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Table 4 Medicinal plants used by the Agusan Manobo in Agusan del Sur, Philippines

From: Quantitative ethnopharmacological documentation and molecular confirmation of medicinal plants used by the Manobo tribe of Agusan del Sur, Philippines

Plant no. Scientific name Family Local name Voucher no. UR UC UV CIV UD Disease or purpose Parts useda Preparation and administrationb Quantity or dosage Administration frequency Experienced adverse or side effects
1 Andrographis paniculata Nees Acanthaceae White flower USTH 015616 480 9 1.43 3.07 2.09 Jaundice, colds, malaria; cancer; diabetes; hypertension, heart enlargement, atherosclerosis; cough, respiratory disease complex, sore throat; diarrhea, ulcer, dyspepsia, liver problem; abortifacient; fever, gas pain and flatulence Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed Can cause abortion in pregnant women
Boils, skin rashes and itchiness, dermatitis Wh E Apply decoction as wash 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
2 Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz Acanthaceae Marvelosa or Serpentina USTH 015622 583 6 1.74 2.90 1.74 Colds; diabetes, beriberi; nervous breakdown; hypertension; diarrhea, stomachache; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm Lf I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Once a day for 3–5 days None
3 Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae Kudyapa USTH 015589 211 9 0.63 2.75 2.06 Diabetes; anemia; cough, bronchitis; dysentery, constipation; urinary tract infection; fever Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
Labor and delivery enhancer Sd I Drink water-infused powdered seeds 1–3 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
Boils, psoriasis, skin rashes, eczema, pimple, acne; snake and scorpion bite Lf E Apply leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Thrice a day or as needed None
4 Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Mangga USTH 015591 222 5 0.66 2.85 1.47 Constipation Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 1–3 fruits Thrice a day or as needed None
Cough, cough with phlegm, sore throat Lf I Drink hot water-infused leaves or decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
Diarrhea, stomach trouble; headache Bk I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
Scabies; cuts and wounds Bk, Lf E Rub crushed leaves or scraped bark 3–5 leaves, 1 palm-sized bark Twice a day or as needed None
5 Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz Anacardiaceae Abihid USTH 015599 372 4 1.11 2.33 1.39 Colds; diabetes; cough; fever Bk, Lf I Drink decoction of leaves and scraped bark 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day for 3 days or as needed None
Colds; fever Bk, Lf E Bath water-infused leaves and scraped bark 1 pail Once a day or as needed None
6 Annona muricata L. Annonaceae Guyabano USTH 015593 209 8 0.62 2.17 2.02 Cancer; diabetes; hypertension; dysentery Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 3–5 glasses Once or twice a week or as needed In excess can cause blood viscosity
Ascariasis; cough; stomach trouble, stomach acidity; urination difficulty, urinary tract infection Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Skin eruptions, eczema Lf, Sp E Apply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves As needed None
7 Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson Annonaceae Anangilan or Ilang-ilang USTH 015577 358 7 1.07 2.47 1.85 Colds; cough; stomach trouble, ulcer; fever, body chills Bk, Lf I Drink decoction 5–7 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
Scabies, athlete's foot; pimple; rheumatism, swollen muscles or swellings, muscle pain; insect bites Fl E Apply oil from steamed flowers Completely on affected part 3–5 times a day or as needed None
8 Friesodielsia lanceolata (Merr.) Steen. Annonaceae Talimughat taas USTH 015558 198 3 0.59 2.08 0.90 Muscle pain; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse Bk, Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day up to 3 days or as needed None
9 Uvaria zschokkei Elmer Annonaceae Bigo USTH 015662 195 5 0.58 0.70 1.56 Amoebiasis; hypertension; fever, weakness and fatigue St I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Hair loss; insect bites St, Sp E Apply stem sap 1/2–1 cup As needed None
10 Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don Apocynaceae Dita USTH 015546 386 9 1.15 2.71 2.04 Tonic; ear congestion; cough; stomach trouble, toothache; urinary tract infection; abdominal pain, weakness and fatigue, hangover Bk, Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, sprain Lf E Apply crushed and heated leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
Scabies, impetigo, ringworm; boils Bk E Apply water-infused powdered bark 1 glass Once or twice a day or as needed None
Stomachache, snake bite Bk E Drink local alcohol-tinctured bark 1/2 to 1 glass As needed None
11 Anodendron borneense (King & Gamble) D.J.Middleton Apocynaceae Lunas tag-uli USTH 015639 1134 12 3.39 3.68 2.22 Cancer; diabetes; ear infections; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, toothache; arthritis, rheumatism; pregnancy; body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse; poisoning Sp, St I Drink stem sap 1–3 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Colon and prostate cancer, cyst, tumor; diabetes; hypertension; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, toothache, swollen gums; arthritis, rheumatism; impotence and sterility, postpartum care and recovery; body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulence; sprain; poisoning St I Drink local alcohol-tinctured or decocted stem 1/2 to 1 glass Once or twice a day or as needed None
Scabies, warts, impetigo, typhoid fever; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes, and itchiness; arthritis, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse gas pain and flatulence; allergy, burns, cuts and wounds, sprain, animal and insect bites, contacts with plants and animal parts St E Apply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused stem Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
12 Hoya imbricata Decne. Apocynaceae Pikot-pikot USTH 015618 57 2 0.17 0.86 0.69 Boils; cuts and wounds Lf E Apply coconut oil-infused burned and powdered leaves Completely on affected part As needed None
13 Alocasia zebrina Schott ex Van Houtte Araceae Lunas gabi USTH 015614 44 1 0.13 0.60 0.00 Allergy, cuts and wounds, snake and insect bite, poisoning Lf, Sp, St E Apply stem or leaf sap Completely on affected part Once a day or as needed None
