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Table 7 Invertebrates used by traditional healers and households in Plateau Department for magical purposes (N = 84)

From: Traditional knowledge of invertebrates used for medicine and magical–religious purposes by traditional healers and indigenous populations in the Plateau Department, Republic of Benin

Roles Scientific name of invertebrates Uses Sociolinguistic groups Fidelity level
Protection against bad evil spirits Achatina achatina Make scarification on the skin and pass the powder combined with some plants on Nago 4.3
Apis mellifera 4.3
Callinectes amnicola 4.3
Eudrilus eugeniae 13.1
Musca domestica 4.3
Oecophylla longinoda 4.3
Tachypodoiulus niger 17.4
Salticus spp. 4.3
Acraea serena Reduce to powder, then mix with palm kernel oil and pass the mixture over the body 4.3
Limnephilus sp. Drink the decoction mixed with some plants 4.3
Macrotermes bellicosus 4.3
Odontomachus troglodytes 4.3
Pandinus imperator Reduce to powder and drink with cornmeal 8.7
Periplaneta americana 4.3
Aedes aegypti Reduce to powder and consume with cooked pumpkin seeds Mahi, Nago 13.1
Bewitchment Achatina achatina Make scarification on the skin and pass the powder combined with some plants on Nago 11.1
Apis mellifera 11.1
Tachypodoiulus niger 11.1
Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa Drink the decoction mixed with some plants 11.1
Eudrilus eugeniae Reduce to powder and put the powder on the feet 11.1
Salticus spp. Reduce to powder and lap up Holli 22.2
Oecophylla longinoda Grind and mix with soap to wash Mahi 22.2
Attract customers or any other person Musca domestica Reduce to powder and mix with local soap to wash Mahi, Nago 50.0
Acraea serena Nago 25.0
Phaneroptera nana sparsa Nago 12.5
Penaeus spp. Reduce to powder and consume Nago 12.5
To have good luck Apis mellifera Reduce to powder and mix with alcohol or honey, then consume Ouémègbé, Nago 28.6
Macrotermes bellicosus Nago 14.3
Musca domestica Reduce to powder and put the powder on 3 scarification made in the chest and behind both hands. Nago 28.6
Aedes aegypti Reduce to powder and mix with soap to wash on Monday and Thursday Ouémègbé 7.1
Achatina achatina Cook and consume with some plants Nago 7.1
Eudrilus eugeniae Reduce to powder and mix with soap to wash Tori 7.1
To create problems for someone Macrotermes bellicosus Reduce to powder and mix with Indian hemp and palm oil. Use the mixture in a ritual with incantatory words   33.3
Scarabaeus nitens Reduce to powder and used with incantatory words Nago 33.3
Belonogaster juncea Reduce to powder and mix with soap to wash Nago 33.3
Purification Achatina achatina Reduce to powder with some plants and consume Tori, Nago 100.0
Find a job Tachypodoiulus niger Reduce to powder with some plants and mix with soap to wash Nago 33.3
Acraea serena Holli 33.3
Pachycondyla tarsata Reduce to powder and put in a perfume. Can also be passed over the eyelids as makeup Holli 33.3
Love charm Eudrilus eugeniae Reduce to powder and put in a perfume. Nago 50.0
Musca domestica 50.0
Make a child speak who has difficulty speaking Brachytrupes membranaceus Mix in palm oil and consume Nago 50.0
Belonogaster juncea 50.0
Protection against accidents Pandinus imperator Mix with some plants and consume Mahi 100.0
Protection against thieves Scarabaeus nitens Reduce to powder and put on scarification on the back and chest Ouémègbé 100.0
Use by hunters to reach animals Apis mellifera Reduce to powder and put the powder in the barrel of the rifle Nago 100.0