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Table 2 The WEPs traditionally used by the Liangshan Yi

From: An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants used by the Yi people of Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China

Scientific nameFamily nameGrowth formPart used (consumption pattern)Medicinal uses(s)Collection monthsSold as/price (¥/kg)ΣUsUVsUV rankVoucher no.
Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim.ActinidiaceaeClimberFruit (snack) 9–10N2440.6251LS0081
Sambucus adnata Wall. ex DC.AdoxaceaeHerbFruit (snack), aboveground part (medicine, other use)Bone fracture, rheumatism1–12N4221.0710LS0152
Sambucus williamsii HanceAdoxaceaeShrubLeaf, bark (medicine)Bone fracture1–12N2070.5262LS0181
Viburnum betulifolium BatalinAdoxaceaeShrubFruit (snack, spice) 9–10N2490.6349LS0125
Amaranthus blitum L.AmaranthaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 3–6N2330.5954LS0166
Celosia argentea L.AmaranthaceaeHerbSeed (famine food) 7–10N990.2599LS0093
Chenopodium hybridum L.AmaranthaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 4–6N2870.7238LS0016
Allium macrostemon BungeAmaryllidaceaeHerbWhole plant (primary food, medicine, spice)Gastropathy3–11N2280.5855LS0147
Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mazz.AmaryllidaceaeHerbLeaf (primary food) 3–10N1310.3390LS0177
Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A. BarkleyAnacardiaceaeTreeTender shoot (primary food), branch (other use) 3–5N2130.5461LS0140
Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) DielsApiaceaeHerbRoot (primary food, medicine)Tonify6–9Medicine/40 (wet)3710.9415LS0043
Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC.ApiaceaeHerbAboveground part (primary food) 3–6N2580.6545LS0038
Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) MakinoApocynaceaeClimberFruit (snack) 8–10N1300.3391LS0032
Aralia chinensis L.AraliaceaeTreeTender shoot (primary food), branch (other use) 3–5Food/102690.6841LS0375
Aristolochia versicolor S.M.HwangAristolochiaceaeClimberRoot (medicine)Headache, injury, gastroenteritis4–10Medicine/200520.13105LS0193
Polygonatum cyrtonema HuaAsparagaceaeHerbRoot (primary food, medicine)Tonify5–8Medicine/403340.8429LS0536
Begonia grandis subsp. sinensis (A.DC.) Irmsch.BegoniaceaeHerbStem (primary food) 4–10N1400.3585LS0151
Berberis jamesiana Forrest & W.W.Sm.BerberidaceaeShrubFruit (culinary coagulant, snack, spice), root (medicine)Diarrhea9–12N7611.921LS0248
Mahonia bealei (Fortune) PynaertBerberidaceaeShrubFruit (snack), bark and root (medicine)Diarrhea1–12Medicine/502040.5265LS0062
Incarvillea diffusa RoyleBignoniaceaeHerbAboveground part (medicine)Hepatitis1–12N2140.5460LS0558
Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & J.R.Drumm.BoraginaceaeHerbRoot (medicine)Hemorrhoid, enteritis3–10N1980.5068LS0013
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.BrassicaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 3–5N1550.3984LS0423
Cardamine tangutorum O.E.SchulzBrassicaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food, medicine)Hypertension3–5Food/102730.6939LS0279
Nasturtium officinale R.Br.BrassicaceaeHerbAboveground part (primary food) 4–10Food/51390.3587LS0063
Rorippa dubia (Pers.) H.HaraBrassicaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 3–6N1070.2795LS0121
Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & RoseCactaceaeShrubFlower (primary food) 7–11N980.25100LS0162
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.CactaceaeShrubStem (primary food, medicine), fruit (snack)Tonsillitis1–12N2940.7437LS0346
Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen (Oliv.) D.Y.HongCampanulaceaeHerbRoot (primary food, medicine)Tonify, gallstone4–8Medicine/503420.8627LS0223
Leycesteria formosa Wall.CaprifoliaceaeShrubTender shoot (medicine)Measles3–10N1320.3389LS0509
Arctium lappa L.CompositaeHerbRoot (primary food, medicine)Tonify, detoxify3–5Medicine/203820.9614LS0315
Artemisia capillaris Thunb.CompositaeHerbTender shoot (famine food), aboveground part (medicine, other use)Injury3–10N5691.463LS0256