14 Homalomena philippinensis Engl. ex Engl. & K.Krause Araceae Payaw USTH 015597 466 7 1.39 2.00 1.83 Colds; body ache, headache, fever Lf, St I/E Sniff sliced and pounded leaf and stem or tie leaf and stem around the neck 1–3 leaves Once a day or as needed None
Tonsillitis; pregnancy, impotence and sterility, labor and delivery enhancer Rz I Drink extracted juice from crushed rhizome 1–3 cups Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Rheumatism; cuts and wounds Rz E Apply extracted juice from crushed rhizome Completely on affected part As needed None
Hemorrhoids Lf E Insert heated young leaf 1 leaf Once or twice a day or as needed None
15 Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. Araliaceae Goto Kola USTH 015563 263 4 0.78 1.78 1.39 Diabetes; hypertension; fever Lf I Eat fresh leaves directly or drink decocted leaves 3–5 leaves; 1 cup Once a day or as needed In excess can cause anemia, dizziness and weakening
Cuts and wounds Lf, Sp E Apply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice 1–3 leaves As needed None
16 Areca catechu L. Arecaceae Huling-huling USTH 015610 42 1 0.13 0.70 0.69 Breast cancer Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
17 Calamus megaphyllus Becc. Arecaceae Kapi USTH 015608 168 4 0.50 1.65 1.28 Hypertension; asthma; diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastritis, indigestion; arthritis, rheumatism Rz I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
18 Thottea affinis (Planch. ex Rolfe) ined. Aristolochiaceae Salimbagat USTH 015643 278 3 0.83 1.75 1.10 Amoebiasis; cancer; toothache Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
19 Dracaena roxburghiana (Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh. Asparagaceae Espada-espada USTH 015647 78 2 0.23 0.67 0.69 Boils; snake bite Lf E Apply leaf sap or pounded leaves as poultice 5–7 drops As needed None
20 Acmella grandiflora (Turcz.) R.K.Jansen Asteraceae Lunas pilipo USTH 015548 396 4 1.18 2.40 1.33 Toothache; anesthetic Fl I Apply fresh flower directly 1–3 flowers As needed None
Skin rashes and itchiness, psoriasis; cuts and wounds; anesthetic Fl, Lf E Apply crushed flower or leaves as poultice 1–3 flowers, 5–7 leaves As needed None
21 Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Albahaca USTH 015602 77 3 0.23 1.89 1.10 Abortifacient; weakness and fatigue Lf I Drink decoction 1–3 cups Once a day or as needed Can cause abortion in pregnant women
Cuts and wounds E Apply pounded leaves as poultice 1–3 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
22 Artemisia vulgaris L. Asteraceae Helbas USTH 015619 365 4 1.09 1.60 1.24 Asthma, cough, cough with phlegm; diarrhea, dyspepsia; delayed menstruation; relapse Lf I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Thrice a day or as needed In excess can cause anemia, dizziness and weakening
Abdominal pain, body ache, fever, cramp, and spasm Lf E Apply crushed leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once a day or as needed None
23 Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae Tuway-tuway USTH 015582 218 5 0.65 1.67 1.26 Colds; diarrhea; muscle pain; backache, body ache, fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulence Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day up to 3 days or as needed None
Cuts and wounds, animal and insect bites Lf E Apply crushed leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
24 Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. Asteraceae Gabon USTH 015573 412 6 1.23 2.60 1.58 Hypertension; cough, cough with phlegm; urination difficulty; postpartum care and recovery; body ache, headache, fever, weakness and fatigue, gas pain and flatulence Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day for 3 days or as needed None
Headache Lf E Apply steamed or pounded leaves in the forehead 1–3 leaves Once a day or as needed None
Boils, skin rashes Lf E Apply leaves as poultice 1–3 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
25 Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob. Asteraceae Hagonoy USTH 015632 448 5 1.34 2.50 1.56 Tumor; hemorrhage; fever Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day for 3 days or as needed None
Boils; burns, cuts, and wounds Lf E Apply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves As needed None
26 Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. Asteraceae Kanding-kanding USTH 015587 476 5 1.42 2.78 1.42 Colds, malaria; pulmonary tuberculosis; dog bite Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
Chicken pox, herpes simplex, measles; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm Fl, Lf, Rt E Bath water-infused leaves and roots or burn leaves and roots as incense 1 pail as bath or 1 bowl as incense Once or twice a day or as needed None
27 Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng.) DC. Asteraceae Gapas-gapas bae USTH 015666 208 3 0.62 2.25 1.01 Stomachache, dyspepsia; body ache, headache, gas pain, and flatulence Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
Cuts and wounds Lf, Sp E Apply sap or leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves As needed None
28 Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Asteraceae Ashitaba USTH 015645 215 4 0.64 2.50 1.33 Emphysema, cough; diarrhea, stomach trouble; kidney stones; abdominal pain Lf I Drink brewed tea-prepared leaves or decoction 3–5 cups Once or twice a day or as needed None
29 Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob. Asteraceae Moti-moti USTH 015543 397 6 1.19 2.75 1.67 Cough; ulcer Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
Sore eyes Lf, Sp I Drop leaf sap Completely on affected part As needed None
Skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and wounds, snake and scorpion bites; circumcision antiseptic Lf E Apply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice 5–7 leaves As needed None
30 Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr Asteraceae Kukog banog USTH 015564 500 5 1.49 2.50 1.44 Urination difficulty, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling, delayed menstruation, urinary tract infection; fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm Lf, Rt I Drink brewed tea-prepared leaves or decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Sore eyes; eczema, skin rashes, and itchiness; cuts and wounds, sprain, snake bite Lf, Sp E Apply drops of leaf sap Completely on affected part Thrice a day or as needed None
