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Table 2 The WEPs traditionally used by the Liangshan Yi

From: An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants used by the Yi people of Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China

Scientific name Family name Growth form Part used (consumption pattern) Medicinal uses(s) Collection months Sold as/price (¥/kg) ΣUs UVs UV rank Voucher no.
Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. Actinidiaceae Climber Fruit (snack)   9–10 N 244 0.62 51 LS0081
Sambucus adnata Wall. ex DC. Adoxaceae Herb Fruit (snack), aboveground part (medicine, other use) Bone fracture, rheumatism 1–12 N 422 1.07 10 LS0152
Sambucus williamsii Hance Adoxaceae Shrub Leaf, bark (medicine) Bone fracture 1–12 N 207 0.52 62 LS0181
Viburnum betulifolium Batalin Adoxaceae Shrub Fruit (snack, spice)   9–10 N 249 0.63 49 LS0125
Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   3–6 N 233 0.59 54 LS0166
Celosia argentea L. Amaranthaceae Herb Seed (famine food)   7–10 N 99 0.25 99 LS0093
Chenopodium hybridum L. Amaranthaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   4–6 N 287 0.72 38 LS0016
Allium macrostemon Bunge Amaryllidaceae Herb Whole plant (primary food, medicine, spice) Gastropathy 3–11 N 228 0.58 55 LS0147
Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mazz. Amaryllidaceae Herb Leaf (primary food)   3–10 N 131 0.33 90 LS0177
Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A. Barkley Anacardiaceae Tree Tender shoot (primary food), branch (other use)   3–5 N 213 0.54 61 LS0140
Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Apiaceae Herb Root (primary food, medicine) Tonify 6–9 Medicine/40 (wet) 371 0.94 15 LS0043
Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC. Apiaceae Herb Aboveground part (primary food)   3–6 N 258 0.65 45 LS0038
Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino Apocynaceae Climber Fruit (snack)   8–10 N 130 0.33 91 LS0032
Aralia chinensis L. Araliaceae Tree Tender shoot (primary food), branch (other use)   3–5 Food/10 269 0.68 41 LS0375
Aristolochia versicolor S.M.Hwang Aristolochiaceae Climber Root (medicine) Headache, injury, gastroenteritis 4–10 Medicine/200 52 0.13 105 LS0193
Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua Asparagaceae Herb Root (primary food, medicine) Tonify 5–8 Medicine/40 334 0.84 29 LS0536
Begonia grandis subsp. sinensis (A.DC.) Irmsch. Begoniaceae Herb Stem (primary food)   4–10 N 140 0.35 85 LS0151
Berberis jamesiana Forrest & W.W.Sm. Berberidaceae Shrub Fruit (culinary coagulant, snack, spice), root (medicine) Diarrhea 9–12 N 761 1.92 1 LS0248
Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Pynaert Berberidaceae Shrub Fruit (snack), bark and root (medicine) Diarrhea 1–12 Medicine/50 204 0.52 65 LS0062
Incarvillea diffusa Royle Bignoniaceae Herb Aboveground part (medicine) Hepatitis 1–12 N 214 0.54 60 LS0558
Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & J.R.Drumm. Boraginaceae Herb Root (medicine) Hemorrhoid, enteritis 3–10 N 198 0.50 68 LS0013
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Brassicaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   3–5 N 155 0.39 84 LS0423
Cardamine tangutorum O.E.Schulz Brassicaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food, medicine) Hypertension 3–5 Food/10 273 0.69 39 LS0279
Nasturtium officinale R.Br. Brassicaceae Herb Aboveground part (primary food)   4–10 Food/5 139 0.35 87 LS0063
Rorippa dubia (Pers.) H.Hara Brassicaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   3–6 N 107 0.27 95 LS0121
Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose Cactaceae Shrub Flower (primary food)   7–11 N 98 0.25 100 LS0162
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cactaceae Shrub Stem (primary food, medicine), fruit (snack) Tonsillitis 1–12 N 294 0.74 37 LS0346
Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen (Oliv.) D.Y.Hong Campanulaceae Herb Root (primary food, medicine) Tonify, gallstone 4–8 Medicine/50 342 0.86 27 LS0223
Leycesteria formosa Wall. Caprifoliaceae Shrub Tender shoot (medicine) Measles 3–10 N 132 0.33 89 LS0509
Arctium lappa L. Compositae Herb Root (primary food, medicine) Tonify, detoxify 3–5 Medicine/20 382 0.96 14 LS0315
Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Compositae Herb Tender shoot (famine food), aboveground part (medicine, other use) Injury 3–10 N 569 1.46 3 LS0256
Cirsium shansiense Petr. Compositae Herb Root (primary food, medicine) Tonify, nephrosis 3–11 Medicine/12 452 1.14 7 LS0362
