Skip to main content

Table 4 Medicinal plants used by the Agusan Manobo in Agusan del Sur, Philippines

From: Quantitative ethnopharmacological documentation and molecular confirmation of medicinal plants used by the Manobo tribe of Agusan del Sur, Philippines

Plant no.Scientific nameFamilyLocal nameVoucher no.URUCUVCIVUDDisease or purposeParts usedaPreparation and administrationbQuantity or dosageAdministration frequencyExperienced adverse or side effects
1Andrographis paniculata NeesAcanthaceaeWhite flowerUSTH 01561648091.433.072.09Jaundice, colds, malaria; cancer; diabetes; hypertension, heart enlargement, atherosclerosis; cough, respiratory disease complex, sore throat; diarrhea, ulcer, dyspepsia, liver problem; abortifacient; fever, gas pain and flatulenceLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededCan cause abortion in pregnant women
Boils, skin rashes and itchiness, dermatitisWhEApply decoction as wash3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
2Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) KurzAcanthaceaeMarvelosa or SerpentinaUSTH 01562258361.742.901.74Colds; diabetes, beriberi; nervous breakdown; hypertension; diarrhea, stomachache; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasmLfIDrink decoction1–3 glassesOnce a day for 3–5 daysNone
3Amaranthus spinosus L.AmaranthaceaeKudyapaUSTH 01558921190.632.752.06Diabetes; anemia; cough, bronchitis; dysentery, constipation; urinary tract infection; feverLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
Labor and delivery enhancerSdIDrink water-infused powdered seeds1–3 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
Boils, psoriasis, skin rashes, eczema, pimple, acne; snake and scorpion biteLfEApply leaves as poultice3–5 leavesThrice a day or as neededNone
4Mangifera indica L.AnacardiaceaeManggaUSTH 01559122250.662.851.47ConstipationFrIEat fresh fruit directly1–3 fruitsThrice a day or as neededNone
Cough, cough with phlegm, sore throatLfIDrink hot water-infused leaves or decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
Diarrhea, stomach trouble; headacheBkIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
Scabies; cuts and woundsBk, LfERub crushed leaves or scraped bark3–5 leaves, 1 palm-sized barkTwice a day or as neededNone
5Spondias pinnata (L.f.) KurzAnacardiaceaeAbihidUSTH 01559937241.112.331.39Colds; diabetes; cough; feverBk, LfIDrink decoction of leaves and scraped bark3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day for 3 days or as neededNone
Colds; feverBk, LfEBath water-infused leaves and scraped bark1 pailOnce a day or as neededNone
6Annona muricata L.AnnonaceaeGuyabanoUSTH 01559320980.622.172.02Cancer; diabetes; hypertension; dysenteryFrIEat fresh fruit directly3–5 glassesOnce or twice a week or as neededIn excess can cause blood viscosity
Ascariasis; cough; stomach trouble, stomach acidity; urination difficulty, urinary tract infectionLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Skin eruptions, eczemaLf, SpEApply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice3–5 leavesAs neededNone
7Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & ThomsonAnnonaceaeAnangilan or Ilang-ilangUSTH 01557735871.072.471.85Colds; cough; stomach trouble, ulcer; fever, body chillsBk, LfIDrink decoction5–7 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Scabies, athlete's foot; pimple; rheumatism, swollen muscles or swellings, muscle pain; insect bitesFlEApply oil from steamed flowersCompletely on affected part3–5 times a day or as neededNone
8Friesodielsia lanceolata (Merr.) Steen.AnnonaceaeTalimughat taasUSTH 01555819830.592.080.90Muscle pain; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapseBk, Lf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day up to 3 days or as neededNone
9Uvaria zschokkei ElmerAnnonaceaeBigoUSTH 01566219550.580.701.56Amoebiasis; hypertension; fever, weakness and fatigueStIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Hair loss; insect bitesSt, SpEApply stem sap1/2–1 cupAs neededNone
10Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.DonApocynaceaeDitaUSTH 01554638691.152.712.04Tonic; ear congestion; cough; stomach trouble, toothache; urinary tract infection; abdominal pain, weakness and fatigue, hangoverBk, LfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, sprainLfEApply crushed and heated leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Scabies, impetigo, ringworm; boilsBkEApply water-infused powdered bark1 glassOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Stomachache, snake biteBkEDrink local alcohol-tinctured bark1/2 to 1 glassAs neededNone
11Anodendron borneense (King & Gamble) D.J.MiddletonApocynaceaeLunas tag-uliUSTH 0156391134123.393.682.22Cancer; diabetes; ear infections; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, toothache; arthritis, rheumatism; pregnancy; body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse; poisoningSp, StIDrink stem sap1–3 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Colon and prostate cancer, cyst, tumor; diabetes; hypertension; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, toothache, swollen gums; arthritis, rheumatism; impotence and sterility, postpartum care and recovery; body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulence; sprain; poisoningStIDrink local alcohol-tinctured or decocted stem1/2 to 1 glassOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Scabies, warts, impetigo, typhoid fever; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes, and itchiness; arthritis, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse gas pain and flatulence; allergy, burns, cuts and wounds, sprain, animal and insect bites, contacts with plants and animal partsStEApply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused stemCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
12Hoya imbricata Decne.ApocynaceaePikot-pikotUSTH 0156185720.170.860.69Boils; cuts and woundsLfEApply coconut oil-infused burned and powdered leavesCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
13Alocasia zebrina Schott ex Van HoutteAraceaeLunas gabiUSTH 0156144410.130.600.00Allergy, cuts and wounds, snake and insect bite, poisoningLf, Sp, StEApply stem or leaf sapCompletely on affected partOnce a day or as neededNone
