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Table 1 Local wild food and medicinal plants gathered and used in the study area

From: Renegotiating situativity: transformations of local herbal knowledge in a Western Alpine valley during the past 40 years

Gathered botanical taxon/taxa, family/-ies and voucher specimen code(s) Local plant name(s) Used parts Folk use recorded in 1976 (preparation) Folk use recorded in the current field study (preparation) Frequency of use in the current field study
Acer pseudoplatanus L., Aceraceae, UNISGSANG18001 Piè Leaves   FOO: wrapping for butter; VET: fodder for goats N/A (remembered from the past)
Achillea herba-rotta All., A. millefolium L., and possibly A. nana L., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG15001 (A. herba-rotta) and UNISGSANG18005 (A. millefolium) Marmin Whole plant HER: diuretic, febrifuge (tea) FOO/HER: liqueurs (considered diuretic); HER: diuretic (tea); anti-hematomas and anti-bruises (poultice with lard and vinegar) Very common
Adianthum hispidulum Sw., Pteridaceae, UNISGSANG18045 Fugèt Aerial parts   HER: enhancing blood circulation, emmenagogue (tea) Rare
Alcea rosea L., Malvaceae    HER: anti-kidney stones (decoction)   
Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm., Rosaceae Cuculin Leaves   HER: anti-dysmenorrhea (external washes) Rare
Allium cepa L., Amaryllidaceae Siola Bulbs   HER: bechic (tea), digestive (broth), anti-inflammatory and panacea (cooked) Very common
Allium sativum L., Amaryllidaceae Ai Bulbs HER: vermifuge (also in necklaces to be worn during the night) HER: hypotensive (food); vermifuge in children (slice of bread rubbed with garlic) Fairly common
Allium schoenoprasum L., Amaryllidaceae Erba cipollina Leaves   FOO: seasoning Rare
Allium ursinum L., Amaryllidaceae Aiet Leaves   FOO: salads, soups Rare
Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Betulaceae, UNISGSANG15002 Verna Leaves   HER: anti-back pain (compress of dried leaves) Rare
Aloysia citrodora Palau, Verbenaceae, UNISGSANG18057 Limonaria Leaves   HER: digestive (tea) Rare
Althaea officinalis L., Malvaceae, UNISGSANG15003 Redaui Roots HER: anti-kidney stones (decoction) HER: anti-toothache in children (tea made from fresh roots) Rare
Angelica archangelica L. and A. sylvestris L., Apiaceae Angelica Roots and aerial parts HER: digestive (liqueur made from the roots) HER: anti-carbuncles (compress of aerial parts) Rare
Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae Serli Leaves   HER: male aphrodisiac (consumed) Rare
Arctium lappa L., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG15004 Cicapuoi Leaves HER: bechic (decoction) HER: hepato-protector (decoction) Rare
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Ericaceae   Leaves HER: anti-urinary tract infections (decoction)   
Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) P.Kumm., Physalacriaceae Famiole Fruiting body   FOO: pickled in oil Very common
Arnica montana L., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG18006, UNISGSANG15005 Arnica, Bertolica Flowers   HER: for treating many skin inflammations, anti-bruises, anti-rheumatic (oleolite or alcoholic macerate, externally applied); anti-flu (inhaled) Very common
Artemisa absinthium L., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG15007 Erba banci, Incens Leaves and flowers HER: vermifuge (decoction) VET: enhancing placenta expulsion (fodder in cows) Rare
Artemisia genipi Weber ex Stechm. and possibly A. glacialis L. and A. umbelliformis Lam., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG15006 (A. genipi) Genepì (A. genipi), Genepì fumela (A. glacialis and umbelliformis) Aerial parts HER: digestive (tea) FOO/HER: liqueurs (considered digestive); HER: digestive (tea) Fairly common
Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald., Rosaceae Spars servai Shoots   FOO: boiled Fairly common
Betula pendula Roth, Betulaceae, UNISGSANG18010 Bès Sap   HER: blood depurative (drunk) Rare
Boletus aureus Schaeff., Boletaceae Moru Fruiting body   FOO: salads, sautéed, fried, pickled Very common
Boletus edulis Bull., Boletaceae Bouloi Fruiting body   FOO: salads, sautéed, fried, pickled Very common
Brassica oleracea L. var. sabauda, Brassicaceae Coi Leaves   HER: anti-bruises (topically applied) Rare
Brassica rapa L., Brassicaceae Rava Roots HER: bechic (also for whooping cough; slices of the root mixed with honey and left to macerate 3 days) FOO: external “peel” dried and cooked in milk when vegetables were scarce in the spring N/A (remembered from the past)
Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Ericaceae, UNISGSANG15009 Bruri Leaves   HER: anti-diarrhoeic (decoction); VET: fodder for rabbits Rare
Carlina acanthifolia All., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG18007 Cardun, Pugnu Flowers and flower receptacles   FOO: snack (flower receptacles); FOO/HER: digestive (liqueur made from the flowers) Fairly common (FOO); rare (FOO/HER)
Carum carvi L., Apiaceae, UNISGSANG15010 Cumino, Cümmel Fruits   FOO/HER: liqueur (considered digestive) Rare
Castanea sativa Mill., Fagaceae, UNISGSANG18022 Castagn Fruits   FOO: soups with milk and potatoes, roasted, jams, sweets, liqueurs Very common
Ceterach officinarum Willd., Aspleniaceae   Aerial parts HER: diuretic, vermifuge (decoction, taste sometimes improved with a few mint leaves)   
Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach., Parmeliaceae, UNISGSANG15011 Lica Thallus (traditionally gathered in fields over 2,000 m a.s.l. on the 2nd Sunday of July) HER: bechic and demulcent (decoction, sometimes together with lime tree flowers) HER: bechic and anti-inflammatory of the respiratory tract (decoction or syrup) Fairly common
Chantarellus cibarius Fr., Cantharellaceae Garitula Fruiting body   FOO: soups, sautéed, fried Very common
Chelidonius majus L., Papaveraceae Erba di poret Latex HER: anti-warts (topically applied)   
Chenopodium bonus-henricus L., Amaranthaceae, UNISGSANG18014 Spinas sarvai Leaves   FOO: cooked Fairly common
Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae Cicoria Leaves HER: depurative (decoction)   
Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Rosaceae, UNISGSANG15012 Bosu Leaves and flowers   HER: tranquilizing, hypotensive (tea) Rare
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Poaceae, UNISGSANG18037, UNISGSANG15013 Gramon, Grmon Whole plant HER: diuretic (tea, often mixed with corn stigmas and bearberry leaves) HER: diuretic (tea) Fairly common
Daphne mezereum L., Thymelaeceae   Roots VET: purgative (tea)   
Eleagnus rhamnoides (L.) A.Nelson   Fruits HER: astringent and anti-hemorrhagic (crushed fruits, consumed or topically applied)   
Epilobium angustifolium L., Onagraceae, UNISGSANG15014 Epilobio Leaves   HER: anti-cancer Rare
Equisetum arvense L., Equisetaceae, UNISGSANG18015 Coa d’aval Erba cavaligna Erba cavallina Aerial parts HER: diuretic, improving blood circulation (decoction) HER: diuretic, improving joints Rare
Erica arborea L., Ericaceae, UNISGSANG15016 Erica Flowering tops   HER: diuretic (tea) Rare
Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim., Rosaceae   Flowering tops HER: diuretic (tea)   
Fistulina hepatica (Schaeff.) With., Fistulinaceae Lenghe Fruiting body   FOO: salads Fairly common
Fragaria vesca L., Rosaceae, UNISGSANG18047 Frola Fruits   FOO: snack; FOO/HER: for treating intestinal discomforts (consumed) Very common (FOO); rare (FOO/HER)
Fumaria officinalis L., Papaveraceae Fumaria Leaves   HER: for treating eye inflammations, decoction (topically applied) Rare
