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Table 3 Birds ranked according to the number of people able to name them (total N = 13)

From: Patterns in the transmission of traditional ecological knowledge: a case study from Arnhem Land, Australia

Scientific name Kune name(s)a Number of respondents Recorded or potential interactionsb
Magpie Goose murnubbarr 13 Eggs and meat eaten (+)
Australian Bustard benok, walbburrungku 13 Meat eaten (+)
Bush Stone-curlew kurrubirla, kuwirluk 13 Loud calls heard at night
Torresian Crow wakwak 13 Totem, songline, loud calls
Emu wurrbbarn, ngurrurdu 13 Meat eaten (+)
Barking Owl ngokngok 13 Distinctive call heard at night
Great Bowerbird djuweh 13 Distinctive nest
Australian White Ibis karrarla, kalamorn 13 Meat eaten
Blue-winged Kookaburra korrokkorrow 12 Distinctive evening call
Eastern Koel djawok, duwoh 12 Distinctive seasonal call
Brolga ngal-kordow, kodorrko 12 Meat eaten
Australian Pelican mola, mula 12 Meat eaten (+)
Brown Goshawk karrkanj, malawirdiwirdi 11 Spreads bushfires, totem
Black-necked Stork kanjdji 11 Meat eaten, totem
Peaceful Dove koloddoddok 11 ?, common
Rainbow Lorikeet dedded 11 ?, common
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo ngarradj 10 Meat eaten
Pheasant Coucal bukbuk 10 Meat eaten
Red Goshawk karrkanj, marram 10 spreads bushfires, totem
Bar-shouldered Dove bokodjbokodj 10 Meat eaten
Grey Teal djilikuyibi 9 Meat eaten
Red-tailed Black-cockatoo ngarnarrngh, karnamarr 9 Meat eaten (+), eggs eaten
Magpie-lark marlibrlib, diladila 9 ?, common, distinctive call
White-bellied Sea-eagle mibbarr, makaka 9 ?, totem
Australasian Darter mandangarli, barrakbarrak 8 Distinctive behaviour, meat eaten
Little Corella ngalelek 8 Meat eaten (+)
Helmeted Friarbird kawolk 8 Meat eaten
Tawny Frogmouth kuluyhkuluy 8 Meat eaten
Eastern Great Egret komorlo 7 Meat eaten
Black-faced Cuckooshrike widjiwidjik, wirriwirriyak 7 Distinctive call
Zebra Finch djurrkurl, ninhninh 7 ?
Chestnut-breasted Mannikin djurrkurl, ninhninh 7 ?
Rainbow Bee-eater berrerhberrerh 7 Mythological link
Great Cormorant bonbon, barrakbarrak 7 Distinctive behaviour, meat eaten
Masked Lapwing berrebberreb 7 Aggressive, distinctive call
Little Kingfisher djirrirdirdi 6 Distinctive behaviour
White-bellied Cuckoo-shrike widjiwidjik, wirriwirriyak 6 Distinctive call
Cicadabird widjiwidjik, wirriwirriyak 6 Distinctive call
Brown Quail djirribbidj, djirbbidj 6 Meat eaten (+)
Plumed Whistling-Duck djirribiyuk, djulukuyibi 6 Meat eaten
Green Pygmy-goose diwidj 6 Meat eaten (+)
Rufous Owl ngokngok 6 Distinctive call at night
Royal Spoonbill murluimurlui, mulunjmulunj, bunberl 6 Meat eaten
Sacred Kingfisher djirrirdirdi 6 Distinctive behaviour
Southern Boobook ngokngok 6 Distinctive call at night
Wedge-tailed Eagle biyangdungkah 6 ?, large size
Galah wirlihwirlih 5 ?
Glossy Ibis birndu 5 ?
White-necked Heron kawarrkkawarrkken, kondo, karladjarr 5 Meat eaten
Black-shouldered Kite mibbarr 4 ?