14Homalomena philippinensis Engl. ex Engl. & K.KrauseAraceaePayawUSTH 01559746671.392.001.83Colds; body ache, headache, feverLf, StI/ESniff sliced and pounded leaf and stem or tie leaf and stem around the neck1–3 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
Tonsillitis; pregnancy, impotence and sterility, labor and delivery enhancerRzIDrink extracted juice from crushed rhizome1–3 cupsOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Rheumatism; cuts and woundsRzEApply extracted juice from crushed rhizomeCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
HemorrhoidsLfEInsert heated young leaf1 leafOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
15Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.AraliaceaeGoto KolaUSTH 01556326340.781.781.39Diabetes; hypertension; feverLfIEat fresh leaves directly or drink decocted leaves3–5 leaves; 1 cupOnce a day or as neededIn excess can cause anemia, dizziness and weakening
Cuts and woundsLf, SpEApply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice1–3 leavesAs neededNone
16Areca catechu L.ArecaceaeHuling-hulingUSTH 0156104210.130.700.69Breast cancerRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
17Calamus megaphyllus Becc.ArecaceaeKapiUSTH 01560816840.501.651.28Hypertension; asthma; diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastritis, indigestion; arthritis, rheumatismRzIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
18Thottea affinis (Planch. ex Rolfe) ined.AristolochiaceaeSalimbagatUSTH 01564327830.831.751.10Amoebiasis; cancer; toothacheLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
19Dracaena roxburghiana (Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh.AsparagaceaeEspada-espadaUSTH 0156477820.230.670.69Boils; snake biteLfEApply leaf sap or pounded leaves as poultice5–7 dropsAs neededNone
20Acmella grandiflora (Turcz.) R.K.JansenAsteraceaeLunas pilipoUSTH 01554839641.182.401.33Toothache; anestheticFlIApply fresh flower directly1–3 flowersAs neededNone
Skin rashes and itchiness, psoriasis; cuts and wounds; anestheticFl, LfEApply crushed flower or leaves as poultice1–3 flowers, 5–7 leavesAs neededNone
21Ageratum conyzoides L.AsteraceaeAlbahacaUSTH 0156027730.231.891.10Abortifacient; weakness and fatigueLfIDrink decoction1–3 cupsOnce a day or as neededCan cause abortion in pregnant women
Cuts and woundsEApply pounded leaves as poultice1–3 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
22Artemisia vulgaris L.AsteraceaeHelbasUSTH 01561936541.091.601.24Asthma, cough, cough with phlegm; diarrhea, dyspepsia; delayed menstruation; relapseLfIDrink decoction1–3 glassesThrice a day or as neededIn excess can cause anemia, dizziness and weakening
Abdominal pain, body ache, fever, cramp, and spasmLfEApply crushed leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
23Bidens pilosa L.AsteraceaeTuway-tuwayUSTH 01558221850.651.671.26Colds; diarrhea; muscle pain; backache, body ache, fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulenceRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day up to 3 days or as neededNone
Cuts and wounds, animal and insect bitesLfEApply crushed leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
24Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.AsteraceaeGabonUSTH 01557341261.232.601.58Hypertension; cough, cough with phlegm; urination difficulty; postpartum care and recovery; body ache, headache, fever, weakness and fatigue, gas pain and flatulenceLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day for 3 days or as neededNone
HeadacheLfEApply steamed or pounded leaves in the forehead1–3 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
Boils, skin rashesLfEApply leaves as poultice1–3 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
25Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob.AsteraceaeHagonoyUSTH 01563244851.342.501.56Tumor; hemorrhage; feverLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day for 3 days or as neededNone
Boils; burns, cuts, and woundsLfEApply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice3–5 leavesAs neededNone
26Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob.AsteraceaeKanding-kandingUSTH 01558747651.422.781.42Colds, malaria; pulmonary tuberculosis; dog biteLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
Chicken pox, herpes simplex, measles; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasmFl, Lf, RtEBath water-infused leaves and roots or burn leaves and roots as incense1 pail as bath or 1 bowl as incenseOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
27Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng.) DC.AsteraceaeGapas-gapas baeUSTH 01566620830.622.251.01Stomachache, dyspepsia; body ache, headache, gas pain, and flatulenceLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Cuts and woundsLf, SpEApply sap or leaves as poultice3–5 leavesAs neededNone
28Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.AsteraceaeAshitabaUSTH 01564521540.642.501.33Emphysema, cough; diarrhea, stomach trouble; kidney stones; abdominal painLfIDrink brewed tea-prepared leaves or decoction3–5 cupsOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
29Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob.AsteraceaeMoti-motiUSTH 01554339761.192.751.67Cough; ulcerLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
Sore eyesLf, SpIDrop leaf sapCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
Skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and wounds, snake and scorpion bites; circumcision antisepticLfEApply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice5–7 leavesAs neededNone
30Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) RohrAsteraceaeKukog banogUSTH 01556450051.492.501.44Urination difficulty, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling, delayed menstruation, urinary tract infection; fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasmLf, RtIDrink brewed tea-prepared leaves or decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Sore eyes; eczema, skin rashes, and itchiness; cuts and wounds, sprain, snake biteLf, SpEApply drops of leaf sapCompletely on affected partThrice a day or as neededNone
31Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.AthyriaceaePako-pakoUSTH 01554521250.631.921.56Colds; cough; diarrhea, dysentery; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; body ache, headache, feverShIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