31 Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. Athyriaceae Pako-pako USTH 015545 212 5 0.63 1.92 1.56 Colds; cough; diarrhea, dysentery; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; body ache, headache, fever Sh I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
32 Begonia contracta Warb. Begoniaceae Budag-budag USTH 015654 85 2 0.25 1.33 0.64 Pimple, dandruff; burns Fl, Lf E Apply crushed flower and leaves as poultice 1–3 flowers, 1–3 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
33 Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Bombacaceae Doldol USTH 015535 140 5 0.42 2.14 1.55 Diabetes; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea, dysentery; rheumatism, swollen muscles; snake bite Bk, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
34 Ehretia microphylla Lam. Boraginaceae Alangitngit or Tsaang-Gubat USTH 015638 336 4 1.00 2.60 1.39 Diabetes; nervous breakdown; stomach acidity; food and drug allergy Lf I Drink tea-prepared leaves 1/2 to 1 cup Once a day for 3 days or as needed None
35 Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Bromeliaceae Pinya USTH 015667 226 7 0.67 1.71 1.85 Ascariasis, amoebiasis; cancer; diabetes; hypertension; constipation, stomach acidity Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 1–3 slices Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Headache, fever, weakness, and fatigue Lf, Sh E Apply crushed shoot or leaves as poultice Completely on affected part As needed None
Cancer; swellings Lf I/E Drink decoction or apply decocted leaves 3–5 leaves Once a day or as needed None
36 Abroma augusta (L.) L.f. Byttneriaceae Samboligawn USTH 015637 329 8 0.98 2.69 1.98 Diabetes, tonic; bronchitis; stomachache; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation; sterility Bk, Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Scabies; boils, skin eruptions, dermatitis; cuts and wounds Bk, Lf E Apply decoction as wash 1–3 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
37 Kleinhovia hospita L. Byttneriaceae Bitan-ag USTH 015631 146 6 0.44 2.50 1.70 Tumor; asthma, pneumonia, cough; dyspepsia, liver problem; headache; baby teething Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
Scabies; psoriasis Lf E Apply crushed leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
38 Melochia umbellata (Houtt.) Stapf Byttneriaceae Banitlong USTH 015649 265 4 0.79 1.76 1.24 Rheumatism; backache, body ache, headache Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Canker sore; burns Lf E Apply leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once a day or as needed None
39 Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G.Don Campanulaceae Elepanteng puti USTH 015583 213 5 0.64 1.83 1.56 Toothache Lf I Apply chewed or pounded leaves 1–3 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
Nervous breakdown; asthma, bronchitis; fever Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Cuts and wounds Lf E Apply decoction 1 glass As needed None
40 Carica papaya L. Caricaceae Kapayas laki USTH 015668 659 6 1.97 2.92 1.64 Constipation, dyspepsia; milk production enhancer Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 1–3 slices Once a day or as needed None
Tonic; asthma; stomach problem Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Dengue fever Lf, Sp I Drink leaf sap 5–7 leaves Thrice a day or as needed None
Body ache, fever, cramp, and spasm Lf I Apply crushed and heated leaves as poultice 1–3 leaves Twice a day or as needed None
41 Cratoxylum sumatranum (Jack) Blume Clusiaceae/Guttiferae Bansilay USTH 015541 96 4 0.29 2.33 1.33 Colds; cough; dysentery Bk, Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Toothache Lf I Apply chewed or pounded leaves 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Impetigo; cuts and wounds Lf E Apply pounded leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
42 Hellenia speciosa (J.Koenig) Govaerts Costaceae Tambabasi or Tawasi USTH 015578 744 8 2.22 2.58 2.03 Diabetes, goiter; migraine; ear congestion; cough, lung nodule; urination difficulty, kidney problem; headache, fever Lf, Rz I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day up to 3 days or as needed None
Diarrhea, stomachache, dysentery St I Drink stem sap 1/2 cup As needed None
Sore eyes Lf I Apply leaf sap Completely on affected part As needed None
43 Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Crassulaceae Hanlilika USTH 015584 486 12 1.45 2.88 2.21 Diabetes; anemia, hypertension; asthma; cough; constipation, diarrhea, stomach trouble, hemorrhoids; kidney stone; labor and delivery enhancer; fever Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 leaves Once a day or as needed None
Herpes simplex; hemorrhoids; boils, eczema; swellings; burns, cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, insect bites Lf I Apply decocted leaves as wash 1–3 leaves Once a day or as needed None
Abdominal pain, body ache, headache, fever Lf E Apply heated leaves as hot compress 1–3 leaves Once a day or as needed None
44 Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H.Pfeiff. Cyperaceae Busikad USTH 015571 254 6 0.76 1.38 1.61 Chicken pox, measles; cancer; cough; stomach acidity; fever, relapse, gas pain and flatulence; sprain Wh I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Baby teething Fl I Drink water-infused flower 1/2–1 glass Once to thrice a day None
45 Stenomeris borneensis Oliv. Dioscoreaceae Banag USTH 015537 540 6 1.61 2.36 1.70 Myoma; migraine; arthritis, rheumatism; urination difficulty, urinary bladder swelling; postpartum care and recovery; headache, cramp and spasm, relapse Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day for 3 days or as needed None
46 Euphorbia hirta L. Euphorbiaceae Tawa-tawa USTH 015665 305 7 0.91 2.80 1.85 Colds, dengue fever; asthma; diarrhea, vomiting; fever Wh I Drink decoction of whole plant except flowers 5–7 glasses Thrice a day or as needed In excess can cause thrombocytopenia
Ringworm; sore eyes; boils, skin rashes, and itchiness; cuts and wounds Lf I/E Apply leaf sap or decocted leaves 5–7 leaves Thrice a day or as needed None
47 Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae Tuba-tuba puti USTH 015595 495 7 1.48 2.66 1.79 Colds; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea; arthritis, rheumatism; backache, body ache, fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulence Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 1–3 leaves Once a day or as needed None
Scabies, ringworm; ear infection, discharging ear; toothache; swollen muscles and swellings; cuts and wounds, fracture and dislocation, animal and insect bites Bk, Rt I/E Apply decoction or pounded scraped bark as poultice 1–3 palm-sized barks, 1/2–1 arm-sized roots As needed None
