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Table 2 Ethnobotanical inventory of wild edible plants used by Daqinggou locals in Inner Mongolia

From: Wild edible plants collected and consumed by the locals in Daqinggou, Inner Mongolia, China

Species Folk Chinese name Folk Mongolian name Usage Edible part(s) and mode of consumption Linguistic groups Voucher numbers
Abutilon theophrasti Medic. Qīng má 青麻 Him-a Grain Seed, dried and used as grain M/H D1909-001
Adenophora remotiflora (Sieb. et Zucc.) Miq. Waī bó caì 歪脖菜, tǔ dǎng shēn 土党参 Uhilahu nogug-a Vegetable/beverage Tender leaf, fried, consumed as soup. Root, soaked with wine M/H D1806-032
Adenophora polyantha Nakai Shā shēn 沙参 Uhilahu nogug-a Vegetable/beverage Tender leaf, to make soup or fried. Root, soaked with wine M/H D1806-036
Allium macrostemon Bunge Xiǎo gēn suàn 小根蒜 Jiecong (BN), togdausu Vegetable/condiment Tender aerial parts and bulb, fried, dipped in sauce. Tender aerial parts, used for seasoning M/H D1806-011
Allium ramosum L. Shān jiǔ cài 山韭菜 Heger-e in gogud Vegetable/condiment Tender aerial parts, fried, boiled as stuffing for pasta. Tender aerial parts and inflorescence, salted (consumed as leek flower sauce) M/H D1709-002
Allium senescens L. Máng gé ěr (BN) 芒格尔 Manggir Vegetable/condiment Tender aerial parts, fried, boiled as stuffing for pasta, dipped in sauce or used for seasoning M/H D1806-013
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Xiàn cài 苋菜 arbai Vegetable/grain Tender stem and leaf, consumed as soup, boiled as stuffing for pasta. Seed, dried and used as grain M/H D1806-003
Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. Shān xìng 山杏 Heger-e in guilesu Vegetable/fruit/oil and fats Seed, salted. Fruit, eaten raw. Kernel, oil extracted M/H D1805-002
Artemisia frigida Willd. Xiǎo bái hāo 小白蒿 Cagan siralzi Vegetable Tender aerial parts, steamed with flour, consumed as soup M/H D1806-015
Athyrium brevifrons Nakai ex Kitag. Shān jué cài 山蕨菜, lǎo yīng bǎng zi老鹰膀子 Juecai (BN), togus in segul Vegetable Leaf, cold and dressed with sauce, salted, fried, consumed as soup or boiled as stuffing for pasta M/H D1805-009
Caltha palustris L. var. sibirica Regel Lǘ tí cài 驴蹄菜   Vegetable Leaf, cold and dressed with sauce or fried H D1806-029
Cannabis sativa L.f. ruderalis (Janisch.) Chu   Olusus Oil and fats Seed, oil extracted M D1810-003
Cerasus humilis (Bunge) Sok. ōu lǐ 欧李 Ulagan-a Fruit/beverage Fruit, eaten raw. Root, soaked with wine M/H D1906-001
Chenopodium acuminatum Willd. Huī cài 灰菜 Gurbalzin noil Vegetable Tender stem and leaf, boiled as stuffing for pasta, boiled and mixed with cream M/H D1805-005
Chenopodium album L. huī cài 灰菜 Noil Vegetable Tender stem and leaf, boiled as stuffing for pasta, boiled and mixed with cream M/H D1806-001
Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB.   Cinu-a in haltar Vegetable Tender leaf, fried M D1806-014
Codonopsis lanceolata (Sieb. et Zucc.) Trautv.   Sun orhudai Vegetable Root, salted M D1806-025
Corylus heterophylla Fisch. ex Trautv. Zhēn zi 榛子 Sid Snack Fruit, eaten raw, fried M/H D1810-002
Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge. var. major N.E. Br. Shān lǐ hóng 山里红 Dolugun-a Vegetable/fruit Tender leaf, steamed with flour, consumed as soup. Fruit, eaten raw M/H D1805-003
Cynanchum chinense R. Br.   Temegen hөhu Snack Young fruit, eaten raw M D1806-006
Cynanchum thesioides (Freyn) K. Schum. Lǎo piáo老瓢, lǎo guā piáo老瓜瓢 Temegen hөhu Vegetable/snack Young fruit, dipped in sauce, eaten raw M/H D1806-018
Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. Yě jú huā 野菊花   Beverage Flower, dried and made into tea H D1810-004
Ephedra sinica Stapf Má huáng 麻黄 Zegergen-e Fruit Mature female cone, eaten raw M/H D1810-005
Erodium stephanianum Willd. Hóng gēn 红根 manziuhai Snack Root, eaten raw M/H D1808-002
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Qiáo mài huā 荞麦花 Sagad Grain Flower, boiled and mixed with flour M/H D1808-001
Ferula bungeana Kitag. Shān huí xiāng 山茴香   Vegetable/condiment Tender aerial parts, boiled as stuffing for pasta, made into gruel or used for seasoning H D1806-019
Hemerocallis minor Mill. Huáng huā zi 黄花子 Huanghuacai (BN), honghu huwar, sir-a huwar Vegetable Flower, consumed as soup, fried, boiled and mixed with cream M/H D1806-016
Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch.   Har-a sanduu Vegetable Tender leaf and young fruit, consumed as soup M D1806-024
Juglans mandshurica Maxim. Shān hé tao 山核桃 Husig-a, noyan modu Snack Fruit, eaten raw M/H D1808-003
Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. Sào zhou cài 扫帚菜 Šugur nogo Vegetable Tender aerial parts, fried, steamed with flour M/H D1806-028
Lespedeza davurica (Laxm.) Schindl.   Hurbhei Vegetable/beverage Tender stem and leaf, fried, steamed with flour. Shoot, dried in the shade or baked and made into tea M D1806-030
Lilium pumilum DC. Hóng huā zi 红花子, bǎi hé 百合 Saralang huwar Vegetable Flower, fried. Bulb, consumed as soup M/H D1709-001
Lycium chinense Mill. Gǒu qǐ 枸杞 Gouqi (BN) Beverage Fruit, soaked with wine M/H D1806-034
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Shān dìng zi 山定子 uril Fruit Fruit, eaten raw M/H D1805-004
Malva verticillata L.   Har-a nogug-a, tugur nogug-a Vegetable Leaf, consumed as soup, steamed with flour M D1806-005
Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC. Shān qín cài 山芹菜 Cogur nogug-a Vegetable Stem and leaf, cold and dressed with sauce, fried, boiled as stuffing for pasta M/H D1806-031
Orostachys malacophylla (Pall.) Fisch. Suān tǎ 酸塔 Muur in himusu Snack Tender aerial parts, eaten raw M/H D1806-023
Padus avium Mill. Chòu lǐ zi 臭李子 Moil Fruit Fruit, eaten raw M/H D1805-007
Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Bái shóu 白芍 Can-a Beverage Flower, dried and made into tea M/H D1906-002
Periploca sepium Bunge Yáng nǎi zi 羊奶子 Imag-an eber, Šugusu modu Vegetable/snack Tender leaf steamed with flour. Tender fruit, eaten raw M/H D1806-007
Plantago depressa Willd. Chē gū lu cài 车轱辘菜, chē lún cài 车轮菜 Chegulucai(BN), elzigen cihi Vegetable Tender leaf, steamed with flour, consumed as soup M/H D1806-008
Plantago asiatica L. Chē gū lu cài 车轱辘菜, chē lún cài 车轮菜 Chegulucai (BN), Elzigen cihi Vegetable Tender leaf, steamed with flour, consumed as soup M/H D1806-035
Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce Yù zhú 玉竹   Vegetable Tender leaf, cold and dressed with sauce H D1810-007
Polygonum aviculare L.   Bianduya ebesu (BN) Vegetable Tender aerial parts, made into gruel or fried M D1806-027
Polygonum divaricatum L. Suān bu liū 酸不溜 Simeldeg Snack Tender stem, eaten raw M/H D1806-022
Portulaca oleracea L. Mǎ lián cài马莲菜, mà zha cài 蚂蚱菜 Majincai (BN) Vegetable Tender stem and leaf, dipped in sauce M/H D1806-004
Potentilla longifolia Willd. ex Schlecht.   Taulai in tangnai Vegetable Tender stem and leaf, consumed as soup or steamed with flour M D1806-017
Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. Shān lí 山梨 Heger-e in ilam-a Fruit Fruit, eaten raw M/H D1810-006
Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. Xiàng zi橡子, zuó shù 柞树 Carasu Grain/beverage/oil and fats/snack Seed, dried and ground into flour, made wine, oil extracted or fried M/H D1810-001
Salsola collina Pall. Zhū máo cài 猪毛菜, zhā bù leng 扎不楞 Hamhuul Vegetable Tender aerial parts, consumed as soup M/H D1806-002
Solanum nigrum L.   Nohai in Yзэm Fruit/beverage Fruit, eaten raw, soaked with wine M D1806-020
Sonchus wightianus DC. Qǔ má cài 取麻菜 gasigun nogug-a Vegetable/beverage Tender stem and leaf, dipped in sauce, cold and dressed with sauce, made into tea M/H D1806-009
Taraxacum mongolicum Hand. -Mazz. Pó pó dīng 婆婆丁 Bobodeng (BN) Vegetable/beverage Tender stem and leaf, dipped in sauce, cold and dressed with sauce or fried. Flower and root, dried and made into tea M/H D1806-010
Thymus quinquecostatus Cêlak. var. asiaticus (Kitagawa) C.Y. Wu & Y.C. Huang Shān huā jiāo山花椒 Huajiao (BN), huaju ebesu (BN) Condiment Aerial parts, used for seasoning M/H D1806-012
Tilia mongolica Maxim. Duàn shù 椴树 Domu modu Vegetable Tender leaf, steamed with flour, consumed as soup M/H D1805-006
Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Yú shù 榆树 Deltu Vegetable Tender leaf and fruit, consumed as soup M/H D1805-001
Ulmus pumila L. Yú shù 榆树 Hailasu Vegetable/grain Tender leaf and fruit consumed as soup. Bark, dried and ground into flour M/H D1805-008
Urtica angustifolia Fisch. ex Hornem.   Usun halagai Vegetable Tender stem and leaf, consumed as soup M D1806-026
Urtica cannabina L. Hā lā hǎi cài (BN) 哈拉嗨菜 Halagai Vegetable Tender stem and leaf, consumed as soup M/H D1806-033
Vitis amurensis Rupr. Shān pú tao 山葡萄 Heger-e in Yзэm Vegetable/fruit/beverage Tender leaf steamed with flour. Fruit, eaten raw, made wine M/H D1806-021
Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge   Sengdeng modu Snack Seed, eaten raw, fried M D1808-004
  1. *Species in the inventory are arranged alphabetically by the plant scientific name.
  2. BN borrowed name
  3. Folk Han names of wild edible plants are written using Chinese pinyin and Chinese character names [41].
  4. Folk Mongolian names are spelled with the Mongolian phonetic symbol [42].