32Begonia contracta Warb.BegoniaceaeBudag-budagUSTH 0156548520.251.330.64Pimple, dandruff; burnsFl, LfEApply crushed flower and leaves as poultice1–3 flowers, 1–3 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
33Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.BombacaceaeDoldolUSTH 01553514050.422.141.55Diabetes; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea, dysentery; rheumatism, swollen muscles; snake biteBk, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
34Ehretia microphylla Lam.BoraginaceaeAlangitngit or Tsaang-GubatUSTH 01563833641.002.601.39Diabetes; nervous breakdown; stomach acidity; food and drug allergyLfIDrink tea-prepared leaves1/2 to 1 cupOnce a day for 3 days or as neededNone
35Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.BromeliaceaePinyaUSTH 01566722670.671.711.85Ascariasis, amoebiasis; cancer; diabetes; hypertension; constipation, stomach acidityFrIEat fresh fruit directly1–3 slicesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Headache, fever, weakness, and fatigueLf, ShEApply crushed shoot or leaves as poulticeCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
Cancer; swellingsLfI/EDrink decoction or apply decocted leaves3–5 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
36Abroma augusta (L.) L.f.ByttneriaceaeSamboligawnUSTH 01563732980.982.691.98Diabetes, tonic; bronchitis; stomachache; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation; sterilityBk, Lf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Scabies; boils, skin eruptions, dermatitis; cuts and woundsBk, LfEApply decoction as wash1–3 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
37Kleinhovia hospita L.ByttneriaceaeBitan-agUSTH 01563114660.442.501.70Tumor; asthma, pneumonia, cough; dyspepsia, liver problem; headache; baby teethingLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
Scabies; psoriasisLfEApply crushed leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
38Melochia umbellata (Houtt.) StapfByttneriaceaeBanitlongUSTH 01564926540.791.761.24Rheumatism; backache, body ache, headacheLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Canker sore; burnsLfEApply leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
39Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G.DonCampanulaceaeElepanteng putiUSTH 01558321350.641.831.56ToothacheLfIApply chewed or pounded leaves1–3 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Nervous breakdown; asthma, bronchitis; feverLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Cuts and woundsLfEApply decoction1 glassAs neededNone
40Carica papaya L.CaricaceaeKapayas lakiUSTH 01566865961.972.921.64Constipation, dyspepsia; milk production enhancerFrIEat fresh fruit directly1–3 slicesOnce a day or as neededNone
Tonic; asthma; stomach problemLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Dengue feverLf, SpIDrink leaf sap5–7 leavesThrice a day or as neededNone
Body ache, fever, cramp, and spasmLfIApply crushed and heated leaves as poultice1–3 leavesTwice a day or as neededNone
41Cratoxylum sumatranum (Jack) BlumeClusiaceae/GuttiferaeBansilayUSTH 0155419640.292.331.33Colds; cough; dysenteryBk, Lf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
ToothacheLfIApply chewed or pounded leaves3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Impetigo; cuts and woundsLfEApply pounded leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
42Hellenia speciosa (J.Koenig) GovaertsCostaceaeTambabasi or TawasiUSTH 01557874482.222.582.03Diabetes, goiter; migraine; ear congestion; cough, lung nodule; urination difficulty, kidney problem; headache, feverLf, RzIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day up to 3 days or as neededNone
Diarrhea, stomachache, dysenteryStIDrink stem sap1/2 cupAs neededNone
Sore eyesLfIApply leaf sapCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
43Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.CrassulaceaeHanlilikaUSTH 015584486121.452.882.21Diabetes; anemia, hypertension; asthma; cough; constipation, diarrhea, stomach trouble, hemorrhoids; kidney stone; labor and delivery enhancer; feverLfIDrink decoction3–5 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
Herpes simplex; hemorrhoids; boils, eczema; swellings; burns, cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, insect bitesLfIApply decocted leaves as wash1–3 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
Abdominal pain, body ache, headache, feverLfEApply heated leaves as hot compress1–3 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
44Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H.Pfeiff.CyperaceaeBusikadUSTH 01557125460.761.381.61Chicken pox, measles; cancer; cough; stomach acidity; fever, relapse, gas pain and flatulence; sprainWhIDrink decoction1–3 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Baby teethingFlIDrink water-infused flower1/2–1 glassOnce to thrice a dayNone
45Stenomeris borneensis Oliv.DioscoreaceaeBanagUSTH 01553754061.612.361.70Myoma; migraine; arthritis, rheumatism; urination difficulty, urinary bladder swelling; postpartum care and recovery; headache, cramp and spasm, relapseRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day for 3 days or as neededNone
46Euphorbia hirta L.EuphorbiaceaeTawa-tawaUSTH 01566530570.912.801.85Colds, dengue fever; asthma; diarrhea, vomiting; feverWhIDrink decoction of whole plant except flowers5–7 glassesThrice a day or as neededIn excess can cause thrombocytopenia
Ringworm; sore eyes; boils, skin rashes, and itchiness; cuts and woundsLfI/EApply leaf sap or decocted leaves5–7 leavesThrice a day or as neededNone
47Jatropha curcas L.EuphorbiaceaeTuba-tuba putiUSTH 01559549571.482.661.79Colds; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea; arthritis, rheumatism; backache, body ache, fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulenceLf, RtIDrink decoction1–3 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
Scabies, ringworm; ear infection, discharging ear; toothache; swollen muscles and swellings; cuts and wounds, fracture and dislocation, animal and insect bitesBk, RtI/EApply decoction or pounded scraped bark as poultice1–3 palm-sized barks, 1/2–1 arm-sized rootsAs neededNone
