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Table 2 Bio-processing of medicinal plants of District Bageshwar

From: Ethnomedicinal knowledge of a marginal hill community of Central Himalaya: diversity, usage pattern, and conservation concerns

Scientific name Mode of administration
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Dry root powder (1 TS) taken orally with boiled water twice a day for 2–3 days against fever; 1–2 roots chewed to control vomiting.
Acorus calamus L. Root powder mixed with grains used as insect repellent; 3–4 dry roots heated with mustard oil applied on the sprain and inflammatory region.
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob Leaf paste prepared from 100 g fresh leaf twigs applied on affected parts for early healing.
Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. Juice of whole plant (10–20 ml) taken twice a day for 2–3 days.
Ajuga parviflora Benth. Decoction prepared from 100 g fresh or dried roots with water given 3–5 TS orally in fever, stomach ache, and constipation for 5 days; this decoction taken orally in empty stomach regularly for stone; 1–2 leaves chewed on empty stomach for gastric problem; decoction of whole plant (5–8) crushed with red chili (3) and 100 g Jiggery (Gur) given twice a day for 2–3 days to treat throat infection in domestic animals.
Allium sativum L. Paste prepared from 5–7 spilled bulb heated with 20 ml mustard oil, massage on joints.
Angelica glauca Edgew. Root powder (50 g) mixed with 100 ml water used to control vomiting and stomach ache; rhizomes are used as spices and condiments and tea (as flavor).
Artemisia martima L. Juice (5–10 ml) of fresh leaf applied on the affected area.
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Root decoction (100 g) prepared in water given to cure stomach ache (5 ml for adult, 1 TS for children) for 3–5 days, one palm full root powder taken with water as stimulant and tonic.
Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC Root powder (100–150 g) taken with warm water given twice a day for 3 days against fever; fresh or dried roots soaked in water overnight, filtered, and taken orally to cure diabetes in empty stomach.
Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb. Fresh or dried roots (50–100 g) socked overnight and filtered, taken orally in morning for kidney stone. Root powder (50 g) taken with water twice a day for urinary infection.
Cannabis sativa L. Grinded seeds cooked with some local vegetables (e.g., Colacasia esculanta, Brassica oleracea) for warm effect; broiled seeds are grinded with salt and green chili to prepare salt (Pahadi namak). Broiled seeds grinded with Punica garnatum mixed with green leaves of coriandum, green chili, salt, and sugar to prepare Chatni; fresh leaves crushed with 3–5 seeds of black pepper and applied on insect bite.
Centella asiatica L. Fresh leaf paste is applied on forehead.
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Sw. Juice extracted from fruit mixed with 1 TS honey, and 50 ml water taken orally in empty stomach for constipation and weigh loss; lemon tea used in fever and cold.
Citrus hystrix DC. Fruit juice given orally (1 TS) to children for removal of Ascaris; cough and cold 10 ml thrice a day; fruit juice with mentha leaves (100 g) and coriander seeds made into paste given to domestic animals against poison.
Coriandrum sativum L. Seed (80–100 g) paste mixed with 1–2 l processed curd (Mattha) is given to domestic animals against poison for 2–3 days.
Curcuma longa L. Haldi powder (5 g) mixed with a full glass of warm milk for internal injury; paste of rhizome applied on cuts and wounds.
Cynoglossum zeylanicum Thunb. Ex Lehm. Fresh or dried root paste applied on the affected parts.
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo. Decoction of 100 g root with water taken orally (10–15 ml) twice a day for excessive bleeding; root paste applied on wounds.
Dioscorea bulbifera L. Broiled fruit and cooked vegetable.
Drymaria cordata (L.) Juice of aerial parts (2–4 drops) taken orally for 2–3 days.
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke Leaf paste is regularly applied on affected part.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fresh fruits are chewed regularly to control diabetes; dried fruits (3–5) boiled with water, filtered, and taken orally against cough and stomach ache; fresh and processed fruits are source of vitamin “C.”
Euphorbia sp. Whole plant (50–100) mixed with FYM.
Ficus palmata Forsk. Milky latex applied on cuts and wounds.
Ficus roxburghii Wall. Fresh fruits are cooked as vegetable.
Glycine max (L.) Merri Bhatt ka Jaula (an indigenous dish) is prepared from paste of seeds (soaked overnight) and cooked with rice in an iron vessel Kadahi.
Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. ex Smith. Dried rhizome powder (2–3 g) taken with hot water once a day; paste of fresh rhizome used as anti-lice.
Hordium vulgare L. Sattu prepared from 200 g broiled seeds mixed with 100 g jaggery (Gur) and 100 g Ghee for warm and nutritive effect; 50 g broiled seeds heated with 40 ml mustard oil applied on burns.
Leucas lanata Benth Leaf juice with 3–5 drops of breast milk taken orally twice a day for 1 week.
Mentha arvensis L. Leaves (100 g) boiled with water and filter, the filtrate (50 ml) given orally twice a day.
Micromeria biflora Benth. Juice of whole plant with water (1–2 times in a day).
Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam) Verdc. Gahat ka Ras (an indigenous dish) prepared by 150 g seeds cooked with water (1 l) until the volume reduced (100 ml) and taken regularly.
Momordica charanti L. Vegetable and juice (50 ml) of fresh fruit taken regularly.