48 Jatropha gossypifolia L. Euphorbiaceae Tuba-tuba tapol USTH 015586 810 9 2.41 2.83 1.94 Colds, malaria, typhoid fever; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea; arthritis, rheumatism; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation; backache, body ache, fever, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse, gas pain, and flatulence Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 1–3 leaves, 1/2–1 arm-sized roots Once a day or as needed None
Ringworm; boils, carbuncles, dermatitis; swollen muscles and swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, fever; cuts and wounds Lf E Bath or wash decocted leaves 1–3 leaves Once a day or as needed None
Scabies, ringworm; ear infection, discharging ear; toothache, mouth sore; cuts and wounds, fracture and dislocation, animal and insect bites Bk, Rt I/E Apply decoction or pounded scraped bark as poultice 1–3 palm-sized barks, 1/2–1 arm-sized roots As needed None
49 Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb. & Zoll. Euphorbiaceae Awom USTH 015621 485 5 1.45 2.33 1.56 Beriberi; emphysema, cough; diarrhea, stomach trouble Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Fibroma; body ache, weakness, and fatigue Bk, Fl, Lf E Apply fresh or heated flower, leaves, and bark; sometimes mixed with little salt 1–3 flowers, 1–3 leaves, 1–3 palm-sized barks Once or twice a day or as needed None
50.1 Omalanthus macradenius Pax & Hoffm. Euphorbiaceae Banti puti USTH 015633 202 3 0.60 1.77 1.04 Impetigo; diarrhea, stomach trouble; cuts and wounds Lf E Apply pounded leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
50.2 Omalanthus macradenius Pax & Hoffm. Euphorbiaceae Banti tapol USTH 015554 203 3 0.61 1.60 1.04 Impetigo; diarrhea, stomach trouble; cuts and wounds Lf E Apply pounded leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
51 Bauhinia sp. Fabaceae Talimughat pikas USTH 015575 284 4 0.85 1.50 1.22 Rheumatism, muscle pain; delayed menstruation; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm, relapse Lf, St I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day up to 3 days or as needed None
52 Crotalaria incana L. Fabaceae Sagay-sagay USTH 015572 84 5 0.25 1.60 1.24 Myoma; hormonal imbalance; cough; constipation; fever, weakness and fatigue, relapse Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day up to 3 days or as needed None
53 Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Steud. Fabaceae Madre de Cacao USTH 015620 153 6 0.46 1.83 1.68 Scabies; boils, skin eruption, skin rashes, and itchiness; cuts and wounds Lf, Sp E Apply leaf sap or pounded leaves as poultice Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
Eczema, dermatitis; arthritis and rheumatism; burns, cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions Bk, Rt, Sp E Apply sap or decocted bark or root Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
Abortifacient, postpartum care, and recovery Lf E Burn leaves as incense or apply heated leaves as hot compress 3–5 leaves Once a day or as needed None
Body ache, headache, fever; fracture and dislocation, sprain Bk E Apply scraped bark as poultice 1–3 palm-sized barks Once a day or as needed None
54 Mimosa pudica L. Fabaceae Hibi-hibi or makahiya USTH 015570 355 8 1.06 2.29 1.97 Diabetes; hypertension; asthma, dysentery; urination difficulty; fever Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Baby teething Rt I Drink water-infused peeled roots 1/2 to 1 cup Once a day or as needed None
Mumps; boils; child sleeplessness, malaise, and fatigue Sh E Apply hot water-infused shoots 1/2 to 1 glass As needed None
55 Ormosia macrodisca Baker Fabaceae Bahay USTH 015625 522 5 1.56 2.36 1.56 Atherosclerosis (high cholesterol) Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 1–3 fruits Once or twice a day or as needed None
Typhoid fever; nervous breakdown; high cholesterol; kidney problem; fever Bk I Drink decoction or local alcohol-tinctured bark 1/2 to 1 cup Once or twice a day or as needed None
Nervousness; skin numbness Bk, Rt E Apply Efficascent oil-infused bark and root Fill a 250 ml glass bottle with bark and roots As needed None
56.1 Phanera semibifida (Roxb.) Benth. Fabaceae Alibangbang puti USTH 015646 66 1 0.20 1.11 0.00 Internal bleeding, hemorrhage Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
56.2 Phanera semibifida (Roxb.) Benth. Fabaceae Alibangbang tapol USTH 015634 53 1 0.16 1.00 0.00 Internal bleeding, hemorrhage Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
57 Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br. Lamiaceae Awoy USTH 015661 378 4 1.13 1.50 1.28 Ulcer, pancreatitis, fatty liver; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm Lf I Drink hot water-infused leaves 1/2 to 1 cup Once or twice a day or as needed None
Asthma Lf E Burn leaves as incense 1–3 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
Swollen muscles, muscle pain; backache, body ache Lf E Apply leaves as poultice 1–3 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
58 Coleus amboinicus Lour. Lamiaceae Kalabo USTH 015617 380 4 1.13 1.78 1.31 Asthma, cough, cough with phlegm; dyspepsia; abdominal pain, gas pain, and flatulence Lf I Eat leaves directly or drink decoction 1/2 to 1 cup Once to thrice a day or as needed In excess can cause anemia, weakness, and allergy
Burns, bruised and contusions, insect bites Lf E Apply water-infused leaves 1–3 glasses As needed None
59.1 Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. Lamiaceae Mayana kanapkap USTH 015567 260 5 0.78 1.67 1.47 Anemia; asthma, pneumonia, cough; dyspepsia; gas pain and flatulence Lf I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Once a day for 3–5 days or as needed None
Cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, sprain Lf, Sp E Apply leaf sap or crushed leaves as poultice 5–7 leaves Twice a day or as needed None
59.2 Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. Lamiaceae Mayana pula USTH 015644 414 6 1.24 2.25 1.59 Anemia; asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, pulmonary tuberculosis, cough; ulcer, dyspepsia; gas pain and flatulence Lf I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Once a day for 3–5 days or as needed None
Conjunctivitis Lf I Apply decoction as drop Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
Cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions, sprain Lf E Apply crushed leaves as poultice 5–7 leaves Twice a day or as needed None
60 Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm. Lamiaceae Gmelina USTH 015635 335 5 1.00 1.83 1.49 Toothache, gum swelling Lf I Apply chewed or pounded leaves 3–5 leaves As needed None