48Jatropha gossypifolia L.EuphorbiaceaeTuba-tuba tapolUSTH 01558681092.412.831.94Colds, malaria, typhoid fever; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea; arthritis, rheumatism; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation; backache, body ache, fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulenceLf, RtIDrink decoction1–3 leaves, 1/2–1 arm-sized rootsOnce a day or as neededNone
Ringworm; boils, carbuncles, dermatitis; swollen muscles and swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, fever; cuts and woundsLfEBath or wash decocted leaves1–3 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
Scabies, ringworm; ear infection, discharging ear; toothache, mouth sore; cuts and wounds, fracture and dislocation, animal and insect bitesBk, RtI/EApply decoction or pounded scraped bark as poultice1–3 palm-sized barks, 1/2–1 arm-sized rootsAs neededNone
49Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb. & Zoll.EuphorbiaceaeAwomUSTH 01562148551.452.331.56Beriberi; emphysema, cough; diarrhea, stomach troubleLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Fibroma; body ache, weakness, and fatigueBk, Fl, LfEApply fresh or heated flower, leaves, and bark; sometimes mixed with little salt1–3 flowers, 1–3 leaves, 1–3 palm-sized barksOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
50.1Omalanthus macradenius Pax & Hoffm.EuphorbiaceaeBanti putiUSTH 01563320230.601.771.04Impetigo; diarrhea, stomach trouble; cuts and woundsLfEApply pounded leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
50.2Omalanthus macradenius Pax & Hoffm.EuphorbiaceaeBanti tapolUSTH 01555420330.611.601.04Impetigo; diarrhea, stomach trouble; cuts and woundsLfEApply pounded leaves as poultice3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
51Bauhinia sp.FabaceaeTalimughat pikasUSTH 01557528440.851.501.22Rheumatism, muscle pain; delayed menstruation; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapseLf, StIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day up to 3 days or as neededNone
52Crotalaria incana L.FabaceaeSagay-sagayUSTH 0155728450.251.601.24Myoma; hormonal imbalance; cough; constipation; fever, weakness and fatigue, relapseRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day up to 3 days or as neededNone
53Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Steud.FabaceaeMadre de CacaoUSTH 01562015360.461.831.68Scabies; boils, skin eruption, skin rashes, and itchiness; cuts and woundsLf, SpEApply leaf sap or pounded leaves as poulticeCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Eczema, dermatitis; arthritis and rheumatism; burns, cuts and wounds, bruises and contusionsBk, Rt, SpEApply sap or decocted bark or rootCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Abortifacient, postpartum care, and recoveryLfEBurn leaves as incense or apply heated leaves as hot compress3–5 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
Body ache, headache, fever; fracture and dislocation, sprainBkEApply scraped bark as poultice1–3 palm-sized barksOnce a day or as neededNone
54Mimosa pudica L.FabaceaeHibi-hibi or makahiyaUSTH 01557035581.062.291.97Diabetes; hypertension; asthma, dysentery; urination difficulty; feverRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Baby teethingRtIDrink water-infused peeled roots1/2 to 1 cupOnce a day or as neededNone
Mumps; boils; child sleeplessness, malaise, and fatigueShEApply hot water-infused shoots1/2 to 1 glassAs neededNone
55Ormosia macrodisca BakerFabaceaeBahayUSTH 01562552251.562.361.56Atherosclerosis (high cholesterol)FrIEat fresh fruit directly1–3 fruitsOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Typhoid fever; nervous breakdown; high cholesterol; kidney problem; feverBkIDrink decoction or local alcohol-tinctured bark1/2 to 1 cupOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Nervousness; skin numbnessBk, RtEApply Efficascent oil-infused bark and rootFill a 250 ml glass bottle with bark and rootsAs neededNone
56.1Phanera semibifida (Roxb.) Benth.FabaceaeAlibangbang putiUSTH 0156466610.201.110.00Internal bleeding, hemorrhageLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
56.2Phanera semibifida (Roxb.) Benth.FabaceaeAlibangbang tapolUSTH 0156345310.161.000.00Internal bleeding, hemorrhageLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
57Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br.LamiaceaeAwoyUSTH 01566137841.131.501.28Ulcer, pancreatitis, fatty liver; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasmLfIDrink hot water-infused leaves1/2 to 1 cupOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
AsthmaLfEBurn leaves as incense1–3 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Swollen muscles, muscle pain; backache, body acheLfEApply leaves as poultice1–3 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
58Coleus amboinicus Lour.LamiaceaeKalaboUSTH 01561738041.131.781.31Asthma, cough, cough with phlegm; dyspepsia; abdominal pain, gas pain, and flatulenceLfIEat leaves directly or drink decoction1/2 to 1 cupOnce to thrice a day or as neededIn excess can cause anemia, weakness, and allergy
Burns, bruised and contusions, insect bitesLfEApply water-infused leaves1–3 glassesAs neededNone
59.1Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth.LamiaceaeMayana kanapkapUSTH 01556726050.781.671.47Anemia; asthma, pneumonia, cough; dyspepsia; gas pain and flatulenceLfIDrink decoction1–3 glassesOnce a day for 3–5 days or as neededNone
Cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, sprainLf, SpEApply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice5–7 leavesTwice a day or as neededNone
59.2Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth.LamiaceaeMayana pulaUSTH 01564441461.242.251.59Anemia; asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, pulmonary tuberculosis, cough; ulcer, dyspepsia; gas pain and flatulenceLfIDrink decoction1–3 glassesOnce a day for 3–5 days or as neededNone
ConjunctivitisLfIApply decoction as dropCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, sprainLfEApply crushed leaves as poultice5–7 leavesTwice a day or as neededNone
60Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm.LamiaceaeGmelinaUSTH 01563533551.001.831.49Toothache, gum swellingLfIApply chewed or pounded leaves3–5 leavesAs neededNone