King Quail djirrirddih, djirribbidj 4 Meat eaten
Partridge Pigeon dabbarr, rakul 4 Meat eaten (+)
Radjah Shelduck karrkarala 4 Meat eaten (+)
White-browed Crake djinarrarr, djinarradjinarra 3 ?
Azure Kingfisher djirrirddirddih 3 Distinctive behaviour
Pied Imperial Pigeon rumuh, marlun 3 ? possibly eaten
Black Bittern kondoh, durukmud 3 ?
Orange-footed Scrubfowl ngal-kodjdjorrmi 3 Meat eaten
Nankeen Night-heron kalkorowk 3 Meat eaten (+)
Red-browed Pardalote djurdudjurdumun 3 ?
Rufous Fantail djikkiridjdjikkiridj 3 Distinctive behaviour
Grey Fantail djikkiridjdjikkiridj 3 Distinctive behaviour
Spotted Nightjar lablab 3 Distinctive call
Pacific Black Duck ngarnkul, dedjkorrk 2 Meat eaten
Red-winged Parrot djadberlhberl, weley 2 ?
Striated Heron kulu, durukmud 2 Meat eaten
Large-tailed Nightjar lablab 2 Distinctive call at night
Rufous-throated Honeyeater birnhbirndok, djurdudjurdumun 2 ?
Blue-faced Honeyeater yahyih, rolongadji, birdibarlmard 2 ?
Gouldian Finch djurrkurl, ninhninh 2 ?
Diamond Dove korlodohdoh 2 ?
Chestnut-quilled Rock-pigeon borrobborro, dodoro 2 Meat eaten (+)
Northern Rosella ?djikkilirridj, djikkelerinj 2 ?
Hooded Parrot djikkilirridj, djadberlhberl 2 ?
Pied Butcherbird warrhdjird, kobbirdidj 2 Distinctive call
Fork-tailed Swift yerrelh 1 ?
Great-billed Heron kulu 1 Meat eaten
White-breasted Woodswallow djerdedjerd 1 ?
Pacific Baza malawirdiwirdi 1 ?
Pallid Cuckoo djirungh 1 Distinctive call
Great Knot buluwirdwird 1 ?
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper buluwirdwird 1 ?
Emerald Dove dodoro 1 ? possibly eaten
Silver Gull djirrimirla 1 ?
Black-tailed Treecreeper madjirnhmadjirnh 1 Distinctive behaviour
Oriental Cuckoo djirungdjirung 1 Distinctive call
Black Butcherbird warrhdjird 1 Distinctive call
White-faced Heron kawarrkawarrken 1 Meat eaten
Pied Heron mungkulmungkul 1 Meat eaten
Dollarbird rdewrdew 1 Distinctive call
Brahminy Kite djurddjurd 1 Totem
Comb-crested Jacana kodabbirl, djinarrarrdjinarrarr 1 Distinctive behaviour
Square-tailed Kite malawirdiwirdi 1 ?
Crested Pigeon wirrirwirrir 1 ? common
Green Oriole kodkangardidjbun 1 Distinctive call
Mangrove Golden Whistler nyuridj 1 ?
Varied Lorikeet djurrih 1 ?
Banded Fruit-dove lumbuk 1 Meat eaten
Red-backed Button-quail merhmerh 1 ? possibly eaten
Masked Owl yerinj 1 ?
Eastern Grass Owl yerinj 1 ?
  1. The prefix ngal- is a noun class marker in Kune for the feminine class
  2. (+) indicates information from [31], and refers to birds that are considered ‘staple’ or ‘important’ food sources for at least part of the year; this information was obtained from people in west Arnhem Land, who speak the related languages Gundjeihmi and Kinwinjku, but Kune people may not necessarily consume these birds to the same extent
  3. aWhen more than one name is given, the first is generally the one associated with the people living Buluhkaduru, while the other words may be from neighbouring languages or dialects, which are frequently used by Kune speakers as synonyms
  4. bSources: [30, 31], author’s field notes