Gentiana acaulis L. and G. verna L., Gentianaceae, UNISGSANG18025 and UNISGSANG15018, respectively Cücüc, Giansanela Roots and whole plant (G. acaulis);Flower buds (G. verna) FOO/HER: aromatized wines made from the roots of G. acaulis (considered digestive) FOO/HER: aromatized wine and liqueurs made from the whole plant of G. acaulis or the flower buds of G. verna (considered appetizing, digestive, and reconstituent) Fairly common
Gentiana lutea L., Gentianaceae, UNISGSANG18027 Giansana
Roots FOO/HER: aromatized wines (considered digestive and hepato- protector) FOO/HER: aromatized (white) wines, sometimes adding lemon peels (considered appetizing, digestive, and reconstituent); VET: appetizing and digestive (cows) Very common
Geranium robertianum L., Geraniaceae, UNISGSANG15019 Erba roberta Flowers   HER: to treat menstrual pains (decoction) Rare
Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray, Grifolaceae Mutun Fruiting body   FOO: pickled in oil Fairly common
Hedera helix L., Araliaceae Edera Leaves HER: wounds (often with St. John’s Wort oleolite) HER: for treating cradle cap (tea, externally applied) Rare
Helminthoteca echioides (L.) Holub, Asteraceae Patacun, Scagnet Leaves   FOO: soups; VET: fodder for rabbits Fairly common
Hepatica nobilis Mill., Ranunculaceae   Leaves HER: anti-horsefly bites (crushed leaves topically applied)   
Humulus lupulus L., Cannabaceae, UNISGSANG15020, UNISGSANG18012 Luvertin,Lüvertin Shoots   FOO: risotto, omelettes Very common
Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae, UNISGSANG15021, UNISGSANG18027 Erba d’San Giuan, Milapertus, Stafurà, Trafurera Tucram Aerial parts and flowers FOO/HER: liqueurs made from the leaves (considered digestive and intestinal spasmolytic);digestive, hepato-protector, cholagogue (decoction of the flowers); for treating all skin inflammations (including burns and wounds; oleolite, often extracted in walnut oil and mixed with ivy leaves, topically applied); VET: for treating leg infections in calves, sheep, and goats (oleolite mixed with bran topically applied) FOO/HER: aromatized wines made from the whole aerial parts (considered tranquilizing), liqueurs made from the flowers (considered tranquilizing and anti-cholesterolemic); HER: anti-burns and anti-wounds (oleolite, topically applied); anti-stomach ache and anti-cystitis (oleolite, drunk) Very common
Hyssopus officinalis L., Lamiaceae Issop Flowers HER: bechic (tea)   
Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, UNISGSANG1828 Nus Unripe fruits and kernels   FOO/HER: liqueurs made from unripe fruits (considered digestive); sweets, salads with garlic, vinegar, and salt (kernels) Very common
Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae, UNISGSANG15022 Genevru Branches, bark and galbules   FOO: roasted meat seasoning (galbules); grappa seasoning (branches); VET: general sickness (galbules as fodder for cows and bark as fodder for rabbits) Very common (FOO); rare (VET)
Laburnum anagyroides L., Fabaceae, UNISGSANG18020 Aburn Branches, leaves and flowers   VET: insect repellent (hang in the hen-house) Rare
Lapsana communis L., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG18060 Burasa russa, Scina rusa Leaves   FOO: soups Rare
Larix decidua Mill., Pinaceae Pin Resin and young shoots HER: muscular pains and arthritis (oleolite, externally applied); bechic (decoction)   
Laserpitium siler L., Apiaceae Apia Leaves HER: anti-bruises (crushed leaves mixed with pork fat and topically applied)   
Leccinum scabrum (Bull.) Gray, Boletaceae Crava    FOO: sautéed, fried Fairly common
Malva sylvestris L., Malvaceae, UNISGSANG15025, UNISGSANG18033 Malva, Marva, Riondela Leaves and flowers HER: tranquilizing, anti-neuralgic, bechic (tea) FOO: soups (young leaves); HER: digestive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cystitis (tea); for treating eye inflammation (anti-stye; tea, externally applied) Very common
Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae Canamia Flowering tops HER: tranquilizing, digestive (tea) HER: tranquilizing (tea); for treating eye and ear inflammations (oleolite, externally applied); to treat abdominal pains (hot compress applied to the belly) Very common
Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, UNISGSANG15026, UNISGSANG18029 Limonaria, Mlissa Leaves   FOO: seasoning; HER: digestive, emmenagogue (tea) Very common
Mentha spicata L. and possibly other Mentha spp., Lamiaceae, UNISGSANG18030 Menta Leaves HER: digestive (tea) FOO/HER: liqueurs (considered digestive); HER: digestive (tea); VET: anti-lice in hens Very common (vet use rare)
Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. (Boraginaceae), UNISGSANG18011 Non ti scordar di me Flowers   FOO: salads; HER: for treating eye inflammations (topically applied) Rare
Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Brassicaceae, UNISGSANG18012 Grisun Aerial parts   FOO: salads (considered blood depurative) Fairly common
Neoboletus luridiformis (Rostk.) Gelardi, Simonini & Vizzini, Boletaceae Fre Fruiting body   FOO: cooked Rare
Oxalis acetosella L., Oxalidaceae, UNISSANG15027 Trampis, Trampin    FOO: omelettes Fairly common
Papaver rhoeas L., Papaveraceae Papaver Petals HER: tranquilizing, febrifuge (tea)   
Parietaria officinalis L., Urticaceae   Aerialparts HER: anti-kidney stones (decoction) HER: diuretic, anti-kidney stones, for treating shingles (decoction) Fairly common
Persicaria bistorta L. Samp., Polygonaceae, UNISGSANG18041 Lenghe buine Leaves   FOO: cooked; VET: fodder for goats Fairly common
Picea abies (L.) H.Karst., Pinaceae Sapin Resin and young shoots HER: muscular pains and arthritis (oleolite, externally applied); bechic (decoction)   
Pinguicula grandiflora Lam., and possibly other Pinguicola spp., Lentibulariaceae, UNISSANG15028 (P. grandiflora) Viola tajarda Leaves HER: anti-bruises (chopped leaves mixed with lard and topically applied) HER: vulnerary (topically applied) Rare
Pinus mugo Turra and possibly other Pinus spp.,. Pinaceae, UNISGSANG15029 (P. mugo) Pin Resin and young shoots HER: muscular pains and arthritis (oleolite, externally applied); bechic (decoction) FOO/HER: syrups, liqueurs (considered bechic) Rare
Plantago coronopus L., Plantaginaceae, UNISGSANG15030 Piota de galign Leaves   FOO: soups Fairly common
Plantago lanceolata L., Plantaginaceae, UNISGSANG15031, UNISGSANG18036 Cüjet, Erba dii canarin, Urie du giari Leaves HER: anti-carbuncles, (crushed leaves, topically applied) FOO: soups; HER: anti-carbuncles, anti-haemorrhoids, (compress, externally applied) Fairly common
Plantago major L., Plantaginaceae, UNISGSANG15037 Piantagn Leaves   FOO: soups; HER: diuretic (leaves) Rare
Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All., Asparagaceae   Rhizomes HER: anti-carbuncles (externally applied)   
Polypodium vulgare L., Polypodiaceae, UNISGSANG15032, UNISGSANG18043 Argalisia Rhizomes   FOO: snack Rare
Potentilla anserina L., Rosaceae, UNISGSANG15033 Erb del set virtü Rhizomes   HER: anti-diarrheic, febrifuge, anti-stomach ache, bechic (decoction) Fairly common
Primula vulgaris Huds. and possibly P. veris L., Primulaceae, UNISGSANG15034, UNISSANG18044 (P. vulgaris) Piumbera,
Flowers and roots HER: bechic (decoction of the roots) FOO: soups (flowers) Fairly common
Prunus avium L., Rosaceae Cerese, Cerse büshas Fruit peduncles and fruits HER: febrifuge (tea of the peduncles) FOO: snack, jams, preserved (fruits); HER: anti-inflammatory, diuretic (decoction of the peduncles) Very common
Prunus cerasus L., Rosaceae Griutera Fruits   FOO: snack Very common
Prunus domestica L., Rosaceae Bergna Kernels HER: vermifuge (crushed kernels mixed with honey and consumed)   