Discharging earFrIDrop extract of heated fruit1–3 fruitsAs neededPoisonous when eaten
Stomach bloating; maternal care; headache, gas pain and flatulence; cuts and woundsLfEApply leaves directly or as poultice1–3 leavesAs neededNone
61Hyptis capitata Jacq.LamiaceaeSawan-sawanUSTH 01557449871.492.561.85Colds, malaria; cough; diarrhea, stomachache; new-born baby care; fever, gas pain and flatulenceLfIDrink decoction or leaf sap3–5 glasses decoction or 1/2 cup leaf sap (adult); 1/2 cup decoction or 1 teaspoonful leaf sap (baby)Once or twice a day or as neededNone
Delayed menstruationRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Toothache; cuts and woundsLfEApply crushed leaves as poultice3–5 leavesAs neededNone
62Mentha arvensis L.LamiaceaeHerba buenaUSTH 01566917460.522.711.59Measles; cough; diarrhea, dysentery; dysmenorrhea; headache, fever, cramp and spasm, gas pain and flatulenceShIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Asthma; dizziness and faintingLfISniff crushed leaves or leaves infused with hot water3–5 leavesAs neededNone
Toothache; headache, fever; insect bitesLfEApply chewed or crushed leaves3–5 leavesAs neededNone
63Mentha canadensis L.LamiaceaeSenciaUSTH 01567043291.292.812.04Sinusitis, cough; stomachache, vomiting; delayed menstruation; backache, body ache, headache, fever, gas pain and flatulenceLfIDrink hot water-infused leaves or decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Ringworm; ear infection and congestion; toothacheLfI/EApply leaf sapCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
Muscle pain, abdominal pain; cuts and wounds, dislocation, snake biteLfEApply crushed leaves as poulticeCompletely on affected partOnce a day or as neededNone
Skin rashes and itchiness, acne; rheumatism; cuts and wounds; animal and insect bitesLfEApply decoction as wash5–7 leavesTwice a day or as neededNone
64Ocimum basilicum L.LamiaceaeSangigUSTH 01563038591.152.332.09Cough, cough with phlegm; constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, hemorrhoids; delayed menstruation; postpartum care and recovery; headache, fever, gas pain and flatulenceLf, ShIDrink decoction or add in soup3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
Ear congestion, infection, and dischargeLf, SpIDrop leaf sap3–5 leavesAs neededNone
Boils, skin rashes, and itchiness; arthritis, rheumatism; cuts and wounds, bruises and contusionsLfEApply decoction as wash3–5 leavesTwice a day or as neededNone
Toothache; cuts and wounds, snake bitesLf, ShI/EApply crushed shoot or leaves as poultice3–5 leaves, 1 shootAs neededNone
65Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq.LamiaceaeWachichaoUSTH 01555051361.532.961.58Diabetes; hypertension; diarrhea, stomachache; joint pain, gout, rheumatism; urination difficulty, kidney stones, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling, prostate problem; labor and delivery enhancerFl, LfIDrink brewed tea-prepared leaves or decoction of leaves and flower3–5 cupsOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
66Premna odorata BlancoLamiaceaeAbgawUSTH 01555966871.992.941.79Colds; nasal congestion, sinusitis, cough, cough with phlegm; diarrhea, ulcer; rheumatism; postpartum care and recovery; weakness and fatigue, gas pain and flatulenceLfIDrink water-infused leaves3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day for 3 days or as neededNone
Cuts and woundsEApply crushed leaves as poultice1–3 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
67Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr.) Bakh.LamiaceaeKulipapaUSTH 01560312840.381.181.24Beriberi; muscle pain; labor and delivery; backache, body ache, cramp and spasmRt, StIDrink decoction3–5 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
68Vitex negundo L.LamiaceaeLagundiUSTH 01556247551.422.691.55Cough, cough with phlegm; ulcer; rheumatism; postpartum care and recovery; headache, gas pain and flatulenceLfIDrink decoction1/4 glass (young leaf) or 1/2 glass (mature leaf)Thrice a day or as neededNone
69Cinnamomum mercadoi S.VidalLauraceaeKaningagUSTH 01558590882.713.221.93Amoebiasis; cancer; hypertension; cough; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, stomach acidity; kidney problem, urinary tract infection; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasmBk, Br, RtIDrink decoction or local alcohol-tinctured bark, stem and root3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Cuts and woundsBk, Br, RtEApply coconut oil-infused bark, stem and rootCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
70Litsea cordata (Jack) Hook.f.LauraceaeLoktobUSTH 01558030770.922.831.79Mumps; cyst, tumor, myoma; goiter; asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, cough; ulcer; arthritis; kidney problem, dysmenorrheaBk, RtIDrink hot water-infused bark or decoction1–3 glassesOnce a day in thrice a week for 2 months or as neededIn excess can cause anemia, dizziness and weakening
71Machilus philippinensis Merr.LauraceaeEfficascentUSTH 0155768220.241.110.69Cough; weakness and fatigueSp, StIDrink sap from rubbed stem1/2 cupOnce a day or as neededNone
72Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.LythraceaeBanabaUSTH 01559638441.152.571.26Ulcer; urination difficulty, kidney stones, high uric acid, and creatinine; maternal care; backache, body ache, feverLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
73Gossypium hirsutum L.MalvaceaeGapasUSTH 01555328330.842.140.95Hemorrhage; postpartum care and recovery; body ache, fever, body chillsRtIDrink decoction1 glassOnce a day for 3 daysIn excess, can cause abnormalities in lactating mothers
74Sida rhombifolia L.MalvaceaeEskuba lakiUSTH 01560176882.292.551.87Cough; stomach trouble; kidney stone, kidney problem, prostate problem, irregular menstruationLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Chicken pox, herpes simplex, scabies; boils; swellings; backache, body ache, headache; cuts and woundsLf, RtEApply leaves as poultice or leaf and bark decoction as wash3–5 leavesAs neededNone
FeverBkIDrink decoction1–3 palm-sized barksOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
75Urena lobata L.MalvaceaeDupang baeUSTH 01566448271.442.061.80Stomach trouble; arthritis, rheumatism; labor and delivery, postpartum care and recovery; fever; cuts and wounds, fracture and dislocation, bruises and contusion, sprain, animal bitesWhI/EDrink or apply decoction or burn as incense1 bowlOnce a day or as neededNone