Discharging ear Fr I Drop extract of heated fruit 1–3 fruits As needed Poisonous when eaten
Stomach bloating; maternal care; headache, gas pain and flatulence; cuts and wounds Lf E Apply leaves directly or as poultice 1–3 leaves As needed None
61 Hyptis capitata Jacq. Lamiaceae Sawan-sawan USTH 015574 498 7 1.49 2.56 1.85 Colds, malaria; cough; diarrhea, stomachache; new-born baby care; fever, gas pain and flatulence Lf I Drink decoction or leaf sap 3–5 glasses decoction or 1/2 cup leaf sap (adult); 1/2 cup decoction or 1 teaspoonful leaf sap (baby) Once or twice a day or as needed None
Delayed menstruation Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Toothache; cuts and wounds Lf E Apply crushed leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves As needed None
62 Mentha arvensis L. Lamiaceae Herba buena USTH 015669 174 6 0.52 2.71 1.59 Measles; cough; diarrhea, dysentery; dysmenorrhea; headache, fever, cramp and spasm, gas pain and flatulence Sh I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
Asthma; dizziness and fainting Lf I Sniff crushed leaves or leaves infused with hot water 3–5 leaves As needed None
Toothache; headache, fever; insect bites Lf E Apply chewed or crushed leaves 3–5 leaves As needed None
63 Mentha canadensis L. Lamiaceae Sencia USTH 015670 432 9 1.29 2.81 2.04 Sinusitis, cough; stomachache, vomiting; delayed menstruation; backache, body ache, headache, fever, gas pain and flatulence Lf I Drink hot water-infused leaves or decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
Ringworm; ear infection and congestion; toothache Lf I/E Apply leaf sap Completely on affected part As needed None
Muscle pain, abdominal pain; cuts and wounds, dislocation, snake bite Lf E Apply crushed leaves as poultice Completely on affected part Once a day or as needed None
Skin rashes and itchiness, acne; rheumatism; cuts and wounds; animal and insect bites Lf E Apply decoction as wash 5–7 leaves Twice a day or as needed None
64 Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Sangig USTH 015630 385 9 1.15 2.33 2.09 Cough, cough with phlegm; constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, hemorrhoids; delayed menstruation; postpartum care and recovery; headache, fever, gas pain and flatulence Lf, Sh I Drink decoction or add in soup 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
Ear congestion, infection, and discharge Lf, Sp I Drop leaf sap 3–5 leaves As needed None
Boils, skin rashes, and itchiness; arthritis, rheumatism; cuts and wounds, bruises and contusions Lf E Apply decoction as wash 3–5 leaves Twice a day or as needed None
Toothache; cuts and wounds, snake bites Lf, Sh I/E Apply crushed shoot or leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves, 1 shoot As needed None
65 Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. Lamiaceae Wachichao USTH 015550 513 6 1.53 2.96 1.58 Diabetes; hypertension; diarrhea, stomachache; joint pain, gout, rheumatism; urination difficulty, kidney stones, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling, prostate problem; labor and delivery enhancer Fl, Lf I Drink brewed tea-prepared leaves or decoction of leaves and flower 3–5 cups Once or twice a day or as needed None
66 Premna odorata Blanco Lamiaceae Abgaw USTH 015559 668 7 1.99 2.94 1.79 Colds; nasal congestion, sinusitis, cough, cough with phlegm; diarrhea, ulcer; rheumatism; postpartum care and recovery; weakness and fatigue, gas pain and flatulence Lf I Drink water-infused leaves 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day for 3 days or as needed None
Cuts and wounds E Apply crushed leaves as poultice 1–3 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
67 Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr.) Bakh. Lamiaceae Kulipapa USTH 015603 128 4 0.38 1.18 1.24 Beriberi; muscle pain; labor and delivery; backache, body ache, cramp and spasm Rt, St I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
68 Vitex negundo L. Lamiaceae Lagundi USTH 015562 475 5 1.42 2.69 1.55 Cough, cough with phlegm; ulcer; rheumatism; postpartum care and recovery; headache, gas pain and flatulence Lf I Drink decoction 1/4 glass (young leaf) or 1/2 glass (mature leaf) Thrice a day or as needed None
69 Cinnamomum mercadoi S.Vidal Lauraceae Kaningag USTH 015585 908 8 2.71 3.22 1.93 Amoebiasis; cancer; hypertension; cough; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, stomach acidity; kidney problem, urinary tract infection; weakness and fatigue, cramp and spasm Bk, Br, Rt I Drink decoction or local alcohol-tinctured bark, stem and root 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
Cuts and wounds Bk, Br, Rt E Apply coconut oil-infused bark, stem and root Completely on affected part As needed None
70 Litsea cordata (Jack) Hook.f. Lauraceae Loktob USTH 015580 307 7 0.92 2.83 1.79 Mumps; cyst, tumor, myoma; goiter; asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, cough; ulcer; arthritis; kidney problem, dysmenorrhea Bk, Rt I Drink hot water-infused bark or decoction 1–3 glasses Once a day in thrice a week for 2 months or as needed In excess can cause anemia, dizziness and weakening
71 Machilus philippinensis Merr. Lauraceae Efficascent USTH 015576 82 2 0.24 1.11 0.69 Cough; weakness and fatigue Sp, St I Drink sap from rubbed stem 1/2 cup Once a day or as needed None
72 Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Lythraceae Banaba USTH 015596 384 4 1.15 2.57 1.26 Ulcer; urination difficulty, kidney stones, high uric acid, and creatinine; maternal care; backache, body ache, fever Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
73 Gossypium hirsutum L. Malvaceae Gapas USTH 015553 283 3 0.84 2.14 0.95 Hemorrhage; postpartum care and recovery; body ache, fever, body chills Rt I Drink decoction 1 glass Once a day for 3 days In excess, can cause abnormalities in lactating mothers
74 Sida rhombifolia L. Malvaceae Eskuba laki USTH 015601 768 8 2.29 2.55 1.87 Cough; stomach trouble; kidney stone, kidney problem, prostate problem, irregular menstruation Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Chicken pox, herpes simplex, scabies; boils; swellings; backache, body ache, headache; cuts and wounds Lf, Rt E Apply leaves as poultice or leaf and bark decoction as wash 3–5 leaves As needed None
Fever Bk I Drink decoction 1–3 palm-sized barks Once or twice a day or as needed None
