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Table 1 Plants used or mentioned explicitly as medicinal in the Bible

From: Medicinal plants of the Bible—revisited

Species /English nameHebrew name /transcription /level of identification reliabilitySource of evidenceBotanical status/ Origin/Additional uses:
Commiphora
giledadensis
(L.) C. Chr/
(or C. kataf
(Forssk.) Engl. /
(also C.
opobalsamum
(L.) Engl.)
Balm of
Gilead, Balm of Mecca
צרי
Tsori
C
נטף
Nataf
B
E: [68:85 (C.
myrrah); [69
passim (myrrh),
[64:77, 70:63].
B: Jeremiah 8:22,
46:11, 51:8
M: [71:193,
72:89,90, 73:5].
D / Im/ EAf
[73a].
Cultivated in
the Holy Land
at Biblical
times [74].
In (Exodus 30:31) /
O / P
Ficus carica
L.* / Fig
תאנה
Te’enah
A
E: [64:78, 65:
102-103, 75:28].
B: II Kings 20:7,
Isaiah 38:2.
BT: Menachot
64a.
M: [44:430,437].
D / InE
Mandragora
officinarum
Mill * /
Mandrake
דודאים
Duda'eem
A
B: Genesis 30: 14-
17.
E: [65:118]
(possible).
M: [71:191,
identification not ascertained
InM / A
Nardostachys
jatamansi DC. /
Spikenard
נרד
Nerd
A
NT: Mark 14:3;
John 12:3.
EA [76] / ImO /P
Origanum
syriacum L.
(=Majorana
syriaca (L.)
Feinbrun) /
Syrian
Marjoram /
Bible Hyssop
אזוב
Ezov
A
B: Leviticus 14:4,
Psalms 51:9.
BT: Shabbat
109b, Abodah
Zara 29a.
InR / E
  1. Botanical status: In: Indigenous; Im: Imported; D: Domesticated/cultivated. If there is no specific reference, we followed [143].
  2. Origin: A: Arabia; CEA: Central East Asia; E: Europe; EAR: East Arabia; EA: East Asia; EAf: East Africa; M: Mediterranean; EM: East Mediterranean; NE: Near East; SEA: Southeast Asia; SEE: Southeast Europe; SWA: Southwest Asia. If there is no specific reference, we followed [143].
  3. Additional uses: Ap: Apotropaic; E: Edible; F: Fibre; I: Incense; M: Magic; P: Perfume/cosmetics; O: Ointment; Oi: Oil; R: Ritual; S: Spice, condiment; Re: Resin; T: Timber; W: Wine
  4. *Included in Jacob’s [2] list (see text). The categories of the reliability levels of the Biblical plants’ identification are according to Amar [8]. See above