Diabetes; sore throat; toothache; abdominal painShIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
76Angiopteris evecta Sw.MarattiaceaeAmampangUSTH 01565812630.381.500.87Muscle pain; postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, weakness, and fatigue, cramp and spasmRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
77Medinilla teysmannii Miq.MelastomataceaeTampionUSTH 01558128230.841.251.04Swollen muscles and swellings, muscle pain; gas pain and flatulence; sprainLfEApply heated leaves as hot compress1–3 leavesOnce a day or as neededNone
78Melastoma malabathricum L.MelastomataceaeHantutuknaw putiUSTH 01558827430.821.890.96Diarrhea, dysentery, stomachache, hemorrhoids; headache, feverShIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Toothache; cuts and woundsLfI/EDrop or drink stem sap1–3 leavesAs neededNone
79Lansium domesticum CorreaMeliaceaeLansonesUSTH 01556510340.311.521.28Malaria; diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia; fever, gas pain and flatulenceBk, LfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
Insect bitesBkEApply powdered barkCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
80Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr.MeliaceaeSantolUSTH 01562446471.391.781.85Tonic; hypertension; diarrhea, dysentery; postpartum care and recovery; abdominal pain, feverBk, Fr, LfIDrink decoction of mesocarp, leaves and scraped bark3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
ToothacheLfIApply crushed leaves as poultice1–3 leavesAs neededNone
Boils, skin rashes and itchiness, dermatitisLfEApply decoction as wash3–5 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
RingwormBkEApply pounded scraped bark as poultice1–3 palm-sized barksOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
81Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.MeliaceaeMahoganyUSTH 01567133491.002.292.14Dysmenorrhea, delayed menstruation; abortifacient; abdominal painSdITake powdered seed or drink decoction1–3 glassesOnce a day or as neededCan cause abortion in pregnant women
Amoebiasis, malaria; cancer; tonic; hypertension; cough; diarrhea; miscarriage; feverBkIDrink decoction1–3 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
82Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr.MenispermaceaeLagtang or AbutraUSTH 015600922102.753.232.14Jaundice; tumor, myoma; diabetes, tonic; respiratory disease complex; diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, ulcer, appetite enhancer; dysmenorrhea, delayed menstruation; abortifacient; feverRt, StIDrink decoction3–5 glassesThrice a day or as neededCan cause abortion in pregnant women
Scabies; boils, skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and woundsRt, StEApply coconut oil-infused stemCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
83Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & ThomsonMenispermaceaePanyawanUSTH 01556678292.332.681.95Malaria; tonic; diarrhea, stomach trouble, vomiting, ulcer, toothache; arthritis, rheumatism; dysmenorrhea; abortifacient; abdominal pain, backache, body ache, feverStIDrink local alcohol-tinctured or decocted stem1–3 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededCan cause abortion in pregnant women
Scabies; sore eyes; cuts and woundsSp, StEDrop stem sapCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
Arthritis, rheumatism; abortifacient; abdominal pain, body ache; gas pain and flatulenceStEApply coconut oil-infused stem or stem mixed with gasolineCompletely on affected partAs neededCan cause abortion in pregnant women
84Ficus botryocarpa Miq.MoraceaeKabiyaUSTH 0156725310.160.960.00Headache, feverRtIDrink decoction1 arm-sized rootTwice a day or as neededNone
85Ficus cassidyana ElmerMoraceaeTobog tapolUSTH 01555149281.473.001.89Colds; diabetes; hypertension; asthma, cough, respiratory disease complex; diarrhea, stomachache; urinary tract infection; postpartum recovery, maternal care, milk production enhancer; weakness and fatigue, relapseBk, RtIDrink decoction1–3 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
Diabetes; hypertensionFrIEat fresh fruit directly1–3 fruitsOnce a day or as neededNone
Body ache, headache, feverLfEApply leaves as poultice3–5 leavesAs neededNone
86Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq.MoraceaeBaleteUSTH 01555260841.812.661.37Prostate cancer, cyst, tumor; arthritis, rheumatism; kidney problem, prostate problemBk, Lf, RtIDrink decoction5–7 glassesOnce a day in thrice a week for 2 monthsIn excess can cause anemia, dizziness, and weakening
Cuts and woundsBk, Lf, RtEApply decoction as wash1–3 glassesAs neededNone
Fracture and dislocation, sprainBk, RtEApply fresh and heated bark and root as poultice1–3 palm-sized barks or 1 arm-sized rootOnce a day or as neededBark can cause skin allergy or burn
87Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex BlumeMoraceaeTobog putiUSTH 01556148081.431.621.89Colds; diabetes; hypertension; asthma, cough, respiratory disease complex; diarrhea, stomachache; urinary tract infection; maternal care, postpartum recovery, milk production enhancer; weakness and fatigue, relapseBk, RtIDrink decoction1–3 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
Diabetes; hypertensionFrIEat fresh fruit directly1–3 fruitsOnce a day or as neededNone
Body ache, headache, feverLfEApply leaves as poultice3–5 leavesAs neededNone
88Ficus pseudopalma BlancoMoraceaeLobi-lobiUSTH 01563633170.992.381.80Diabetes; hypertension, atherosclerosis, hemorrhage; diarrhea, stomach trouble, dyspepsia; kidney stones; muscle pain; postpartum care and recovery; cramp and spasmLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
89Ficus septica Burm.f.MoraceaeLagnobUSTH 01562357671.722.131.77Stomach trouble; asthma, sinusitis; muscle pain; backache, body ache, headache, fever, weakness, and fatigueLf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day for 3 days onlyIn excess can cause intestinal weakening
Warts; cataract, eye problemLf, SpEApply drops of leaf sap3–5 leavesTwice a day or as neededNone
Herpes simplex; boilsRt, Sp, StEApply stem and root sapCompletely on affected partThrice a day or as neededNone