75 Urena lobata L. Malvaceae Dupang bae USTH 015664 482 7 1.44 2.06 1.80 Stomach trouble; arthritis, rheumatism; labor and delivery, postpartum care and recovery; fever; cuts and wounds, fracture and dislocation, bruises and contusion, sprain, animal bites Wh I/E Drink or apply decoction or burn as incense 1 bowl Once a day or as needed None
Diabetes; sore throat; toothache; abdominal pain Sh I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
76 Angiopteris evecta Sw. Marattiaceae Amampang USTH 015658 126 3 0.38 1.50 0.87 Muscle pain; postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, weakness, and fatigue, cramp and spasm Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
77 Medinilla teysmannii Miq. Melastomataceae Tampion USTH 015581 282 3 0.84 1.25 1.04 Swollen muscles and swellings, muscle pain; gas pain and flatulence; sprain Lf E Apply heated leaves as hot compress 1–3 leaves Once a day or as needed None
78 Melastoma malabathricum L. Melastomataceae Hantutuknaw puti USTH 015588 274 3 0.82 1.89 0.96 Diarrhea, dysentery, stomachache, hemorrhoids; headache, fever Sh I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Toothache; cuts and wounds Lf I/E Drop or drink stem sap 1–3 leaves As needed None
79 Lansium domesticum Correa Meliaceae Lansones USTH 015565 103 4 0.31 1.52 1.28 Malaria; diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia; fever, gas pain and flatulence Bk, Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
Insect bites Bk E Apply powdered bark Completely on affected part As needed None
80 Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr. Meliaceae Santol USTH 015624 464 7 1.39 1.78 1.85 Tonic; hypertension; diarrhea, dysentery; postpartum care and recovery; abdominal pain, fever Bk, Fr, Lf I Drink decoction of mesocarp, leaves and scraped bark 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Toothache Lf I Apply crushed leaves as poultice 1–3 leaves As needed None
Boils, skin rashes and itchiness, dermatitis Lf E Apply decoction as wash 3–5 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
Ringworm Bk E Apply pounded scraped bark as poultice 1–3 palm-sized barks Once or twice a day or as needed None
81 Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. Meliaceae Mahogany USTH 015671 334 9 1.00 2.29 2.14 Dysmenorrhea, delayed menstruation; abortifacient; abdominal pain Sd I Take powdered seed or drink decoction 1–3 glasses Once a day or as needed Can cause abortion in pregnant women
Amoebiasis, malaria; cancer; tonic; hypertension; cough; diarrhea; miscarriage; fever Bk I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Once a day or as needed None
82 Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr. Menispermaceae Lagtang or Abutra USTH 015600 922 10 2.75 3.23 2.14 Jaundice; tumor, myoma; diabetes, tonic; respiratory disease complex; diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, ulcer, appetite enhancer; dysmenorrhea, delayed menstruation; abortifacient; fever Rt, St I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Thrice a day or as needed Can cause abortion in pregnant women
Scabies; boils, skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and wounds Rt, St E Apply coconut oil-infused stem Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
83 Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson Menispermaceae Panyawan USTH 015566 782 9 2.33 2.68 1.95 Malaria; tonic; diarrhea, stomach trouble, vomiting, ulcer, toothache; arthritis, rheumatism; dysmenorrhea; abortifacient; abdominal pain, backache, body ache, fever St I Drink local alcohol-tinctured or decocted stem 1–3 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed Can cause abortion in pregnant women
Scabies; sore eyes; cuts and wounds Sp, St E Drop stem sap Completely on affected part As needed None
Arthritis, rheumatism; abortifacient; abdominal pain, body ache; gas pain and flatulence St E Apply coconut oil-infused stem or stem mixed with gasoline Completely on affected part As needed Can cause abortion in pregnant women
84 Ficus botryocarpa Miq. Moraceae Kabiya USTH 015672 53 1 0.16 0.96 0.00 Headache, fever Rt I Drink decoction 1 arm-sized root Twice a day or as needed None
85 Ficus cassidyana Elmer Moraceae Tobog tapol USTH 015551 492 8 1.47 3.00 1.89 Colds; diabetes; hypertension; asthma, cough, respiratory disease complex; diarrhea, stomachache; urinary tract infection; postpartum recovery, maternal care, milk production enhancer; weakness and fatigue, relapse Bk, Rt I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
Diabetes; hypertension Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 1–3 fruits Once a day or as needed None
Body ache, headache, fever Lf E Apply leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves As needed None
86 Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq. Moraceae Balete USTH 015552 608 4 1.81 2.66 1.37 Prostate cancer, cyst, tumor; arthritis, rheumatism; kidney problem, prostate problem Bk, Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 5–7 glasses Once a day in thrice a week for 2 months In excess can cause anemia, dizziness, and weakening
Cuts and wounds Bk, Lf, Rt E Apply decoction as wash 1–3 glasses As needed None
Fracture and dislocation, sprain Bk, Rt E Apply fresh and heated bark and root as poultice 1–3 palm-sized barks or 1 arm-sized root Once a day or as needed Bark can cause skin allergy or burn
87 Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume Moraceae Tobog puti USTH 015561 480 8 1.43 1.62 1.89 Colds; diabetes; hypertension; asthma, cough, respiratory disease complex; diarrhea, stomachache; urinary tract infection; maternal care, postpartum recovery, milk production enhancer; weakness and fatigue, relapse Bk, Rt I Drink decoction 1–3 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
Diabetes; hypertension Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 1–3 fruits Once a day or as needed None
Body ache, headache, fever Lf E Apply leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves As needed None
88 Ficus pseudopalma Blanco Moraceae Lobi-lobi USTH 015636 331 7 0.99 2.38 1.80 Diabetes; hypertension, atherosclerosis, hemorrhage; diarrhea, stomach trouble, dyspepsia; kidney stones; muscle pain; postpartum care and recovery; cramp and spasm Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
89 Ficus septica Burm.f. Moraceae Lagnob USTH 015623 576 7 1.72 2.13 1.77 Stomach trouble; asthma, sinusitis; muscle pain; backache, body ache, headache, fever, weakness, and fatigue Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day for 3 days only In excess can cause intestinal weakening
Warts; cataract, eye problem Lf, Sp E Apply drops of leaf sap 3–5 leaves Twice a day or as needed None