Cirsium shansiense Petr.CompositaeHerbRoot (primary food, medicine)Tonify, nephrosis3–11Medicine/124521.147LS0362
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.CompositaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Diarrhea, cough, pneumonia3–10N1680.4279LS0033
Kalimeris indica (L.) Sch.Bip.CompositaeHerbTender shoot (primary food), root (medicine)Diarrhea3–10N1400.3586LS0255
Pseudognaphalium affine (D.Don) Anderb.CompositaeHerbFlower (famine food), whole plant (other use) 2–5N1900.4871LS0014
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.CompositaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 3–6N2010.5167LS0463
Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.CompositaeHerbLeaf (primary food), whole plant (medicine)Cough3–10Medicine/53340.8430LS0410
Cornus kousa subsp. chinensis (Osborn) Q.Y.XiangCornaceaeTreeFruit (snack) 9–10Snack/101960.4970LS0407
Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.CucurbitaceaeClimberFlower (medicine)Cough5–8N1140.2994LS0058
Araiostegia divaricata var. formosana (Hayata) M. KatoDavalliaceaeHerbRoot (medicine)Hypertension3–10N670.17104LS0579
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) KuhnDennstaedtiaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food), root (famine food) 3–6Food/105361.354LS0004
Dioscorea polystachya Turcz.DioscoreaceaeClimberRoot (primary food), bulbil (snack) 3–10N3290.8333LS0376
Diospyros lotus L.EbenaceaeTreeFruit (snack) 10–11N1700.4378LS0467
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.ElaeagnaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 8–9N3460.8723LS0221
Equisetum giganteum L.EquisetaceaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Cold, headache, stomachache3–10N1020.2697LS0303
Vaccinium fragile Franch.EricaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 7–10N2240.5757LS0452
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.EucommiaceaeTreeBark (primary food, medicine)Nephropathy1–12N1780.4576LS0199
Quercus schottkyana Rehder & E.H.WilsonFagaceaeTreeSeed (snack) 10–11N1560.3983LS0366
Helwingia japonica (Thunb.) F.Dietr.HelwingiaceaeShrubLeaf (primary food) 3–6N1050.2796LS0319
Iris forrestii DykesIridaceaeHerbRoot (medicine)Cough3–10N1780.4577LS0417
Mentha canadensis L.LamiaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food, medicine, spice)Hyperthermia3–10Spice/103930.9912LS0403
Perilla frutescens (L.) BrittonLamiaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food), seed (Spice) 8–10N4381.118LS0292
Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz.LardizabalaceaeClimberFruit (snack) 7–8N2360.6052LS0481
Decaisnea insignis (Griff.) Hook.f. & ThomsonLardizabalaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 10–11N1670.4280LS0200
Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.LauraceaeTreeFruit and root (spice) 7–10Spice/402050.5264LS0561
Litsea pungens Hemsl.LauraceaeTreeFruit and root (spice) 7–10Spice/403430.8725LS0535
Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & PradeepLeguminosaeClimberRoot (snack) 7–10Snack/201830.4674LS0448
Spatholobus suberectus DunnLeguminosaeClimberStem (medicine)Heart disease3–10Medicine/40890.22102LS0457
Vicia sativa L.LeguminosaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 1–12N1890.4872LS0252
Fritillaria cirrhosa D.DonLiliaceaeHerbBulb (medicine)Cough, injury7–8Medicine/ 2000(dry)2610.6644LS0471
Huperzia squarrosa (G. Forst.) Trevis.LycopodiaceaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Rheumatism, gastropathy3–10Medicine/50780.20103LS0532
Lycopodium japonicum Thunb.LycopodiaceaeHerbSpore powder (medicine)Rheumatism3–10Medicine/200950.24101LS0441
Malva verticillata L.MalvaceaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Delivery1–12N2700.6840LS0022
Paris polyphylla Sm.MelanthiaceaeHerbRoot (medicine)Muscle pain, injury3–10Medicine/6002540.6446LS0424
Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem.MeliaceaeTreeTender shoot (primary food, medicine)Diarrhea3–5N3540.8921LS0369
Ficus pumila L.MoraceaeClimberFruit (snack) 6–8N1150.2993LS0161
Ficus tikoua BureauMoraceaeShrubFruit (snack) 7–8N2950.7436LS0148
