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Table 1 Home country food plant and herbal ingredients used by Albanian migrants in Piedmont

From: Keeping or changing? Two different cultural adaptation strategies in the domestic use of home country food plant and herbal ingredients among Albanian and Moroccan migrants in Northwestern Italy

Botanical name of the plant ingredient and its botanical family Common English name Recorded Albanian name Locally acquired (L) (cultivated, purchased or gathered from the wild [G]) or informally imported from Albania (I) Part(s) used Recorded food (F), medicinal (M), and food-medicinal (F/M) uses Frequency of quotation
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Malvaceae Okra Bamja L Fr F: vegetable ++
Allium cepa L., Amaryllidaceae Onion Qepa L Bu M: crushed and topically applied with garlic and vinegar for treating knee pain +
Allium sativum L., Amaryllidaceae Garlic Hudhra L and I Bu F: preserved in oil; seasoning home-made lacto-fermented (salt brined) pickles (turshi)
M: hang under the stroller as an anti-Evil Eye agent
Allium ampeloprasum L., Amaryllidaceae Leek Preshi, Purri L St M: topical applications for treating ear-aches +
Beta vulgaris L., Amaranthaceae Beetroot and chard Panxhari L Le F: preserved in oil (beet root) and filling for salty pies (byrek) (chard) +
Brassica oleracea L., Brassicaceae Cabbage Lakra L Le F: sarma (leaves rolled around filling of rice and meat) +
Capsicum annuum L., Solanaceae Chili and bell pepper Djegës, Speci L and I Fr F: fermented in sour ricotta (gjizë) or preserved in oil (chili) +
Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae Wild cichory Rrapiqe L (G) Le F: filling for salty pies (byrek) +
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae Water melon Shalqi L and I (seeds) Fr F: consumed raw +
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae Lemon Limon L and I Fr M: against flu and as an antiseptic +
Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae Melon Bostan, Piepen L and I (seeds) Fr F: consumed raw +
Cucurbita pepo L., Cucurbitaceae Squash Kungull L Fr F: filling for pies (byrek) +
Cydonia oblonga Mill., Rosaceae Quince tree Ftoj L Wp M: used for weather forecasting - if it blossoms in May, the following winter will be very cold +
Ficus carica L., Moraceae Fig Fik L and I Fr F: jam +
Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae Fennel Koper L and I Fr F: seasoning cabbage sarma
M: digestive and anti-bacterial teas
Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae Walnut Arra L and I Se F: kadaif and ashure sweets +
Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae Laurel Dafën L and I Le M: digestive and expectorant teas;
when burnt in a baby’s room, the smoke protects the child against the Evil Eye
Malva sylvestris L., Malvaceae Mallow Mullaga L (G) and I Le M: topically applied to wounds for healing them; drunk as a tea against asthma; as an anti-Evil Eye agent +
Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae Chamomille Kamomill L and I Ap M: tea against flu and for calming +++
Mentha spp., Lamiaceae Mint Mender, Nenexhik L and I Le M: tea for treating flu ++
Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae Basil Borzilok L Le M: as an anti-Evil Eye agent +
Orchis spp., Orchidaceae Wild orchid Salep I Ro F/M: powdered and boiled in milk; in winter often drunk with a piece of bread +
Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae Oregano Rigon, Çaj mali I Ap M: tea used recreationally, for treating inflammations, depurative, as a panacea +++
Papaver rhoeas L., Papaveraceae Corn poppy Lulëkuqe I Fl M: tea as a calming agent and a hemostatic +
Pelargonium spp., Geraniaceae Geranium Lulëbarbarosa L and I Le F/M: syrup, also used as an astringent +
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss, Apiaceae Parsley Majdanoz L Le F: seasoning home-made pickles (turshi) ++
Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae Green beens Bishtaja L and I (seeds) Fr F: vegetable +
Prunus avium (L.) L., Rosaceae Cherry Qershia I Fr F: home-made alcoholic macerate +
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb, Rosaceae Almond Bajame L and I Se F: kabuni sweet +
Punica granatum L., Lythraceae Pomegranate Shegë L and I Fr F: pulp processed in juice;
M: fruit epicarp decocted and used externally for treating skin problems
Rosa canina L., Rosaceae Rose hip Dranofile i egër I Fr F: jam +
Rubus ulmifolius Schott, Rosaceae Blueberry Ferra L (G) Fr M: tea as a depurative +
Rumex spp., Polygonaceae Sorrell Lepjet L (G) Le F: filling for salty pies (byrek) +
Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae Sage Sherbela L and I Le F: seasoning;
M: digestive tea
Silene vulgaris (Mill.) Garke, Caryophyllaceae Bladder campion Vesh lepri G Le F: filling for salty pies (byrek) +
Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae Tomato Domate L Uf F: pickled +
Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae Potato Patate L Tu F/M: soup for treating flu +
Solanum melongena L., Solanaceae Aubergine Patëllxhan L Fr F: pickled, roasted ++
Spinacia oleracea L., Amaranthaceae Spinach Spinaq L Le F: filling for salty pies (byrek) +
Syderitis spp., Lamiaceae Mountain tea Çaj mali I Ap M: tea used recreationally, for treating inflammations, depurative, as a panacea +++
Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Fabaceae Fenugreek Trëndelinë L and I Se F: seasoning;
M: as a lucky charm
Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae Nettle Hithër L (G) Le F: filling for pies (byrek);
M: teas drunk for treating rheumatisms or externally applied as a means for strengthening hair
Vitis labrusca L., Vitaceae Fox grape Rrush çelek I Fr F: consumed raw +
Ziziphus jujuba Mill., Rhamnaceae Giuggiolo Kymçe I Fr F: consumed raw/fermented +
  1. Ap aerial parts, Bu bulbs, Fl flowers, Fr fruits, Le leaves, Ro roots, Se seeds, St stems, Tu tubers, Uf unripe fruits, Wp whole plant
  2. +, mentioned by less than 10% of the study participants; ++, mentioned by 10–39% of the study participants; +++, mentioned by at least 40% of the study participants