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Compositae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Diarrhea, cough, pneumonia 3–10 N 168 0.42 79 LS0033
Kalimeris indica (L.) Sch.Bip. Compositae Herb Tender shoot (primary food), root (medicine) Diarrhea 3–10 N 140 0.35 86 LS0255
Pseudognaphalium affine (D.Don) Anderb. Compositae Herb Flower (famine food), whole plant (other use)   2–5 N 190 0.48 71 LS0014
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. Compositae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   3–6 N 201 0.51 67 LS0463
Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. Compositae Herb Leaf (primary food), whole plant (medicine) Cough 3–10 Medicine/5 334 0.84 30 LS0410
Cornus kousa subsp. chinensis (Osborn) Q.Y.Xiang Cornaceae Tree Fruit (snack)   9–10 Snack/10 196 0.49 70 LS0407
Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. Cucurbitaceae Climber Flower (medicine) Cough 5–8 N 114 0.29 94 LS0058
Araiostegia divaricata var. formosana (Hayata) M. Kato Davalliaceae Herb Root (medicine) Hypertension 3–10 N 67 0.17 104 LS0579
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Dennstaedtiaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food), root (famine food)   3–6 Food/10 536 1.35 4 LS0004
Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Dioscoreaceae Climber Root (primary food), bulbil (snack)   3–10 N 329 0.83 33 LS0376
Diospyros lotus L. Ebenaceae Tree Fruit (snack)   10–11 N 170 0.43 78 LS0467
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Elaeagnaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   8–9 N 346 0.87 23 LS0221
Equisetum giganteum L. Equisetaceae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Cold, headache, stomachache 3–10 N 102 0.26 97 LS0303
Vaccinium fragile Franch. Ericaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   7–10 N 224 0.57 57 LS0452
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Eucommiaceae Tree Bark (primary food, medicine) Nephropathy 1–12 N 178 0.45 76 LS0199
Quercus schottkyana Rehder & E.H.Wilson Fagaceae Tree Seed (snack)   10–11 N 156 0.39 83 LS0366
Helwingia japonica (Thunb.) F.Dietr. Helwingiaceae Shrub Leaf (primary food)   3–6 N 105 0.27 96 LS0319
Iris forrestii Dykes Iridaceae Herb Root (medicine) Cough 3–10 N 178 0.45 77 LS0417
Mentha canadensis L. Lamiaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food, medicine, spice) Hyperthermia 3–10 Spice/10 393 0.99 12 LS0403
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton Lamiaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food), seed (Spice)   8–10 N 438 1.11 8 LS0292
Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. Lardizabalaceae Climber Fruit (snack)   7–8 N 236 0.60 52 LS0481
Decaisnea insignis (Griff.) Hook.f. & Thomson Lardizabalaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   10–11 N 167 0.42 80 LS0200
Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Lauraceae Tree Fruit and root (spice)   7–10 Spice/40 205 0.52 64 LS0561
Litsea pungens Hemsl. Lauraceae Tree Fruit and root (spice)   7–10 Spice/40 343 0.87 25 LS0535
Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep Leguminosae Climber Root (snack)   7–10 Snack/20 183 0.46 74 LS0448
Spatholobus suberectus Dunn Leguminosae Climber Stem (medicine) Heart disease 3–10 Medicine/40 89 0.22 102 LS0457
Vicia sativa L. Leguminosae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   1–12 N 189 0.48 72 LS0252
Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don Liliaceae Herb Bulb (medicine) Cough, injury 7–8 Medicine/ 2000(dry) 261 0.66 44 LS0471
Huperzia squarrosa (G. Forst.) Trevis. Lycopodiaceae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Rheumatism, gastropathy 3–10 Medicine/50 78 0.20 103 LS0532
Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. Lycopodiaceae Herb Spore powder (medicine) Rheumatism 3–10 Medicine/200 95 0.24 101 LS0441
Malva verticillata L. Malvaceae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Delivery 1–12 N 270 0.68 40 LS0022
Paris polyphylla Sm. Melanthiaceae Herb Root (medicine) Muscle pain, injury 3–10 Medicine/600 254 0.64 46 LS0424
Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. Meliaceae Tree Tender shoot (primary food, medicine) Diarrhea 3–5 N 354 0.89 21 LS0369
Ficus pumila L. Moraceae Climber Fruit (snack)   6–8 N 115 0.29 93 LS0161
Ficus tikoua Bureau Moraceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   7–8 N 295 0.74 36 LS0148
Morus australis Poir. Moraceae Tree Fruit (snack)   4–5 N 253 0.64 47 LS0389