Ocimum basilicum L. Decoction of 100 g leaves and seeds, zinger (50 g), 5 seeds black paper with 150 ml water taken orally 2–3 times a day for fever, cough, and cold; aerial part used to make herbal tea.
Origanum vulgare L. Decoction of 100 g fresh and dried leaves with water taken orally (10 ml) for a week in cough, cold, and fever; root paste applied on wounds.
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle. Decoction of 50 g root with water taken orally against fever and abdominal pain for 5–7 days.
Plantago ovate Forsk. Seeds (10 g) soaked overnight or consumed directly with water twice a day for 30 days against constipation and digestive problems; Isabgoal (15 g) mixed with 10 TS fresh curd taken after meal for diarrhea.
Plantego lanceolata L. Paste of roots (100 g) given to domestic animals.
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Root paste applied on wound.
Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle Small pieces of tuber (8–10) soaked in water for overnight, taken in empty stomach for weakness, and develop immunity; cooked green leaves eaten as blood purifier; root paste applied on cuts and wounds.
Polygonatum verticillatum L. All Root powder (50 g) is taken with warm water in gastric complaints; fresh root paste applied for wound healing.
Prunus persica Stokes. Fresh leaf paste applied on head for 2–3 h.
Psidium guajava L. Fresh leaves are chewed.
Punica granatum L. Powder (50 g) of dried fruit peel taken orally with warm water for old cough; fruit juice (50 ml) given twice a day to anemic patient.
Ranunculus repens L. Root paste (50 g) applied for boils, and 30–50 ml filtered root extract (juice) is given twice a day against intestinal pain.
Rephanus sativus L. Vegetable prepared from fresh leaves and root as salad.
Rheum emodi Wall. Decoction of 100 g root with warm water taken orally (10 ml) for fever twice a day; root paste applied on wounds.
Rhododendron arboreum Smth Juice extracted from fresh flowers
Rosa moschata Hermm. Fresh leaf paste is applied on cuts, wounds, and boils; water extracted from fresh flowers used in eye diseases.
Rubia cordifolia L. Root decoction with water given orally (1–2 TS) against fever twice a day to children (5 months–10 years)
Rubus ellipticus Smith. Decoction (10 ml) of 100 g roots with water taken orally against fever and stomach ache for 5 days.
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch Decoction of root (50 g) with water given against dysentery for 3–5 days twice a day; root powder (50 g) taken orally with boiled water in fever, cough, and stomach ache.
Setaria italica L. Koni ka Jaula (an indigenous dish) prepared from seeds cooked with water.
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Root decoction (10 ml) with warm water given against fever for 3 days; 1 TS is used for removal of Ascaris (Juga); leaves are used as a vegetable.
Swertia spp. Juice of fresh leaves (100 g) given with boiled water 3 TS for 3–5 days for fever; Panchang (whole plant) is used after soaking overnight and taken (50–100 ml) orally in empty stomach for 15 days.
Taraxacum officinale Weber. For snake bite: juice of whole plant with water taken orally (1–2 TS) thrice a day and applied on injured part for 1 week; mixture of 100 g roots with 9 seeds of black pepper, 1–2 l processed curd (Mattha), and 250 g paste of black soybean given to increase lactation in milching animals.
Tegetus erecta L. Fresh leaf juice with water taken against fever (3–5 TS twice a day); leaf extract (2–3 drops) in ear infection; fresh leaf paste is applied for healing cuts and wounds.
Terminalia chebula (Gaertner) Retz. Dried fruit powder (100 g) given orally with boiled water twice a day for 3–5 days in stomach ache; dried fruit crushed with water and given (1–2 ml) orally to children (3 months to 5 years) and small amount applied around the navel.
Thalictrum foliosum DC. Fresh roots (50 g) soaked in rose water (100 ml) for overnight, filtered, and used as eye drop.
Thymus serpyllum L. Paste of whole plant mixed with mustard oil gently applied on joints; whole plants juice (10 ml) mixed with honey (20 g) is taken orally for cough and asthma; broiled seeds (10–15 g) with warm water taken for digestive and stomach problems; leaves and seeds are used as spices and condiment.
Trifolium repens L. Leaf paste (5 g) with water.
Trigonella foemun-graecum L. Leaf juice is taken orally for curing obesity, indigestion, joints pain, and constipation; 25 g seeds are soaked overnight filter; the filtrate taken orally in empty stomach for gastric problems and diabetes.
Urtica dioica L. Branches with leaves are gently rubbed on joints and muscles; fresh leaf twigs taken as vegetable; fine powder of dry leaf (5–10 g) dissolve in 50 ml water is taken orally in joints and muscular pain.
Verbascum thapsus L. Fresh leaf paste applied on affected part for boils; 8–10 whole plants mixed with grass given mulching animals.
Viola betonicifolia J.E. Smith (Violaceae) Paste of whole plant (fresh or semidry) applied on affected part for 1–2 weeks.
Viola canescens Wall. Ex Roxb Fresh plants (30–50) given with grass for 1 to 2 weeks.
Vigna mungo L. Paste prepared by grinding of 150 g seeds with water applied on the fractured part.
Zanthoxylum armatum DC Seeds (100 g) boiled with water taken orally twice a day; seed bark used as a spices.
Zingiber officinale Rosc. A piece (5–10 g) of broiled rhizome mixed with small amount of honey and chewed.
  1. FYM farm yard manure, TS tablespoon