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Table 5 TEK of traditional Dulong people’s beekeeping

From: Ethnobotanical study on plants used for traditional beekeeping by Dulong people in Yunnan, China

Aspects TEK
Beekeeping devices The materials used for making log beehives are generally sourced from dead trunks or wood salvaged from the river, which are easy to process and avert the need to cut living trees.
Bee colony domestication Dulong people do not introduce exotic bee species to increase honey production. They believe that exotic bee species will compete with native species in foraging, pollination, and nesting.
Pest control Dulong people believe using fertilizers and pesticides will cause severe damage to local flora and fauna. They achieve pest control by burning the inside of beehive with fire and then coating the inner side with mud.
Honey cutting When collecting honey, Dulong people leave half of the honey in the beehives to prevent native bees from starvation caused by lack of honey in the winter.
Nectariferous plants Dulong people place beehives around important winter nectariferous plants like Eurya, Luculia, Schefflera, and Persicaria, which helps prevent bees from starving in extreme weather.
Cultural constraints Dulong people regard Platycladus orientalis as a god tree and believe that felling it brings bad luck. Thus, P. orientalis is rarely used as beehive material. The Dulong never use Pinus griffithii for log beehives because they think it is an exotic species and has the potential to harm local species.