90Ficus sp.MoraceaeTuwa-tuwaUSTH 0156427110.210.980.00Pregnancy, impotence and sterility, postpartum care and recoveryLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day for 3–5 days or as neededNone
91Morus alba L.MoraceaeTahiboUSTH 01554927740.832.691.21Colds; asthma, pneumonia, lung nodule, cough; muscle pain; cramp and spasm, relapseLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice to thrice a day for 3–5 daysIn excess can cause acid reflux and hypocupremia
92Muntingia calabura L.MuntingiaceaeMansanitasUSTH 01562916940.501.581.21Colds; diarrhea, stomachache, vomiting, ulcer; prostate problem; abdominal pain, headacheLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
93Myristica agusanensis ElmerMyristicaceaeDuguang kahoyUSTH 01561119420.581.960.69Measles; respiratory disease complexBkIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
94Psidium guajava L.MyrtaceaeBayabasUSTH 01566327550.822.151.43Diarrhea, ulcerBk, Lf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
ConstipationFrIEat fresh fruit directly1–3 fruitsOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Scabies; toothache; skin eruptions; cuts and woundsLfEApply chewed or pounded leaves3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Dandruff; cuts and wounds; circumcision antisepticLfEApply decocted leaves as wash3–5 leavesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
95Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.PandanaceaePandantsinaUSTH 01555519720.591.980.60Heart enlargement, high cholesterol; urination difficulty, kidney stone, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling, prostate problemLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
96Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.PhyllanthaceaeTalikod or Likod-likodUSTH 01559045991.372.352.01Jaundice, colds; tonic; coughs; stomach problem; kidney stone, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling; new-born baby care; feverWhI/EDrink decoction or apply decocted leaves as wash3–5 glasses decoction or 1/2 cup leaf sap (adult); 1/2 cup decoction or 1 teaspoonful leaf sap (baby)Once or twice a day or as neededNone
Scabies, jaundice, ringworm; skin rashness and itchiness, dermatitis, eczema; cuts and woundsFr, RtEApply decoction as wash3–5 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
97Piper aduncum L.PiperaceaeLunas buyoUSTH 01556819320.581.140.56Skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and wounds, animal and insect bitesLf, StEApply decoctionCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededIn excess can cause intestinal weakening
98Piper decumanum L.PiperaceaeLunas bagon tapolUSTH 015544101893.043.452.06Typhoid fever; cancer, cyst, tumor; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer; gas pain and flatulence; poisoningStIDrink local alcohol-tinctured stem1/2 to 1 glassOnce a day in thrice a week or as neededIn excess can cause intestinal weakening
Tonsillitis; toothache, gum swelling, canker soreStIGargle local alcohol-tinctured stem1/2 to 1 glassOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Scabies, warts, impetigo; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness, pimple, acne; arthritis, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, gas pain and flatulence; allergy, burns, cuts and wounds, sprain, snake, dog and insect bites, contacts with plants and animal parts; anestheticStEApply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused stemCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
99Piper nigrum L.PiperaceaeLunas bagon putiUSTH 01556082492.462.411.20Cancer, cyst, tumor; tonsillitis; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, toothache, mouth sore, gum swelling; gas pain and flatulence; poisoningStIDrink or gargle local alcohol-tinctured stem or drink decocted stem1/2 to 1 glass of local alcohol tincture or 3–5 glasses of decoctionOnce a day in thrice a week or as neededIn excess can cause intestinal weakening
          Scabies, warts, impetigo; breast cancer; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness, pimple, acne; arthritis, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, gas pain, and flatulence; skin allergy, burns, cuts and wounds, animal and insect bites, contacts with plants and animals parts; anestheticStEApply coconut oil-infused or decocted stemCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
100Piper sp.PiperaceaeBuyo PilipogUSTH 01559229630.881.331.04Asthma, cough; rheumatism; fracture and dislocationLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
101Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.PoaceaeBilabilaUSTH 015569481111.443.042.34Measles; diabetes; internal bleeding; cough; diarrhea; arthritis; kidney problem; postpartum care and recovery; fever, cramp, and spasm; fracture and dislocationWhIDrink decoction3–5 glassesThrice a day or as neededNone
Ringworm; hair loss; cuts and woundsWhEApply decoction1 glassOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
102Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv.PoaceaeKogonUSTH 01560510740.321.901.35Urination difficultyShIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Chicken pox, measles; diarrhea, toothache; fever, baby teethingRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
103Paspalum conjugatum P.J.BergiusPoeaceaeMiligoyUSTH 01562712430.372.301.04Diarrhea, dysenteryRtIDrink decoction1 handful of rootsTwice a day or as neededNone
Hair loss; cuts and woundsRtEApply decoction as wash1 handful of rootsOnce a day or as neededNone
104Rosa sp.RosaceaeRoseUSTH 0156288330.251.331.04Colds; nasal congestion, sinusitisFlIDrink or sniff hot water-infused flowers1 glassThrice a day or as neededNone
Cuts and woundsFlEApply hot water-infused flowers as wash1 glassAs neededNone
105Mussaenda philippica A.Rich.RubiaceaeBuyonUSTH 01555612350.371.361.56Jaundice, colds; dysentery, stomachache; fever; snake biteBk, LfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Asthma, coughFlIEat fresh flower directly1–3 flowersOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
106Uncaria lanosa Wall.RubiaceaeKawilanUSTH 0155579410.280.930.00Stomach troubleSp, StIDrink stem sap1/2 cupOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
DiarrheaStIDrink local alcohol-tinctured bark1/2 to 1 glassAs neededNone