Morus australis Poir.MoraceaeTreeFruit (snack) 4–5N2530.6447LS0389
Musa basjoo Siebold & Zucc. ex IinumaMusaceaeTreeFlower (medicine), fruit(snack)Heart disease1–12N2070.5263LS0098
Myrica nana A. Chev.MyricaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 6–8Snack/101980.5069LS0225
Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod.OnocleaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 3–5Food/103450.8724LS0272
Ophioglossum vulgatum L.OphioglossaceaeHerbWhole plant (primary food, medicine)Tonify3–10Medicine/2003210.8134LS0446
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall.OrchidaceaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Cough7–10Medicine/401000.2598LS0569
Gastrodia elataOrchidaceaeHerbRhizome (primary food, medicine)Headache3–6Medicine/100 (wet), 500 (dry)4301.099LS0142
Osmunda japonica Thunb.OsmundaceaeHerbTender shoot (primary food) 3–5N3320.8432LS0367
Oxalis corniculata L.OxalidaceaeHerbAboveground part (snack, spice, other use) 1–12N4611.166LS0343
Plantago major L.PlantaginaceaeHerbAboveground part (primary food, medicine)Diarrhea, cough3–10Medicine/54161.0511LS0007
Fargesia spathacea Franch.PoaceaeShrubTender shoot (primary food) 3–5Food/143570.9017LS0087
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.PoaceaeHerbRoot (primary food, medicine)Nosebleed, cough3–10N2950.7435LS0259
Reynoutria multiflora (Thunb.) MoldenkePolygonaceaeHerbRoot (medicine), leaf (culinary coagulant)Headache1–12Medicine/402220.5658LS0549
Lemmaphyllum carnosum (J. Sm. ex Hook.) C. PreslPolypodiaceaeHerbAboveground part (medicine)Cough, injury3–10N1630.4181LS0349
Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw.PolypodiaceaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Gallstone3–10N1380.3588LS0141
Lysimachia congestiflora Hemsl.PrimulaceaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Gallstone3–10N2200.5659LS0172
Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC.RanunculaceaeHerbFruit (famine food) 9–12N2630.6643LS0328
Hovenia dulcis Thunb.RhamnaceaeTreeInfructescence shaft (snack, medicine)Tonify8–10Snack/142040.5266LS0300
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.RosaceaeHerbAboveground part (medicine)Diarrhea1–12N1790.4575LS0224
Crataegus scabrifolia (Franch.) RehderRosaceaeTreeFruit (snack, medicine)Cough8–10N3540.8920LS0179
Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) FockeRosaceaeHerbFruit (snack) 6–10N3630.9216LS0427
Fragaria nilgerrensis Schltdl. ex J.GayRosaceaeHerbFruit (snack) 5–9N3560.9018LS0124
Potentilla discolor BungeRosaceaeHerbWhole plant (medicine)Diarrhea, gastropathy3–10N2450.6250LS0385
Prunus trichostoma KoehneRosaceaeTreeFruit (snack) 7–10N2250.5756LS0180
Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H.L.LiRosaceaeShrubFruit (famine food, snack, other use) 1–12N7411.872LS0404
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.DonRosaceaeTreeFruit (snack) 9–10N3400.8628LS0483
Rosa omeiensis RolfeRosaceaeHerbFruit (snack) 5–8Snack/103850.9713LS0337
Rosa roxburghii Tratt.RosaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 8–10Snack/102360.6053LS0021
Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus (Franch.) FockeRosaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 4–5N3330.8431LS0055
Rubus inopertus (Focke) FockeRosaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 7–8N3430.8726LS0023
Rubus mesogaeus FockeRosaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 7–8N3480.8822LS0566
Rubus wallichianus Wight & Arn.RosaceaeShrubFruit (snack) 5–6N3560.9019LS0035
Houttuynia cordata Thunb.SaururaceaeHerbWhole plant (primary food, medicine), root (spice)Dyspepsia3–10Food/65001.265LS0056
Schisandra rubriflora Rehder & E.H.WilsonSchisandraceaeClimberFruit (snack, medicine)Tonify9–12N2640.6742LS0123
Smilax stans Maxim.SmilacaceaeShrubTender hoot (primary food) 4–8Food/161620.4182LS0127
Physalis alkekengi L.SolanaceaeHerbFruit (snack) 6–10N1280.3292LS0130
Vitis heyneana Roem. & Schult.VitaceaeClimberFruit (snack) 6–10N1870.4773LS0017
Hemerocallis citrina BaroniXanthorrhoeaceaeHerbFlower (primary food) 5–8N2510.6348LS0500