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Table 7 Invertebrates used by traditional healers and households in Plateau Department for magical purposes (N = 84)

From: Traditional knowledge of invertebrates used for medicine and magical–religious purposes by traditional healers and indigenous populations in the Plateau Department, Republic of Benin

RolesScientific name of invertebratesUsesSociolinguistic groupsFidelity level
Protection against bad evil spiritsAchatina achatinaMake scarification on the skin and pass the powder combined with some plants onNago4.3
Apis mellifera4.3
Callinectes amnicola4.3
Eudrilus eugeniae13.1
Musca domestica4.3
Oecophylla longinoda4.3
Tachypodoiulus niger17.4
Salticus spp.4.3
Acraea serenaReduce to powder, then mix with palm kernel oil and pass the mixture over the body4.3
Limnephilus sp.Drink the decoction mixed with some plants4.3
Macrotermes bellicosus4.3
Odontomachus troglodytes4.3
Pandinus imperatorReduce to powder and drink with cornmeal8.7
Periplaneta americana4.3
Aedes aegyptiReduce to powder and consume with cooked pumpkin seedsMahi, Nago13.1
BewitchmentAchatina achatinaMake scarification on the skin and pass the powder combined with some plants onNago11.1
Apis mellifera11.1
Tachypodoiulus niger11.1
Gryllotalpa gryllotalpaDrink the decoction mixed with some plants11.1
Eudrilus eugeniaeReduce to powder and put the powder on the feet11.1
Salticus spp.Reduce to powder and lap upHolli22.2
Oecophylla longinodaGrind and mix with soap to washMahi22.2
Attract customers or any other personMusca domesticaReduce to powder and mix with local soap to washMahi, Nago50.0
Acraea serenaNago25.0
Phaneroptera nana sparsaNago12.5
Penaeus spp.Reduce to powder and consumeNago12.5
To have good luckApis melliferaReduce to powder and mix with alcohol or honey, then consumeOuémègbé, Nago28.6
Macrotermes bellicosusNago14.3
Musca domesticaReduce to powder and put the powder on 3 scarification made in the chest and behind both hands.Nago28.6
Aedes aegyptiReduce to powder and mix with soap to wash on Monday and ThursdayOuémègbé7.1
Achatina achatinaCook and consume with some plantsNago7.1
Eudrilus eugeniaeReduce to powder and mix with soap to washTori7.1
To create problems for someoneMacrotermes bellicosusReduce to powder and mix with Indian hemp and palm oil. Use the mixture in a ritual with incantatory words 33.3
Scarabaeus nitensReduce to powder and used with incantatory wordsNago33.3
Belonogaster junceaReduce to powder and mix with soap to washNago33.3
PurificationAchatina achatinaReduce to powder with some plants and consumeTori, Nago100.0
Find a jobTachypodoiulus nigerReduce to powder with some plants and mix with soap to washNago33.3
Acraea serenaHolli33.3
Pachycondyla tarsataReduce to powder and put in a perfume. Can also be passed over the eyelids as makeupHolli33.3
Love charmEudrilus eugeniaeReduce to powder and put in a perfume.Nago50.0
Musca domestica50.0
Make a child speak who has difficulty speakingBrachytrupes membranaceusMix in palm oil and consumeNago50.0
Belonogaster juncea50.0
Protection against accidentsPandinus imperatorMix with some plants and consumeMahi100.0
Protection against thievesScarabaeus nitensReduce to powder and put on scarification on the back and chestOuémègbé100.0
Use by hunters to reach animalsApis melliferaReduce to powder and put the powder in the barrel of the rifleNago100.0