Prunus padus L., Rosaceae   Bark HER: febrifuge (tea)   
Pulmonaria officinalis L., Boraginaceae   Leaves HER: bechic (tea)   
Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and possibly Q. robur L., Fagaceae, UNISGSANG18024 (Q. petraea) Rol, Rul Leaves, bark and acorns VET: astringent (decoction of bark and acorns for calves) VET: galactagogue (dried leaves as fodder for goats) Rare
Ranunculus acris L. Ranunculaceae, UNISGSANG15035 Ranuncolo Flowers   HER: rubefacient (applied under the feet to artificially generate a rash for avoiding compulsory military service) N/A (remembered from the past)
Rhododendron hirsitum L. and possibly R. ferrugineum, Ericaceae, UNISGSANG15036 (R. hirsitum) Brunsai Flowers HER: bechic (decoction); anti-kidney stones (tea) HER: diuretic (decoction) Rare
Robinia pseudoacacia L.Fabaceae, UNISGSANG18021 Gasia Inflorescences   FOO: deep fried Fairly common
Rosa canina L., Rosaceae, UNISGSANG18050 Gratacul, Gratacü Pseudo-fruits HER: astringent (tea) FOO: jams, liqueurs;HER: diuretic (decoction) Fairly common
Rubus idaeus L., Rosaceae, UNISGSANG18051 Àmpula Fruits   FOO: snack, jams, liqueurs Very common
Rubus ulmifolius Schott., Rosaceae, UNISSANG15037, UNISGSANG18052 Runza Young shoots, unripe and ripe fruits   FOO: jams (fruits);soups (young shoots);
HER: anti-hoarseness (gargles of a decoction of the unripe fruits); anti-diarrheic (decoction of the young shoots); vulnerary and anti-septic (alcoholic macerate of the young shoots, externally applied)
Fairly common
Rumex acetosa L., Polygonaceae, UNISGSANG15038, UNISGSANG18042 Esileu, Isiule Leaves   FOO: salads, omelettes, sauce (mixed with milk and ghees) for accompanying polenta; HER: diuretic (tea) Fairly common
Rumex alpinus L., Polygonaceae, UNISGSANG15039 Ariei, Lapas, Rebarbar d’montagna Leaves, inflorescences and roots HER: digestive (tea of the leaves and inflorescences) FOO: soups,wrapping for butter (leaves); HER: digestive (root decoction) Fairly common (FOO; wrapping for butter remembered from the past); rare (HER)
Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae Ruta Leaves   FOO: grappa seasoning Fairly common
Salix caprea L., Salicaceae Sales Leaves and bark HER: anti-callus (crushed, externally applied)   
Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, UNISGSANG18031 Sarvia Leaves HER: digestive (decoction and liqueur) HER: tranquilizing, digestive, reconstituent (decoction, not to be used during pregnancy); anti-septic (washes) Very common(old local saying: “Se la fumna a savèisa la virtü d’la salvia, a saria mai malavia” = “If a woman knew the virtues of sage, she would never be ill”)
Sambucus nigra L. and S. racemosa L., Adoxaceae, UNISSANG15040 (S. nigra) Sambur Young branches, flowers and fruits FOO/HER: aromatized wines made from the flowers and fruits (considered depurative);HER: anti-rheumatic (oleolite of the flowers, externally applied) FOO: jams (fruits or flowers), soups (flowers); HER: anti-herpes, anti-burns, for treating skin inflammations, anti-haemorrhoids (poultice mixing bee wax and young branches); anti-toothache (flowers, externally applied); diuretic and febrifuge (decoction of the flowers); anti-toothache and anti-rheumatic (decoction of the flowers in milk, externally applied) Very common
Scabiosa columbaria L., Caryophyllaceae, UNISGSANG15056, UNISGSANAG18059 Gialina grasa, Gialina grasa Whorls   FOO: soups Rare
Sedum telephium L., Crassulaceae, UNISSANG15043 Erba dei calli Aerial parts   HER: anti-callus (oleolite, externally applied) Rare
Sempervivum sp., Crassulaceae   Leaves HER: anti-callus (crushed leaves topically applied)   
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, Caryophyllaceae, UNISGSANG15044 Ciuchinot, Cöiet Leaves   FOO: soup Fairly common