Musa basjoo Siebold & Zucc. ex Iinuma Musaceae Tree Flower (medicine), fruit(snack) Heart disease 1–12 N 207 0.52 63 LS0098
Myrica nana A. Chev. Myricaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   6–8 Snack/10 198 0.50 69 LS0225
Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod. Onocleaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   3–5 Food/10 345 0.87 24 LS0272
Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Ophioglossaceae Herb Whole plant (primary food, medicine) Tonify 3–10 Medicine/200 321 0.81 34 LS0446
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall. Orchidaceae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Cough 7–10 Medicine/40 100 0.25 98 LS0569
Gastrodia elata Orchidaceae Herb Rhizome (primary food, medicine) Headache 3–6 Medicine/100 (wet), 500 (dry) 430 1.09 9 LS0142
Osmunda japonica Thunb. Osmundaceae Herb Tender shoot (primary food)   3–5 N 332 0.84 32 LS0367
Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Herb Aboveground part (snack, spice, other use)   1–12 N 461 1.16 6 LS0343
Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae Herb Aboveground part (primary food, medicine) Diarrhea, cough 3–10 Medicine/5 416 1.05 11 LS0007
Fargesia spathacea Franch. Poaceae Shrub Tender shoot (primary food)   3–5 Food/14 357 0.90 17 LS0087
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. Poaceae Herb Root (primary food, medicine) Nosebleed, cough 3–10 N 295 0.74 35 LS0259
Reynoutria multiflora (Thunb.) Moldenke Polygonaceae Herb Root (medicine), leaf (culinary coagulant) Headache 1–12 Medicine/40 222 0.56 58 LS0549
Lemmaphyllum carnosum (J. Sm. ex Hook.) C. Presl Polypodiaceae Herb Aboveground part (medicine) Cough, injury 3–10 N 163 0.41 81 LS0349
Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw. Polypodiaceae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Gallstone 3–10 N 138 0.35 88 LS0141
Lysimachia congestiflora Hemsl. Primulaceae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Gallstone 3–10 N 220 0.56 59 LS0172
Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC. Ranunculaceae Herb Fruit (famine food)   9–12 N 263 0.66 43 LS0328
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Rhamnaceae Tree Infructescence shaft (snack, medicine) Tonify 8–10 Snack/14 204 0.52 66 LS0300
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Rosaceae Herb Aboveground part (medicine) Diarrhea 1–12 N 179 0.45 75 LS0224
Crataegus scabrifolia (Franch.) Rehder Rosaceae Tree Fruit (snack, medicine) Cough 8–10 N 354 0.89 20 LS0179
Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke Rosaceae Herb Fruit (snack)   6–10 N 363 0.92 16 LS0427
Fragaria nilgerrensis Schltdl. ex J.Gay Rosaceae Herb Fruit (snack)   5–9 N 356 0.90 18 LS0124
Potentilla discolor Bunge Rosaceae Herb Whole plant (medicine) Diarrhea, gastropathy 3–10 N 245 0.62 50 LS0385
Prunus trichostoma Koehne Rosaceae Tree Fruit (snack)   7–10 N 225 0.57 56 LS0180
Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H.L.Li Rosaceae Shrub Fruit (famine food, snack, other use)   1–12 N 741 1.87 2 LS0404
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Rosaceae Tree Fruit (snack)   9–10 N 340 0.86 28 LS0483
Rosa omeiensis Rolfe Rosaceae Herb Fruit (snack)   5–8 Snack/10 385 0.97 13 LS0337
Rosa roxburghii Tratt. Rosaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   8–10 Snack/10 236 0.60 53 LS0021
Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus (Franch.) Focke Rosaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   4–5 N 333 0.84 31 LS0055
Rubus inopertus (Focke) Focke Rosaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   7–8 N 343 0.87 26 LS0023
Rubus mesogaeus Focke Rosaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   7–8 N 348 0.88 22 LS0566
Rubus wallichianus Wight & Arn. Rosaceae Shrub Fruit (snack)   5–6 N 356 0.90 19 LS0035
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Saururaceae Herb Whole plant (primary food, medicine), root (spice) Dyspepsia 3–10 Food/6 500 1.26 5 LS0056
Schisandra rubriflora Rehder & E.H.Wilson Schisandraceae Climber Fruit (snack, medicine) Tonify 9–12 N 264 0.67 42 LS0123
Smilax stans Maxim. Smilacaceae Shrub Tender hoot (primary food)   4–8 Food/16 162 0.41 82 LS0127
Physalis alkekengi L. Solanaceae Herb Fruit (snack)   6–10 N 128 0.32 92 LS0130
Vitis heyneana Roem. & Schult. Vitaceae Climber Fruit (snack)   6–10 N 187 0.47 73 LS0017
Hemerocallis citrina Baroni Xanthorrhoeaceae Herb Flower (primary food)   5–8 N 251 0.63 48 LS0500