: ‘L’insalata non è bella se non c’è la pimpinella’ [4]  
Saponaria officinalis L. Caryophyllaceae   Aerial part Cosm: leaf decoction to wash hair [37]  
Satureja montana L. Lamiaceae   Leaves Med: leaf infusion to heal oral cavity inflammation [21, 37]  
Food: for flavouring meat, omelettes [21, 37], vinegar  
Scabiosa columbaria L. Caprifoliaceae Erba di campo (g) Leaves Food: boiled basal rosette as individual side dish [39]  
Silene latifolia subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter and Burdet Caryophyllaceae Boccon di pecora (o) Leaves Food: boiled leaves (with corn cake) [37, 39]  
Vet: some leaves in livestock feed  
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Caryophyllaceae Consigli, colcigli (g) Leaves Food: boiled leaves as individual side dish for risotto, omelettes [24]  
Flowers Recr: children played to make flower burst to produce biggest noise [37]  
Sinapis alba L. Brassicaceae Rapetta (o, g), rapacciola (g) Seed Med: poultice of seeds as anti-rheumatic  
Food: to flavour apricots in vinegar  
Prov: ‘Far venire al senape al naso 
Leaves Food: raw leaves in salads [39, 41, 44, 48]  
Vet: some leaves in livestock feed [37]  
Solanum tuberosum L. Solanaceae   Tuber Med: some slices as emollient to heal burns [23]  
Sonchus arvensis L. Asteraceae Grespigno (c) Leaves Food: basal rosette raw in salads or boiled in vegetable mixtures [37, 39, 42]  
Vet: leaves as galactagogue for rabbits  
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Asteraceae Grespigna, grispigna (o), crispigne, grispigne, grespigne (g) Leaves Med: leaves as galactagogue [37]  
Food: boiled leaves in vegetable mixtures, soups, for filling ravioli [34, 39, 41, 42, 44]  
Roots Food: roasted roots used as substitute for coffee  
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. Asteraceae   Leaves Med: leaf cooking water as diuretic [27]; leaf decoctions to heal kidney stones [25]  
Food: boiled leaves in vegetable mixtures [4, 34, 39, 41, 44]  
Sorbus domestica L. Rosaceae Sorbo, sorba (g) Fruits Med: fruit decoctions as blood depurative  
Food: raw fruits, for jams [37, 41, 42, 45]  
Spartium junceum L. Fabaceae   Flowers Sup/rel: flowers in St. John’s water; in ‘infiorata’ [4, 23]  
Vet: crushed flowers against parasites in livestock Similar medicinal use [26]
Stems Mix: stem used to make ties and fibres [37]  
Whole plant Sup/rel: magical qualities were attributed to the plant because it resists fires  
Stachys annua (L.) L. Lamiaceae Erba ella madonna (c) Leaves Med: leaves infusion used to wash face to heal headache Similar use for Stachys sp. [26]; Stachis recta [21]
Whole plants Sup/rel: plant used to protect against envy and bad luck [24]  
Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan Lamiaceae   Aerial part Dye: plant used to dye wool yellow  
Tanacetum balsamita L. Asteraceae Caciarola (g) Leaves Food: leaves used for flavouring omelettes [39]  
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. Asteraceae Matrecara, erba amara (c) Leaves Med: raw leaves to heal headache [38]; leaf infusion digestive [37]  
Food: leaves to make sweet pancakes [37]  
Flowers Med: eat flowers or flower decoction as vermifuge [37]  
Food: flowers used for flavouring vinegar  
Whole plants Rep: plants left grow up near granaries to keep rats away Similar use [37]
Taraxacum campylodes G. E. Haglund Asteraceae Soffione (o, c, g), pisciacane (o, c, g), dente di leone (c), cicoriella (g) Roots Med: roots decoction as depurative [37], diuretic, and laxative  
Food: roasted roots as coffee substitute [37]  
Leaves Food: basal rosettes raw in salads, boiled in vegetable mixtures as side dishes [4, 34, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44]  
Vet: leaves as feeding for livestock [37], in particular for healing meteorism  
Flowers Recr: children express wish and blow the achens [37]  
Thymus vulgaris L. Lamiaceae   Leaves Med: leaf ointment as decongestant and expectorant [21]  
Rep: dried leaves as repellent for moths in drawers  
Tilia cordata Mill. Malvaceae Tijo (o) Flowers, bracts Med: flowers and bracts infusion to heal cough [23]; in bath water as sedative for babies [37]; in pack for tired eyes  
Tragopogon pratensis L. Asteraceae   Leaves Food: young leaves boiled as individual side dishes or to make omelettes [24]  
Trifolium pratense L. Fabaceae Pane del latte (o) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as expectorant [27, 37]  
Vet: feed for livestock [37]  
Flowers Food: fried flowers in salt batter Different food uses of flowers [35, 42]
Aerial part Recr: depending on where leaves are oriented, guess where the storm is coming from  
Trifolium repens L. Fabaceae   Leaves, flowers Med: leaf infusion as anti-rheumatic [37] Guarrera 2006