Herpes simplex; boils Rt, Sp, St E Apply stem and root sap Completely on affected part Thrice a day or as needed None
90 Ficus sp. Moraceae Tuwa-tuwa USTH 015642 71 1 0.21 0.98 0.00 Pregnancy, impotence and sterility, postpartum care and recovery Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day for 3–5 days or as needed None
91 Morus alba L. Moraceae Tahibo USTH 015549 277 4 0.83 2.69 1.21 Colds; asthma, pneumonia, lung nodule, cough; muscle pain; cramp and spasm, relapse Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice to thrice a day for 3–5 days In excess can cause acid reflux and hypocupremia
92 Muntingia calabura L. Muntingiaceae Mansanitas USTH 015629 169 4 0.50 1.58 1.21 Colds; diarrhea, stomachache, vomiting, ulcer; prostate problem; abdominal pain, headache Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
93 Myristica agusanensis Elmer Myristicaceae Duguang kahoy USTH 015611 194 2 0.58 1.96 0.69 Measles; respiratory disease complex Bk I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
94 Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Bayabas USTH 015663 275 5 0.82 2.15 1.43 Diarrhea, ulcer Bk, Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Constipation Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly 1–3 fruits Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Scabies; toothache; skin eruptions; cuts and wounds Lf E Apply chewed or pounded leaves 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Dandruff; cuts and wounds; circumcision antiseptic Lf E Apply decocted leaves as wash 3–5 leaves Once to thrice a day or as needed None
95 Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Pandanaceae Pandantsina USTH 015555 197 2 0.59 1.98 0.60 Heart enlargement, high cholesterol; urination difficulty, kidney stone, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling, prostate problem Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
96 Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. Phyllanthaceae Talikod or Likod-likod USTH 015590 459 9 1.37 2.35 2.01 Jaundice, colds; tonic; coughs; stomach problem; kidney stone, kidney problem, urinary bladder swelling; new-born baby care; fever Wh I/E Drink decoction or apply decocted leaves as wash 3–5 glasses decoction or 1/2 cup leaf sap (adult); 1/2 cup decoction or 1 teaspoonful leaf sap (baby) Once or twice a day or as needed None
Scabies, jaundice, ringworm; skin rashness and itchiness, dermatitis, eczema; cuts and wounds Fr, Rt E Apply decoction as wash 3–5 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
97 Piper aduncum L. Piperaceae Lunas buyo USTH 015568 193 2 0.58 1.14 0.56 Skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and wounds, animal and insect bites Lf, St E Apply decoction Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed In excess can cause intestinal weakening
98 Piper decumanum L. Piperaceae Lunas bagon tapol USTH 015544 1018 9 3.04 3.45 2.06 Typhoid fever; cancer, cyst, tumor; pulmonary tuberculosis; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer; gas pain and flatulence; poisoning St I Drink local alcohol-tinctured stem 1/2 to 1 glass Once a day in thrice a week or as needed In excess can cause intestinal weakening
Tonsillitis; toothache, gum swelling, canker sore St I Gargle local alcohol-tinctured stem 1/2 to 1 glass Once or twice a day or as needed None
Scabies, warts, impetigo; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness, pimple, acne; arthritis, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, gas pain and flatulence; allergy, burns, cuts and wounds, sprain, snake, dog and insect bites, contacts with plants and animal parts; anesthetic St E Apply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused stem Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
99 Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Lunas bagon puti USTH 015560 824 9 2.46 2.41 1.20 Cancer, cyst, tumor; tonsillitis; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer, toothache, mouth sore, gum swelling; gas pain and flatulence; poisoning St I Drink or gargle local alcohol-tinctured stem or drink decocted stem 1/2 to 1 glass of local alcohol tincture or 3–5 glasses of decoction Once a day in thrice a week or as needed In excess can cause intestinal weakening
           Scabies, warts, impetigo; breast cancer; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness, pimple, acne; arthritis, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, gas pain, and flatulence; skin allergy, burns, cuts and wounds, animal and insect bites, contacts with plants and animals parts; anesthetic St E Apply coconut oil-infused or decocted stem Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
100 Piper sp. Piperaceae Buyo Pilipog USTH 015592 296 3 0.88 1.33 1.04 Asthma, cough; rheumatism; fracture and dislocation Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
101 Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Poaceae Bilabila USTH 015569 481 11 1.44 3.04 2.34 Measles; diabetes; internal bleeding; cough; diarrhea; arthritis; kidney problem; postpartum care and recovery; fever, cramp, and spasm; fracture and dislocation Wh I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Thrice a day or as needed None
Ringworm; hair loss; cuts and wounds Wh E Apply decoction 1 glass Once to thrice a day or as needed None
102 Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv. Poaceae Kogon USTH 015605 107 4 0.32 1.90 1.35 Urination difficulty Sh I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Chicken pox, measles; diarrhea, toothache; fever, baby teething Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
103 Paspalum conjugatum P.J.Bergius Poeaceae Miligoy USTH 015627 124 3 0.37 2.30 1.04 Diarrhea, dysentery Rt I Drink decoction 1 handful of roots Twice a day or as needed None
Hair loss; cuts and wounds Rt E Apply decoction as wash 1 handful of roots Once a day or as needed None
104 Rosa sp. Rosaceae Rose USTH 015628 83 3 0.25 1.33 1.04 Colds; nasal congestion, sinusitis Fl I Drink or sniff hot water-infused flowers 1 glass Thrice a day or as needed None
Cuts and wounds Fl E Apply hot water-infused flowers as wash 1 glass As needed None
105 Mussaenda philippica A.Rich. Rubiaceae Buyon USTH 015556 123 5 0.37 1.36 1.56 Jaundice, colds; dysentery, stomachache; fever; snake bite Bk, Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Asthma, cough Fl I Eat fresh flower directly 1–3 flowers Once or twice a day or as needed None
106 Uncaria lanosa Wall. Rubiaceae Kawilan USTH 015557 94 1 0.28 0.93 0.00 Stomach trouble Sp, St I Drink stem sap 1/2 cup Once or twice a day or as needed None