107Melicope latifolia (DC.) T.G.HartleyRutaceaeBagayngaUSTH 0155404310.130.920.00CoughBkIDrink decoction of scraped bark1–3 palm-sized barksOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
108Melicope triphylla (Lam.) Merr.RutaceaeDahileUSTH 0156608620.261.310.64Pulmonary tuberculosis, coughLf, SpIDrink decoction or leaf sap3–5 glasses or 3–5 leaves of sapOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
Snake biteLf, SpEApply leaf sapCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
109Micromelum minutum (G.Forst.) Wight & Arn.RutaceaeLunas kahoyUSTH 01553895592.853.282.03Cancer, cyst; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer; poisoningLf, StIDrink local alcohol-tinctured or decocted stem1/2 to 1 glassOnce or twice a day or as neededIn excess can cause intestinal weakening
Tonsillitis; toothache, gum swelling, canker soreRt, StEGargle local alcohol-tinctured stem1/2 to 1 glassOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Scabies, warts, impetigo; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness, pimple, acne; joint pain, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, gas pain, and flatulence; allergy, burns, cuts, and wounds; snake, dog, and insect bites; contacts with plants and animal parts; anestheticRt, StEApply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused stemCompletely on affected partOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
110Capsicum annuum L.SolanaceaeSili na bisayaUSTH 01562615160.452.481.61Diabetes; hypertensionFrIEat fresh fruit directly or add as spice in cooking7 fruitsOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
White spot, athlete's foot; appetite enhancer; boils, skin rashes and itchiness, psoriasis, dandruff; insect bitesLfERub crushed leaves or leaf sap3–5 leavesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
111Grewia laevigata VahlSparmanniaceaeTalimughat linginUSTH 01554747451.411.751.42Diabetes; hypertension, heart enlargement; rheumatism; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, fever, weakness, and fatigue, relapseBk, Lf, RtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day up to 3 days or as neededNone
Muscle pain; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, fever, cramp, and spasm; relapseBk, RtEApply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused bark and rootCompletely on affected partOnce a day or as neededNone
112Dendrocnide luzonensis (Wedd.) ChewUrticaceaeAlingatongUSTH 01559812820.382.330.56Diabetes; joint pain, swollen muscles, and swellings, muscle painRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
113Leucosyke capitellata Wedd.UrticaceaeAnagasiUSTH 0155422810.080.960.00Stomach trouble and vomitingLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
114Oreocnide rubescens (Blume) Miq.UrticaceaeKubi or Salin-ubodUSTH 01567615130.451.891.04Cough; diarrhea, stomach trouble; feverLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
115Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B.Rob.UrticaceaeHandamayUSTH 01567354061.612.251.58Depression, anxiety, nervousness; stomach acidity; backache, body ache, headache, fever, weakness, and fatigueLfIEat fresh leaves or drink water solution of leaves3–5 glassesThrice a day for a month or as neededNone
Herpes simplex, scabies; boils, dermatitisLfERub crushed leaves3–5 leavesThrice a day or as neededNone
Skin rashes and infection; cuts and woundsBkEApply pulp made from scraped bark as poultice1–3 palm-sized barksTwice a day or as neededNone
116Poikilospermum acuminatum (Trecul.) Merr.UrticaceaeHanupiUSTH 01565524360.732.061.67Sore eyes; ulcer; postpartum care and recovery; feverSp, StIDrink stem sap or decoction stem1 arm-sized stemOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and wounds; animal and insect bitesRt, SpEApply decoction as wash1 arm-sized rootOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
117Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) VahlVerbenaceaeElepanteng lingganagUSTH 01559439651.182.041.56Ascariasis; abortifacient; feverRtIDrink decoction1 arm-sized rootOnce to thrice a day or as neededCan cause abortion in pregnant women
Boils; bruises, sprainLfEApply crushed leaves as poultice3–5 glassesAs neededNone
118Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC.XanthorrhoeaceaeIkug-ikugUSTH 01565616430.351.390.95Maternal care; postpartum care and recovery, milk production enhancerLfIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce a day or as neededNone
Cuts and woundsLfEApply leaves as poultice3–5 leavesAs neededNone
Herpes simplexLf, RtEApply coconut oil-infused ashes of leaf and rootsCompletely on affected partThrice a day or as neededNone
119Curcuma longa L.ZingerberaceaeDuwaw yellowUSTH 01567424860.741.681.70Diabetes; cough; arthritis, rheumatism; delayed menstruation; fever, gas pain and flatulenceRzIDrink grinded and brewed rhizome1–3 cupsOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
Burns, cuts and wounds, insect bitesRzEApply extracted juice from crushed rhizomeCompletely on affected partAs neededNone
120Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Rosc.ZingerberaceaeDuwaw violetUSTH 0156458320.241.880.69Cough; feverRzIDrink grinded and brewed rhizome1–3 cupsOnce or twice a day or as neededNone
121Alpinia haenkei C.PreslZingiberaceaeYanguasUSTH 0156418630.261.261.04Cough; stomachache; urination difficulty, urinary tract infectionRtIDrink decoction3–5 glassesOnce to thrice a day or as neededNone
122Kaempferia galanga L.ZingiberaceaeKisolUSTH 01557920070.601.441.89Colds; tonic; cough, sore throat; dyspepsia, toothache; postpartum care and recovery; headache, feverRzIDrink decoction3–5 glassesTwice a day or as neededNone
Toothache; headache, feverRzI/EApply grinded rhizome as poultice1–3 rhizomesThrice a day or as neededNone
Tonic; postpartum care and recovery; headache, feverShEPlace washed clean shoot around the neck1–3 shootsOnce a day or as neededNone
Cough; rheumatism, swollen muscleLfERub heated and crashed leaves1–3 leavesThrice a day or as neededNone
  1. UR use-report, UC use category, UV use value, CIV cultural importance value, UD use diversity
  2. aBk, barks; Br, branch; Fl, flowers; Fr, fruits; Lf, leaves; Rt, roots; Rz, rhizomes; Sd, seeds; Sh, shoots; St, stems; Wh, whole plant
  3. bI, internal; E, external