Food: leaves and flowers sautéed with onion and potatoes as side dish; flowers for flavouring bread Different food use in [35]
Vet: feed for livestock Similar use for T. pratense [37]
Triticum turgidum L. Poaceae   Seeds Med: boiled or hot wheat on skin as anti-rheumatic [37]  
Ears Sup/rel: four ears as cross on St. John’s water; take some ears into the house as good luck talisman; stems and ears used in ‘festa del Covo’  
Ulmus minor Mill. Ulmaceae Olmo, olmo viscio (g) Leaves Vet: leaves as winter feed for livestock (‘la fronda’) [24]  
Branches, wood Sup/rel: branches used for ‘forche di S. Giovanni’ (St. John’s forks) during St. John’s day  
Craft: wood used to make many tools, like the stick to turn polenta [37]  
Mix: young branches used to make ties [37]  
Urospermum dalechampii (L.) Scop. ex F.W.Schmidt Asteraceae Grugno amaro, grugno (g) Leaves Food: basal rosette boiled in vegetable mixtures [4, 21, 34, 39, 41], sautéed, for filling ‘crescia’ and ‘piadina 
Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae Urtiga (o), ortiga, erba cattiva (c), urtica (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as depurative [27, 37]; boiled leaves in pack to heal wounds [31]; crushed leaves in the nose to stop nose bleed [37]  
Food: boiled leaves as individual side dishes or in vegetable mixtures, for seasoning risotto, gnocchi, for filling ravioli, to make omelettes [4, 21, 30, 34, 41, 42, 44, 45]; to make tea with peppermint  
Vet: leaves for feeding hens, turkeys and geese [23, 33]; to increase egg laying;to heal digestion problem in cattle  
Cosm: leaf infusions to heal dandruff, to prevent hair loss, to wash oily hair [26]  
Sup/rel: leaves used in good luck practice  
Dye: plant cooking water used to dye fishnets green [37]  
Rep: leaf decoction to keep parasites away from orchard [21, 37]  
whole plant Prov: “Essere come l’erba cattiva 
Valeriana officinalis L. Caprifoliaceae   Leaves Food: raw leaves in salads  
Roots Med: root macerate as sedative [37]  
Plant Sup/rel: plant is used to protect against devil’s eye  
Verbena officinalis L. Verbenaceae Pianta per l’ematoma (c) Leaves Med: crushed fresh leaves on bruises [25]  
Veronica persica Poir. Plantaginaceae   Leaves Food: some raw leaves in salads  
Leaves, flowers Cosm: infusion as refreshing for the face  
Whole plants Sup/rel: had to say an Ave Maria if plant was trampled; plant use as amulet during trips  
Vicia faba L. Fabaceae   Pod Med: pods used to heal warts with a particular ritual: warts marked with a bean without a pronounced embryo, saying ‘Secchete fava, secchete porro’ (dry up beans, dry up wart!), after 40 days bean was thrown into well Magic ritual to heal wounds in [37]
Vet: milled beans as feed for turkeys  
Sup/rel: pod has predictive value [37]  
Vicia sativa L. Fabaceae Vicia (o) Leaves Med: leaf pack on bruises [37]  
Vet: for feeding livestock [37]  
Seeds Food: milled pods to make bread [36]  
Viola alba Besser Violaceae Violetta (g) Leaves Med: leaf infusion as anti-cough [23, 43]  
Food: raw leaves in salads [37]  
Flowers Food: to make jam (with apples) [48]  
Viscum album L. Santalaceae   Whole plants Sup/rel: plant with fruit is considered lucky charm during Christmas period  
Vitis vinifera L. Vitaceae   Leaves Med: leaf decoction to heal chilblains [27, 37], to heal diarrhoea; leaf pack as eye decongestant [36]  
Mix: dried leaves as tobacco substitute [37]  
Fruits Med: fruit eaten as depurative  
Wood Wood: wood used in protective ritual  
Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet Fabaceae   Flowers Sup/rel: flowers used in ‘infiorata’ [37]  
Zea mays L. Poaceae Granturco Leaves Dom: dried leaves to fill mattresses [4, 23]  
Corncob Recr: corncobs used for making dolls [37]  
Corns Vet: corns as feeding for hens [37]  
Culm Dom: dried culms to light the fire [37]  
  1. The table lists all of the ethnobotanical uses found for the three survey areas of the Ancona district. The information given includes name of the species, botanical family, local names, parts used, and types of use. The ‘references for similar use’ column reports similar use or the same use for a different part of the plant. The new uses are marked in bold, while the new food uses for the Marche region are in bold italic. In the column ‘local name’, o indicates the local name in the Osimo area, c in the Conero area, and g in the Gola della Rossa–Frasassi area
  2. Med, medicinal uses; Food, food uses; Vet, veterinary uses; Cosm, cosmetic uses; Sup/rel, superstitious/religious uses; Dye, dyeing uses; Craft, craft uses; Recr, recreational uses; Dom, domestic uses; Prov, local sayings and proverbs; Rep, repellent uses; Mix, miscellaneous uses