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG15045 Cardun Leaves   HER: hepato-protector (decoction) Rare
Solanum dulcamara L., Solanaceae Dulcamara Fruits   HER: bechic (decoction with apples) Rare
Solanum nigrum L., Solanaceae, UNISGSANG15046 Erba morela Leaves and fruits HER: anti-arthritis and anti-rheumatic (poultice) HER: anti-carbuncles (fresh leaves directly applied) Rare
Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Caryophyllaceae Purota Aerial parts   FOO: salads Rare
Suillus granulatus (L.) Rousell, Suillaceae Pinaiolo Fruiting body   FOO: cooked Rare
Tanacetum vulgare L., Asteraceae T’nea Leaves HER: hypotensive (tea) VET: digestive and antidote against Veratrum spp. ingestion (cows) Rare
Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg, Asteraceae, UNISSANG15048 Cicoria de pra, Girasui, Taracun Leaves and flowers   FOO: salads, omelettes, soups;HER: diuretic, liver protector (tea); bechic (flower syrup) Very common
Thymus serpyllum L., Lamiaceae,UNISGSANG15049, UNISGSANG18032 Serpolet, Serpul Leaves and flowers HER: anti-stomatitis (mouthwash) FOO: meat, soups, and mushroom salads seasoning; smoked with tobacco; FOO/HER: aromatized wines (considered digestive); HER: digestive and tonic (tea); flu (external compress); oral antiseptic (mouthwash of decoction); FOO/HER: liqueurs (considered digestive); VET: fodder for rabbits before they are butchered (for enhancing flavour) Fairly common
Tilia cordata Mill., Malvaceae, UNISGSANG15050 Tij Leaves and flowers (tiöl) HER: bechic and febrifuge (tea) HER: bechic (tea) Very common
Tragopogon pratensis L., Asteraceae, UNISGSANG18051 Barbaboch Leaves HER: depurative (decoction) FOO: boiled, soup Fairly common
Tussilago farfara L., Asteraceae Pata d’asu Leaves HER: whooping cough (fumigations); for treating insect bites (compress of the fresh leaves)   
Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae, UNISGSANG18055 Urtia, Ürtia Leaves and roots HER: anti-dysmenorrhea (decoction of the roots) FOO: soups, risotto, omelettes, salads (leaves); HER: cicatrizing, anti-bruises (external applications of chopped leaves); anti-alopecia and hair strengthening (decoction, externally applied); VER: enhancing egg production (fodder for hens) Very common
Vaccinium myrtillus L., Ericaceae, UNISGSANG15057, UNISSANG18017 Ambrune Fruits   FOO: jams; FOO/HER: snack (“good for the eyes”), liqueurs (considered anti-diarrhoeic); HER: anti-prostatitis, antiphlogistic of the urinary tract Very common
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Ericaceae, UNISGSANG18018 Anghertin Fruits   FOO: snack Rare
Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr., Valerianaceae,UNISGSANG15058, UNISGSANG18055 Saladet, Saladet dle funtene Young leaves   FOO: salads Very common
Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae Verbasco Leaves and flowers HER: bechic (infusion of the flowers); anti-arthritis (leaves, externally applied)   
Veronica allionii Vill., Plantaginaceae Te d’montagna Leaves HER: tonic (tea)   
Veronica chamaedrys L. and V. officinalis L., Plantaginaceae   Fiori HER: febrifuge (tea)   
Viola calcarata L., Violaceae Viola, Viuletta d’muntagna Flowers HER: bechic (tea) HER: bechic, laxative, intestinal anti-inflammatory (tea) Fairly common
Viola canina subsp. montana (L.) Hartm., Violaceae, UNISGSANG18057 Viulëtta Flowers   FOO: soup (“müshe morte” = “dead flies”, as the cooked violets resemble flies) Rare
Viola odorata L., Violaceae, UNISGSANG15059 Viola mammola Flowers   FOO: soups Rare
Viola tricolor L., Violaceae Viola d’l pensé Flowers HER: febrifuge, tranquillizer (tea)   
Zea mays L., Poaceae   Stigma HER: diuretic and antiphlogistic against urinary tract infections (tea);   
  1. FOO recorded wild food plant use, FOO/HER recorded food-medicinal use, HER recorded herbal use for humans, VET recorded veterinary use