Diarrhea St I Drink local alcohol-tinctured bark 1/2 to 1 glass As needed None
107 Melicope latifolia (DC.) T.G.Hartley Rutaceae Bagaynga USTH 015540 43 1 0.13 0.92 0.00 Cough Bk I Drink decoction of scraped bark 1–3 palm-sized barks Once or twice a day or as needed None
108 Melicope triphylla (Lam.) Merr. Rutaceae Dahile USTH 015660 86 2 0.26 1.31 0.64 Pulmonary tuberculosis, cough Lf, Sp I Drink decoction or leaf sap 3–5 glasses or 3–5 leaves of sap Once to thrice a day or as needed None
Snake bite Lf, Sp E Apply leaf sap Completely on affected part As needed None
109 Micromelum minutum (G.Forst.) Wight & Arn. Rutaceae Lunas kahoy USTH 015538 955 9 2.85 3.28 2.03 Cancer, cyst; diarrhea, stomach trouble, ulcer; poisoning Lf, St I Drink local alcohol-tinctured or decocted stem 1/2 to 1 glass Once or twice a day or as needed In excess can cause intestinal weakening
Tonsillitis; toothache, gum swelling, canker sore Rt, St E Gargle local alcohol-tinctured stem 1/2 to 1 glass Once or twice a day or as needed None
Scabies, warts, impetigo; boils, skin eruptions, skin rashes and itchiness, pimple, acne; joint pain, rheumatism, swellings, muscle pain; backache, body ache, gas pain, and flatulence; allergy, burns, cuts, and wounds; snake, dog, and insect bites; contacts with plants and animal parts; anesthetic Rt, St E Apply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused stem Completely on affected part Once or twice a day or as needed None
110 Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae Sili na bisaya USTH 015626 151 6 0.45 2.48 1.61 Diabetes; hypertension Fr I Eat fresh fruit directly or add as spice in cooking 7 fruits Once or twice a day or as needed None
White spot, athlete's foot; appetite enhancer; boils, skin rashes and itchiness, psoriasis, dandruff; insect bites Lf E Rub crushed leaves or leaf sap 3–5 leaves Once or twice a day or as needed None
111 Grewia laevigata Vahl Sparmanniaceae Talimughat lingin USTH 015547 474 5 1.41 1.75 1.42 Diabetes; hypertension, heart enlargement; rheumatism; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, fever, weakness, and fatigue, relapse Bk, Lf, Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day up to 3 days or as needed None
Muscle pain; labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery; backache, body ache, fever, cramp, and spasm; relapse Bk, Rt E Apply coconut or Efficascent oil-infused bark and root Completely on affected part Once a day or as needed None
112 Dendrocnide luzonensis (Wedd.) Chew Urticaceae Alingatong USTH 015598 128 2 0.38 2.33 0.56 Diabetes; joint pain, swollen muscles, and swellings, muscle pain Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
113 Leucosyke capitellata Wedd. Urticaceae Anagasi USTH 015542 28 1 0.08 0.96 0.00 Stomach trouble and vomiting Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once or twice a day or as needed None
114 Oreocnide rubescens (Blume) Miq. Urticaceae Kubi or Salin-ubod USTH 015676 151 3 0.45 1.89 1.04 Cough; diarrhea, stomach trouble; fever Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
115 Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B.Rob. Urticaceae Handamay USTH 015673 540 6 1.61 2.25 1.58 Depression, anxiety, nervousness; stomach acidity; backache, body ache, headache, fever, weakness, and fatigue Lf I Eat fresh leaves or drink water solution of leaves 3–5 glasses Thrice a day for a month or as needed None
Herpes simplex, scabies; boils, dermatitis Lf E Rub crushed leaves 3–5 leaves Thrice a day or as needed None
Skin rashes and infection; cuts and wounds Bk E Apply pulp made from scraped bark as poultice 1–3 palm-sized barks Twice a day or as needed None
116 Poikilospermum acuminatum (Trecul.) Merr. Urticaceae Hanupi USTH 015655 243 6 0.73 2.06 1.67 Sore eyes; ulcer; postpartum care and recovery; fever Sp, St I Drink stem sap or decoction stem 1 arm-sized stem Once or twice a day or as needed None
Skin rashes and itchiness; cuts and wounds; animal and insect bites Rt, Sp E Apply decoction as wash 1 arm-sized root Once or twice a day or as needed None
117 Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl Verbenaceae Elepanteng lingganag USTH 015594 396 5 1.18 2.04 1.56 Ascariasis; abortifacient; fever Rt I Drink decoction 1 arm-sized root Once to thrice a day or as needed Can cause abortion in pregnant women
Boils; bruises, sprain Lf E Apply crushed leaves as poultice 3–5 glasses As needed None
118 Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. Xanthorrhoeaceae Ikug-ikug USTH 015656 164 3 0.35 1.39 0.95 Maternal care; postpartum care and recovery, milk production enhancer Lf I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once a day or as needed None
Cuts and wounds Lf E Apply leaves as poultice 3–5 leaves As needed None
Herpes simplex Lf, Rt E Apply coconut oil-infused ashes of leaf and roots Completely on affected part Thrice a day or as needed None
119 Curcuma longa L. Zingerberaceae Duwaw yellow USTH 015674 248 6 0.74 1.68 1.70 Diabetes; cough; arthritis, rheumatism; delayed menstruation; fever, gas pain and flatulence Rz I Drink grinded and brewed rhizome 1–3 cups Once or twice a day or as needed None
Burns, cuts and wounds, insect bites Rz E Apply extracted juice from crushed rhizome Completely on affected part As needed None
120 Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Rosc. Zingerberaceae Duwaw violet USTH 015645 83 2 0.24 1.88 0.69 Cough; fever Rz I Drink grinded and brewed rhizome 1–3 cups Once or twice a day or as needed None
121 Alpinia haenkei C.Presl Zingiberaceae Yanguas USTH 015641 86 3 0.26 1.26 1.04 Cough; stomachache; urination difficulty, urinary tract infection Rt I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Once to thrice a day or as needed None
122 Kaempferia galanga L. Zingiberaceae Kisol USTH 015579 200 7 0.60 1.44 1.89 Colds; tonic; cough, sore throat; dyspepsia, toothache; postpartum care and recovery; headache, fever Rz I Drink decoction 3–5 glasses Twice a day or as needed None
Toothache; headache, fever Rz I/E Apply grinded rhizome as poultice 1–3 rhizomes Thrice a day or as needed None
Tonic; postpartum care and recovery; headache, fever Sh E Place washed clean shoot around the neck 1–3 shoots Once a day or as needed None
Cough; rheumatism, swollen muscle Lf E Rub heated and crashed leaves 1–3 leaves Thrice a day or as needed None
  1. UR use-report, UC use category, UV use value, CIV cultural importance value, UD use diversity
  2. aBk, barks; Br, branch; Fl, flowers; Fr, fruits; Lf, leaves; Rt, roots; Rz, rhizomes; Sd, seeds; Sh, shoots; St, stems; Wh, whole plant
  3. bI, internal; E, external